合理的种植密度和施肥方式是提高玉米产量和养分利用效率的重要栽培措施。本研究于2016-2017年大田试验条件下设置3个种植密度（60000、75000和90000株 hm-2）和3个施肥方式（0F：不施肥，SF：缓释肥一次性基施，CF：常规肥分播种期和拔节期2次施用），研究其对玉米产量与养分吸收利用的影响。结果表明：不同处理中，种植密度75000株 hm-2结合SF的产量与氮、磷、钾利用效率均最高。与CF相比，SF能够显著增加花后干物质积累量，促进花前和花后植株对氮、磷、钾的吸收，增加籽粒中氮、磷、钾含量，进而提高氮、磷、钾的利用效率。密度75000株 hm-2下，与CF相比，SF的氮、磷、钾吸收效率和偏生产力，氮、磷回收利用率均较高。随密度增加，CF与SF的籽粒产量、干物质积累量和养分利用效率均先增后降。基于2年产量与养分利用效率变化特征，种植密度75000株 hm-2结合缓释肥一次性基施可显著提高江苏省春玉米产量和氮、磷、钾利用效率。
Optimal planting density and proper fertilization method are important factors to improve maize yield and nutrient utilization. A two-year (2016 and 2017) field experiment was conducted with three plant densities (6.0, 7.5 and 9.0 plants m−2) and three fertilization modes (no fertilizer, 0F; one-off application of slow-released fertilizer, SF; twice application of conventional fertilizer, CF). Results indicated that the grain yields and N, P and K use efficiencies under SF with the optimal planting density (7.5 plants m−2) were the highest among all the treatments in 2016 and 2017. Compared with CF, SF could increase post-silking dry matter accumulation and promote N, P and K uptake at pre- and post-silking stages; this treatment increased grain N, P and K concentrations and resulted in high N, P and K use efficiencies. Nutrient (N, P and K) absorption efficiencies and partial productivity, and nutrient (N and P) recovery efficiency in SF treatment were significantly higher than those in CF treatments under the planting density of 7.5 plants m−2. Under both SF and CF conditions, the grain yield, total N accumulation and nutrient use efficiencies initially increased, peaked at planting density of 7.5 plants m−2, and then decreased with increasing plant density. Based on the yield and nutrient use efficiency in two years, plant density of 7.5 plants m−2 with SF can improve both the grain yield and N, P and K use efficiency of spring maize in Jiangsu Province, China.
Received: 09 September 2019
|Fund: We would like to acknowledge the financial support of the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFD0300109 and 2018YFD0200703), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31771709), the Jiangsu Agricultural Industry Technology System of China (JATS458), the High-end Talent Support Program of Yangzhou University, China, and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China.
Correspondence LU Da-lei, Tel: +86-514-87979377, Fax: +86-514-87996817, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Cite this article:
LI Guang-hao, CHENG Qian, LI Long, LU Da-lei, LU Wei-ping.
N, P and K use efficiency and maize yield responses to fertilization modes and densities. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 20(1): 78-86.
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