Please wait a minute...
Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2021, Vol. 20 Issue (12): 3312-3321    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63446-3
Special Issue: 农业生态环境-土壤微生物合辑Agro-ecosystem & Environment—Soil microbe
Agro-ecosystem & Environment Advanced Online Publication | Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
Fertility and biochemical activity in sodic soils 17 years after reclamation with flue gas desulfurization gypsum
ZHAO Yong-gan1, 2, 3, WANG Shu-juan1, 2, 3, LIU Jia2, 4, ZHUO Yu-qun1, 2, 3, LI Yan1, 2, 3, ZHANG Wen-chao1, 2, 3
1 Department of Energy and Power Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, P.R.China
2 Beijing Engineering Research Center for Ecological Restoration and Carbon Fixation of Saline-Alkaline and Desert Land, Beijing 100084, P.R.China
3 Shanxi Research Institute for Clean Energy, Tsinghua University, Taiyuan 030032, P.R.China
4 Tsinghua Agriculture Co., Ltd., Beijing 100084, P.R.China
Download:  PDF in ScienceDirect  
Export:  BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      

以往关于脱硫石膏改良盐碱土壤的效果研究,大多评测其对土壤理化性质的影响。然而,脱硫石膏对土壤微生物指标的影响研究鲜见报道,尤其是在其施用多年之后。为探究脱硫石膏改良盐碱土壤的长期效应,在内蒙古托克托县采集了轻度、中度和重度(碱化度分别为6.1-20%、20-30%和30-78.4%)3种碱化区施用脱硫石膏17年后的剖面(0-40 cm)土样,分析了土壤有机碳、养分、微生物量和酶活性的变化情况。结果表明:与对照(不施用脱硫石膏)处理相比,3种碱化区施用脱硫石膏处理0-20 cm和20-40 cm土壤有机碳含量平均值分别增加了18%和35%,0-20 cm土壤速效钾含量平均值增加了51%,20-40 cm土壤微生物量碳和微生物量氮含量平均值也分别增加了69%和194%。除了重度碱化区外,脱硫石膏处理0-40 cm土壤脲酶活性显著高于对照处理。此外,脱硫石膏处理显著提高了3种碱化区20-40 cm土壤碱性磷酸酶活性,但其对0-20 cm土壤过氧化氢酶和蔗糖酶活性的作用效果参差不齐。皮尔逊相关分析结果显示,土壤肥力和生物活性的提高归功于脱硫石膏施用后降低了土壤电导率、pH和碱化度。由此可见,施用脱硫石膏对土壤肥力和生物活性有积极的影响,有助于土壤生态系统的可持续发展,是一种切实可行的碱土改良方法。

Previous studies have mainly focused on changes in soil physical and chemical properties to evaluate the reclamation of sodic soils using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum.  However, information on the effects of this reclamation method on microbial-based indicators of soil quality is limited, particularly after many years of FGD gypsum application.  This study aimed to investigate the long-term effects of FGD gypsum on soil organic carbon (SOC), nutrients, microbial biomass and enzyme activity.  Data were collected from soils of three exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) classes (i.e., low-, middle- and high-ESP classes of 6.1–20, 20–30 and 30–78.4%, respectively) 17 years after FGD gypsum treatment in Inner Mongolia, China.  Averaged across the three ESP classes, FGD gypsum application increased the SOC contents at the 0–20 and 20–40-cm soil depths by 18 and 35%, respectively, and increased available potassium at the 0–20-cm soil depth by 51% compared with the no-gypsum controls.  The microbial biomass carbon and microbial biomass nitrogen contents at the 20–40-cm soil depth increased by 69 and 194%, respectively, under FGD gypsum.  Except in the high-ESP class, urease activities in the 0–40 cm soil profile were significantly higher in the FGD gypsum treatments than in the controls.  A significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity was concentrated in the 20–40 cm soil layer; few classes showed significant increases in catalase and invertase activities in the 0–20 cm soil layer.  Pearson correlation analysis showed that increases in soil fertility and biological activity could be attributed to reductions in electrical conductivity, pH and ESP caused by FGD gypsum application.  These results confirm that FGD gypsum application is a viable strategy for reclaiming sodic soils due to its positive effects on soil fertility and biochemistry and that it may contribute to soil ecosystem sustainability.
Keywords:  gypsum        organic carbon        nutrient pools        microbial biomass        enzyme activity  
Received: 03 July 2020   Accepted:
Fund: This research was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2018YFE0207202 and 2016YFC0501306).
Corresponding Authors:  Correspondence WANG Shu-juan, Tel: +86-10-62795028, E-mail:   
About author:  ZHAO Yong-gan, E-mail:;

Cite this article: 

ZHAO Yong-gan, WANG Shu-juan, LIU Jia, ZHUO Yu-qun, LI Yan, ZHANG Wen-chao. 2021. Fertility and biochemical activity in sodic soils 17 years after reclamation with flue gas desulfurization gypsum. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 20(12): 3312-3321.

Amezketa E, Aragüés R, Gazol R. 2005. Efficiency of sulfuric acid, mined gypsum, and two gypsum by-products in soil crusting prevention and sodic soil reclamation. Agronomy Journal, 97, 983–989.
Buckley M E, Wolkowski R P. 2014. In-season effect of flue gas desulfurization gypsum on soil physical properties. Journal of Environmental Quality, 43, 322–327.
Chen H, Wang S J, Chen C H, Xu X C, Li Y, Wu L G, Zhang W H. 2005. The application and effect of desulphurized waste of flue gas in improving alkali soil. Agricultural Research in the Arid Areas, 23, 38–42. (in Chinese)
Chi C M, Zhao C W, Sun X J, Wang Z C. 2012. Reclamation of saline-sodic soil properties and improvement of rice (Oriza sativa L.) growth and yield using desulfurized gypsum in the west of Songnen Plain, northeast China. Geoderma, 187–188, 24–30.
Clark R B, Ritchey K D, Baligar V C. 2001. Benefits and constraints for use of FGD products on agricultural land. Fuel, 80, 821–828.
Deng S P, Tabatabai M A. 2000. Effect of cropping systems on nitrogen mineralization in soils. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 31, 211–218.
DeSutter T M, Cihacek L J. 2009. Potential agricultural uses of flue gas desulfurization gypsum in the northern Great Plains. Agronomy Journal, 101, 817–825.
El-Baruni B, Olsen S R. 1979. Effect of manure on solubility of phosphorus in calcareous soils. Soil Science, 128, 219–225.
Frankeberger W T, Johanson J B. 1983. Method of measuring invertase activity in soils. Plant and Soil, 74, 301–311.
He K, Li X P, Zhou C L, Zhou J, Dong L L, Mao Y M. 2017. Influence of flue gas desulfurization gypsum on speciation of phosphorus in coastal cultivated soils. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 37, 2935–2942. (in Chinese)
Huo L, Pang H C, Zhao Y G, Wang J, Lu C, Li Y Y. 2017. Buried straw layer plus plastic mulching improves soil organic carbon fractions in an arid saline soil from Northwest China. Soil and Tillage Research, 165, 286–293.
IUSS Working Group WRB (International Union of Soil Science Working Group on World Reference Base). 2007. In: World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2006 (first update 2007). FAO, Rome.
Johnson J L, Temple K L. 1964. Some variables affecting the measurement of “catalase activity” in soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 28, 207–209.
Kandeler E, Palli S, Stemmer M, Gerzabek M H. 1999. Tillage changes microbial biomass and enzyme activities in particle-size fractions of a Haplic Chernozem. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 31, 1253–1264.
Koralegedaraa N H, Pintob P X, Dionysiouc D D, Al-Abedd S R. 2019. Recent advances in flue gas desulfurization gypsum processes and applications: A review. Journal of Environmental Management, 251, 109572.
Li M, Jiang L L, Sun Z J, Wang J Z, Rui Y C, Zhong L, Wang Y F, Kardol P. 2012. Effects of flue gas desulfurization gypsum by-products on microbial biomass and community structure in alkaline-saline soils. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 12, 1040–1053.
Luo S S, Wang S J, Tian L, Shi S H, Xu S Q, Yang F, Li X J, Wang Z C, Tian C J. 2018. Aggregate-related changes in soil microbial communities under different ameliorant applications in saline-sodic soils. Geoderma, 329, 108–117.
Muchow R C, Robertson M J, Pengelly B C. 1993. Accumulation and partitioning of biomass and nitrogen by soybean, mungbean and cowpea under contrasting environmental conditions. Field Crops Research, 33, 13–36.
Pandey D, Agrawal M, Bohra J S. 2015. Assessment of soil quality under different tillage practices during wheat cultivation: soil enzymes and microbial biomass. Chemistry and Ecology, 31, 510–523.
Pituello C, Polese R, Morari F, Berti A. 2016. Outcomes from a long-term study on crop residue effects on plant yield and nitrogen use efficiency in contrasting soils. European Journal of Agronomy, 77, 179–187.
Qadir M, Ghafoor A, Murtaza G. 2000. Amelioration strategies for saline soils: A review. Land Degradation & Development, 11, 501–521.
Qadir M, Schubert S. 2002. Degradation processes and nutrient constraints in sodic soils. Land Degradation & Development, 13, 275–294.
Rietz D N, Haynes R J. 2003. Effects of irrigation-induced salinity and sodicity on soil microbial activity. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 35, 845–854.
Sicardi M, Fernando G P, Frioni L. 2004. Soil microbial indicators sensitive to land use conversion from pastures to commercial Eucalyptus grandis (Hill ex Maiden) plantations in Uruguay. Applied Soil Ecology, 27, 125–133.
Siddaramappa R, Mccarty G W, Wright R J, Codling F E. 1994. Mineralization and volatile loss of nitrogen from soils treated with coal combustion byproducts. Biology & Fertility of Soils, 18, 279–284.
Singh K. 2016. Microbial and enzyme activities of saline and sodic soils. Land Degradation & Development, 27, 706–718.
Tirado-Corbalá R, Slater B K, Dick W A, Bigham J, McCoy E. 2013. Hydrologic properties and leachate nutrient responses of soil columns collected from gypsum treated fields. Soil and Tillage Research, 134, 232–240.
Tirado-Corbalá R, Slater B K, Dick W A, Bigham J, Muñoz-Muñoz M. 2019. Gypsum amendment effects on micromorphology and aggregation in no-till Mollisols and Alfisols from western Ohio, USA. Geoderma Regional, 15, e00217.
Tripathi S, Chakraborty A, Chakrabarti K, Bandyopadhyay B K. 2007. Enzyme activities and microbial biomass in coastal soils of India. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 39, 2840–2848.
Vlek P L G, Stumpe J M, Byrnes B H. 1980. Urease activity and inhibition in flooded soil systems. Fertilizer Research, 1, 191–202.
Wang J M, Yang P L. 2017. Potential flue gas desulfurization gypsum utilization in agriculture: A comprehensive review. Renewable Sustainable Energy Reviews, 82, 1969–1978.
Wang S J, Chen C H, Xu X C, Li Y. 2008. Amelioration of alkali soil using flue gas desulfurization byproducts: Productivity and environmental quality. Environmental Pollution, 151, 200–204.
Wang S J, Chen Q, Li Y, Zhuo Y Q, Xu L Z. 2017. Research on saline-alkali soil amelioration with FGD gypsum. Resources Conservation & Recycling, 121, 82–92.
Yang H, Hu J X, Long X H, Liu Z P, Rengel Z. 2016. Salinity altered root distribution and increased diversity of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere soil of Jerusalem artichoke. Scientific Reports, 6, 20687.
Yu H L, Yang P L, Lin H, Ren S M, He X. 2014. Effects of sodic soil reclamation using flue gas desulphurization gypsum on soil pore characteristics, bulk density, and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 78, 1201–1213.
Yuan B C, Li Z Z, Liu H, Gao M, Zhang Y Y. 2007. Microbial biomass and activity in salt affected soils under arid conditions. Applied Soil Ecology, 35, 319–328.
Zahran H H. 1997. Diversity, adaptation and activity of the bacterial flora in saline environments. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 25, 211–223.
Zhang L, Wang J, Pang H C, Zhang J T, Guo J J, Dong G H, Cong P. 2018. Effects of pelletized straw on soil nutrient properties in relation to crop yield. Soil Use and Management, 34, 479–489.
Zhang T B, Kang Y H, Liu S H, Liu S P. 2014. Alkaline phosphatase activity and its relationship to soil properties in a saline–sodic soil reclaimed by cropping wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) with drip irrigation. Paddy and Water Environment, 12, 309–317.
Zhao Y G, Pang H C, Wang J, Li Y Y, Li Y. 2016. Depth of stover layer for salt management influences sunflower production in saline soils. Crop Science, 56, 1948–1961.
Zhao Y G, Wang S J, Li Y, Liu J, Zhuo Y Q, Chen H X, Wang J, Xu L Z, Sun Z T. 2018a. Extensive reclamation of saline-sodic soils with flue gas desulfurization gypsum on the Songnen Plain, Northeast China. Geoderma, 321, 52–60.
Zhao Y G, Wang S J, Li Y, Liu J, Zhuo Y Q, Zhang W K, Wang J, Xu L Z. 2018b. Long-term performance of flue gas desulfurization in large-scale application in saline-alkali wasteland in Northwest China. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 261, 115–124.
Zhao Y G, Wang S J, Li Y, Zhuo Y Q, Liu J. 2019. Sustainable effects of gypsum from desulfurization of flue gas on the reclamation of sodic soil after 17 years. European Journal of Soil Science, 70, 1082–1097.
[1] Muhammad QASWAR, Waqas AHMED, HUANG Jing, LIU Kai-lou, ZHANG Lu, HAN Tian-fu, DU Jiang-xue, Sehrish ALI, Hafeez UR-RAHIM, HUANG Qing-hai, ZHANG Hui-min. Interaction of soil microbial communities and phosphorus fractions under long-term fertilization in paddy soil [J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2022, 21(7): 2134-2144.
[2] YANG Ya-jun, XU Hong-xing, WU Zhi-hong, LU Zhong-xian. Effects of inhibitors on the protease profiles and degradation of activated Cry toxins in larval midgut juices of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(8): 2195-2203.
[3] SUN Zhen-cai, LI Gui-tong, ZHANG Cheng-lei, WANG Zhi-min, LIN Qi-mei, ZHAO Xiao-rong. Contrasting resilience of soil microbial biomass, microbial diversity and ammonification enzymes under three applied soil fumigants[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2020, 19(10): 2561-2570.
[4] SHAO Yuan-zhi, ZENG Jiao-ke, TANG Hong, ZHOU Yi, LI Wen. The chemical treatments combined with antagonistic yeast control anthracnose and maintain the quality of postharvest mango fruit[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2019, 18(5): 1159-1169.
[5] CHEN Xu, HAN Xiao-zeng, YOU Meng-yang, YAN Jun, LU Xin-chun, William R. Horwath, ZOU Wen-xiu . Soil macroaggregates and organic-matter content regulate microbial communities and enzymatic activity in a Chinese Mollisol[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2019, 18(11): 2605-2618.
[6] RONG Qin-lei, LI Ruo-nan, HUANG Shao-wen, TANG Ji-wei, ZHANG Yan-cai, WANG Li-ying. Soil microbial characteristics and yield response to partial substitution of chemical fertilizer with organic amendments in greenhouse vegetable production[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2018, 17(06): 1432-1444.
[7] TONG Xiao-lei, WANG Zheng-yang, MA Bai-quan, ZHANG Chun-xia, ZHU Ling-cheng, MA Feng-wang, LI Ming-jun. Structure and expression analysis of the sucrose synthase gene family in apple[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2018, 17(04): 847-856.
[8] LUO Jun-yu, ZHANG Shuai, ZHU Xiang-zhen, LU Li-min, WANG Chun-yi, LI Chun-hua, CUI Jin-jie, ZHOU Zhi-guo . Effects of soil salinity on rhizosphere soil microbes in transgenic Bt cotton fields[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2017, 16(07): 1624-1633.
[9] MIN Wei, GUO Hui-juan, ZHANG Wen, ZHOU Guang-wei, MA Li-juan, YE Jun, HOU Zhen-an. Irrigation water salinity and N fertilization: Effects on ammonia oxidizer abundance, enzyme activity and cotton growth in a drip irrigated cotton fild[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2016, 15(05): 1121-1131.
No Suggested Reading articles found!