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Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2021, Vol. 20 Issue (5): 1147-1156    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63478-5
Special Focus: Resource utilization of agricultural solid waste Advanced Online Publication | Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
Spore production in the solid-state fermentation of stevia residue by Trichoderma guizhouense and its effects on corn growth
LIU Hong-jun1*, DUAN Wan-dong1, 2*, LIU Chao1, MENG Ling-xue1, LI Hong-xu1, LI Rong1, SHEN Qi?rong1 
1 Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab of Solid Organic Waste Utilization/Key Laboratory of Plant Immunity, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Solid Organic Wastes/Educational Ministry Engineering Center of Resource-saving fertilizers/Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, P.R.China
2 Institute of Botany, Jiangsu Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210014, P.R.China
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木霉菌是一类非常重要且广泛被利用的根际促生真菌。本研究利用甜叶菊渣和基于病死畜禽酸解的氨基酸为原料固体发酵贵州木霉菌NJAU 4742,并评估了木霉菌固体菌种在不同的施用方式下(单独施用、与化肥联用和与有机肥联用)对玉米苗期的促生效应。通过单因素试验获得木霉菌固体发酵最高孢子密度为7×109 CFU g-1鲜重,最佳发酵条件为:甜叶菊渣:米糠比例为1:1、pH为3.0、氨基酸添加比例为6.67%、培养基含水量60%、接种比例10%、固体发酵厚度为3 cm和发酵时间为4天。木霉菌固体菌种单独施用和与化肥联用相比无木霉菌对照,都轻微提高了玉米苗期的生物量但均无显著性差异。然而,木霉菌固体菌种与有机肥联用相比有机肥,显著地提高了玉米苗期的生物量。另外,木霉菌的施用能够显著的改变玉米苗期的土体微生物群落。我们发现3个被鉴定为TrichodermaChaetomium属的OTUs在土体和根际都被木霉菌显著激发。值得注意的是,木霉菌固体菌种与有机肥联用显著激发了OTU_3(Phymatotrichopsis)进而促进了土壤的生产力。本研究表明甜叶菊渣是优质的木霉菌固体发酵原料,并且发现木霉菌固体菌种需与有机肥联用。

Trichoderma is an important and widely used plant growth-promoting fungus (PGPF).  In this study, stevia residue amended with amino acids hydrolyzed from animal carcasses was used for the production of Trichoderma guizhouense NJAU 4742 by solid-state fermentation, and then its potential to promote corn plant growth was evaluated in combination with chemical fertilizer (CF) or organic fertilizer (OF).  The highest spore number of 7×109 CFU g–1 fresh weight was obtained under the following optimal parameters: material ratio of 50% (stevia residue:rice bran=1:1), pH value of 3.0 (amended with 6.67% amino acids), initial moisture content of 60%, inoculum size of 10%, material thickness of 3 cm and an incubation time of 4 days.  The aboveground corn plant biomass obtained with T. guizhouense applied alone and with CF treatments were slightly higher than those of no fertilizer control and CF treatments, respectively.  However, T. guizhouense applied with OF significantly (P<0.05) increased aboveground biomass compared to OF and yielded the highest aboveground biomass among all the treatments.  Moreover, T. guizhouense applications primarily in?uenced the fungal bulk soil community composition, among which three OTUs (OTU_2 and OTU_9 classified as Chaetomium, and OTU_4 classified as Trichoderma) were stimulated in both bulk and rhizosphere soil.  Notably, a specific OTU_3 (Phymatotrichopsis) was only stimulated by T. guizhouense applied with OF, possibly leading to high soil productivity.  These results show that it is feasible to employ stevia residue in the eco-friendly fermentation of T. guizhouense, which is strongly suggested for enhancing OF applications.
Keywords:  Trichoderma        solid-state fermentation        stevia residue        plant growth-promoting fungi        soil fungal community  
Received: 19 July 2020   Online: 27 October 2020   Accepted:
Fund: This research was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2018YFD0500201 and 2018YFD0201300), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (BK20180539), the National Science Foundation for Young Scientists of China (31801949), the National Science Foundation for Post-doctoral Scientists of China (2018M632318), the Agricultural Science and Technology Independent Innovation Fund Project of Jiangsu Province (CX(19)2026), and the Priority Academic Program Development of the Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD).
Corresponding Authors:  Correspondence LI Rong, Tel: +86-25-84395535, E-mail:    
About author:  * These authors contributed equally to this study.

Cite this article: 

LIU Hong-jun, DUAN Wan-dong, LIU Chao, MENG Ling-xue, LI Hong-xu, LI Rong, SHEN Qi-rong. 2021. Spore production in the solid-state fermentation of stevia residue by Trichoderma guizhouense and its effects on corn growth. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 20(5): 1147-1156.

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