玉米耕作栽培合辑Maize Physiology · Biochemistry · Cultivation · Tillage
|Strip deep rotary tillage combined with controlled-release urea improves the grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency of maize in the North China Plain
HAN Yu-ling1*, GUO Dong1, 2*, MA Wei1, GE Jun-zhu3, LI Xiang-ling4, Ali Noor MEHMOOD1, ZHAO Ming1, ZHOU Bao-yuan1
1 Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology and Ecology, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing 100081, P.R.China
2 College of Agriculture, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, P.R.China
3 College of Agronomy & Resource and Environment, Tianjin Agricultural University, Tianjin 300384, P.R.China
4 College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Hebei Normal University of Science & Technology, Qinhuangdao 066004, P.R.China
本研究利用华北平原2年的田间定位试验，研究了条带深旋耕和控释尿素耦合对玉米产量和氮素利用效率的影响，及其氮素积累和产量形成的相关生理过程。与常规旋耕（RT）和免耕（NT）比，由于条带深旋耕（ST）使0-40 cm土层的土壤容重分别降低了10.5%和13.7%，从而显著提高了20-40 cm土层的土壤含水量和土壤矿质氮含量。与普通尿素（CU）比，控释尿素（CR）使开花期和成熟期0-40 cm土层的土壤矿质氮含量分别提高了12.4%和10.3%。因此，ST和CR显著提高了玉米根长和氮素总积累量，从而促进了叶片面积和干物质积累（特别是花后干物质积累）的增加，最终提高了玉米千粒重。ST处理产量比RT和NT处理分别提高了8.3%和11.0%，CR处理产量比CU处理提高8.9%。由于ST和CR耦合处理产量和氮素积累量的增加，显著提高了玉米氮素利用效率。综述可知，ST与CR结合可以通过改善土壤理化特性和氮素供应，进一步提高玉米产量和氮素利用效率，该措施可作为华北平原以及世界上其他类似地区的促进玉米可持续生产发展的有效措施。
Abstract Inappropriate tillage practices and nitrogen (N) management have become seriously limitations for maize (Zea mays L.) yield and N use efficiency (NUE) in the North China Plain (NCP). In the current study, we examined the effects of strip deep rotary tillage (ST) combined with controlled-release (CR) urea on maize yield and NUE, and determined the physiological factors involved in yield formation and N accumulation during a 2-year field experiment. Compared with conventional rotary tillage (RT) and no-tillage (NT), ST increased the soil water content and soil mineral N content (Nmin) in the 20–40 cm soil layer due to reduction by 10.5 and 13.7% in the soil bulk density in the 0–40 cm soil layer, respectively. Compared with the values obtained by common urea (CU) fertilization, CR increased the Nmin in the 0–40 cm soil layers by 12.4 and 10.3% at the silking and maturity stages, respectively. As a result, root length and total N accumulation were enhanced under ST and CR urea, which promoted greater leaf area and dry matter (particularly at post-silking), eventually increasing the 1 000-kernel weight of maize. Thus, ST increased the maize yield by 8.3 and 11.0% compared with RT and NT, respectively, whereas CR urea increased maize yield by 8.9% above the values obtained under CU. Because of greater grain yield and N accumulation, ST combined with CR urea improved the NUE substantially. These results show that ST coupled with CR urea is an effective practice to further increase maize yield and NUE by improving soil properties and N supply, so it should be considered for sustainable maize production in the NCP (and other similar areas worldwide).
Received: 01 February 2021
Accepted: 13 May 2021
|Fund: This research was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (32071957), the Key National Research and Development Program of China (2018YFD0300504), the Science and Technology Innovation Program of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (2060302-2), and the China Agriculture Research System of MOF and MARA (CARS-02).
|About author: Correspondence ZHOU Bao-yuan, Tel/Fax: +86-10-82106042; E-mail: email@example.com; ZHAO Ming, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
* These authors contributed equally to this study.
Cite this article:
HAN Yu-ling, GUO Dong, MA Wei, GE Jun-zhu, LI Xiang-ling, Ali Noor MEHMOOD, ZHAO Ming, ZHOU Bao-yuan.
Strip deep rotary tillage combined with controlled-release urea improves the grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency of maize in the North China Plain. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 21(9): 2559-2576.
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