Please wait a minute...
Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2021, Vol. 20 Issue (7): 1889-1897    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63419-0
Special Issue: 昆虫合辑Plant Protection—Entomolgy
Plant Protection Advanced Online Publication | Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
Potential influence of carbohydrate and amino acid intake by adults on the population dynamics of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)
LI Chuan-ming1, 2, XU Jian1, 2, LIU Qin2, HAN Guang-jie1, 2, XU Bin2, YANG Yi-zhong1, LIU Xian-jin
1 College of Horticulture and Plant Protection, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, P.R.China
2  Institute of Agricultural Sciences for Lixiahe Region in Jiangsu, Yangzhou 225007, P.R.China
3 Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety of Jiangsu Province, Institute of Food Safety and Nutrition, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014, P.R.China
Download:  PDF in ScienceDirect  
Export:  BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      


Cnaphalocrocis medinalis is a key lepidopteran pest of rice.  However, little is known about the nutritional requirements of the adult or the effects of adult-derived nutrients on reproduction.  The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of carbohydrates and amino acids on the reproductive and demographic parameters of C.?medinalis.  Different feeding solutions significantly influenced adult survival and reproduction.  All the sources of carbohydrates used in the treatments (fructose, glucose, and sucrose) were sufficient to increase adult longevity and fecundity, and benefited the development of ovaries in the adult stage.  The positive impact of carbohydrates on lifetime fecundity was due to the prolonged oviposition period and the increased daily fecundity.  The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) of C.?medinalis increased from 0.103 in water-fed individuals to approximately 0.138 when adults were fed with solutions containing carbohydrates.  In contrast, amino acid intake by adult insects exhibited no effect on the longevity, fecundity, ovarian development or population growth, even showing an impact of decreasing longevity of females.  As nectar secreted by the flowering plant is generally rich in sugars, the potential effects of nectar on the adults of C.?medinalis and other pests have to be considered during the development of biological control by applying flowering plants as a microhabitat and food source for natural enemies in rice fields.
Keywords:  Cnaphalocrocis medinalis        carbohydrate-feeding        adult nutrition        reproduction        population dynamics  
Received: 25 March 2020   Accepted:
Fund: This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (BK20191216), the Jiangsu Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Fund (ZX(17)2002), the International Cooperation and Exchanges Projects of Jiangsu Province (BZ2020039), and the Opening Fund of Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Food Quality and Safety-State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base (028074911709).
Corresponding Authors:  Correspondence XU Jian, Tel: +86-514-87637599, E-mail:; LIU Xian-jin, E-mail:   
About author:  LI Chuan-ming, E-mail:

Cite this article: 

LI Chuan-ming, XU Jian, LIU Qin, HAN Guang-jie, XU Bin, YANG Yi-zhong, LIU Xian-jin. 2021. Potential influence of carbohydrate and amino acid intake by adults on the population dynamics of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 20(7): 1889-1897.

Alexandre L J, Octávio N, Vanderly J. 2010. Adult carbohydrate feeding affects reproduction of Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Neotropical Entomology, 39, 315–318.
Baggen L R, Gurr G M, Meats A. 2000. Field observations on selective food plants in habitat manipulation for biological control of potato moth by Copidosoma koehleri Blanchard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). In: Hymenoptera: Evolution, Biodiversity and Biological Control. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria, Australia. pp. 388–395.
Barros E M, Torres J B, Bueno A F. 2010. Oviposition, development, and reproduction of Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed on different hosts of economic importance. Neotropical Entomology, 39, 996–1001.
Bauerfeind S S, Fischer K. 2005. Effects of adult-derived carbohydrates, amino acids and micronutrients on female reproduction in a fruit-feeding butterfly. Journal of Insect Physiology, 51, 545–554.
Bauerfeind S S, Fischer K, Hartstein S, Janowitz S, Martin-Creuzburg D. 2007. Effects of adult nutrition on female reproduction in a fruit-feeding butterfly: The role of fruit decay and dietary lipids. Journal of Insect Physiology, 53, 964–973.
Boggs C L. 1990. Effects of male-donated nutrients on female fitness in insects. American Naturalist, 136, 598–617.
Borzoui E, Bandani A R, Goldansaz S H, Talaei-Hassanlouei R. 2018. Dietary protein and carbohydrate levels affect performance and digestive physiology of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 111, 942–949.
Cahenzli F, Erhardt A. 2013. Nectar amino acids enhance reproduction in male butterflies. Oecologia, 171, 197–205.
Carey J R. 1993. Applied Demography for Biologists: With Special Emphasis on Insects. Oxford University Press, New York, USA.
Chakraborty K, Deb D C. 2011. Incidence of adult leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on paddy crop in the agro climatic conditions of the northern parts of West Bengal, India. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 7, 738–742.
Chau N N B, Kieu N T P, Van T, Dung N, Quoc N B, Phuong T K. 2019. Effects of floral resources on the longevity and parasitism of Cotesia vestalis Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in Vietnam. Heliyon, 5, e2258.
Clausen H D, Holbeck H B, Reddersen J. 2001. Factors influencing abundance of butterflies and burnet moths in the uncultivated habitats of an organic farm in Denmark. Biological Conservation, 98, 167–178.
Colasurdo N, Gelinas Y, Despland E. 2009. Larval nutrition affects life history traits in a capital breeding moth. Journal of Experimental Biology, 212, 1794–1800.
Darragh K, Byers K J R P, Merrill R M, McMillan W O, Schulz S, Jiggins C D. 2019. Male pheromone composition depends on larval but not adult diet in Heliconius melpomene. Ecological Entomology, 44, 397–405.
Deans C, Sword G A, Behmer S T. 2019. First evidence of protein-carbohydrate regulation in a plant bug (Lygus hesperus). Journal of Insect Physiology, 116, 118–124.
Dindo M L, Rezaei M, De Clercq P. 2019. Improvements in the rearing of the Tachinid parasitoid Exorista larvarum (Diptera: Tachinidae): Influence of adult food on female longevity and reproduction capacity. Journal of Insect Science, 19, 1–6.
Eran L, Marshall D M, Goggy D. 2017. More than just sugar: Allocation of nectar amino acids and fatty acids in a Lepidopteran. Proceedings of the Royal Society (B: Biological Sciences), 284,1848.
Fischer K, O’Brien D M, Boggs C L. 2004. Allocation of larval and adult resources to reproduction in a fruit-feeding butterfly. Functional Ecology, 18, 656–663.
Geister T L, Lorenz M W, Hoffmann K H, Fischer K. 2008. Adult nutrition and butterfly fitness: Effects of diet quality on reproductive output, egg composition, and egg hatching success. Frontiers in Zoology, 5, 10–18.
Gilbert L E, Singer M C. 1975. Butterfly ecology. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 6, 365–395.
Guo P, Wang G P, Jin L J, Fan X Q, He H L, Zhou P W, Guo X R, Li W Z, Yuan G H. 2018. Identification of summer nectar plants contributing to outbreaks of Mythimna separata (Walker)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in North China. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 17, 1516–1526.
Gurr G M, Lu Z X, Zheng X S, Xu H X, Zhu P Y, Chen G H, Yao X M, Cheng J A, Zhu Z R, Catindig J L. 2016. Multi-country evidence that crop diversification promotes ecological intensification of agriculture. Nature Plants, 2,16014.
Gurr G M, Read D M Y, Catindig J L A, Cheng J A, Liu J, Lan L P, Heong K L. 2012. Parasitoids of the rice leaffolder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and prospects for enhancing biological control with nectar plants. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 14, 1–12.
Han Y H, Wen J H, Peng Z P, Zhang D Y, Hou M L. 2018. Effects of silicon amendment on the occurrence of rice insect pests and diseases in a field test. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 17, 2172–2181.
Heimpel G E, Rosenheim J A, Kattari D. 1997. Adult feeding and lifetime reproductive success in the parasitoid Aphytis melinus. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 83, 305–315.
Heyneman A J. 1983. Optimal sugar concentrations of floral nectars-dependence on sugar intake efficiency and foraging costs. Oecologia, 60, 198–213.
Hill C J, Pierce N E. 1989. The effect of adult diet on the biology of butterflies. Oecologia, 81, 249–257.
Jaumann S, Snell-Rood E C. 2019. Adult nutritional stress decreases oviposition choosiness and fecundity in female butterflies. Behavioral Ecology, 30, 852–863.
Jervis M A, Boggs C L. 2005. Linking nectar amino acids to fitness in female butterflies. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 20, 585–587.
Kaplan E L, Meier P. 1958. Nonparametric estimation from incomplete observations. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 53, 457–481.
Khan Z R, Barrion A T, Litsinger J A, Castilla N P, Joshi R C. 1988. A bibliography of rice leaffolder (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 9, 129–174.
Lee J, Heimpel G. 2005. Impact of flowering buckwheat on Lepidopteran cabbage pests and their parasitoids at two spatial scales. Biological control: Theory and Application in Pest Management, 34, 290–301.
Li C M, Han G J, Yang Y J, Liu Q, Lu Z X, Xu J. 2017. The oviposition and feeding preference of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) between four different plants. Rice Science, 31, 315–319. (in Chinese)
Marchioro C A, Foerster L A. 2012. Importance of carbohydrate sources to the reproductive output of the wheat armyworm Pseudaletia sequax. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 14, 29–35.
Marchioro C A, Foerster L A. 2013. Effects of adult-derived carbohydrates and amino acids on the reproduction of Plutella xylostella. Physiological Entomology, 38, 13–19.
Mevi-Schütz J, Erhardt A. 2003. Effects of nectar amino acids on fecundity of the wall brown butterfly (Lasiommata megera L.). Basic and Applied Ecology, 4, 413–421.
Miller W E. 1996. Population behavior and adult feeding capability in Lepidoptera. Environmental Entomology, 25, 213–226.
Molleman F, Ding J, Carey J R, Wang J. 2009. Nutrients in fruit increase fertility in wild-caught females of large and long-lived Euphaedra species (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Journal of Insect Physiology, 55, 375–383.
Molleman F, Ding J, Wang J L, Brakefield P M, Carey J R, Zwaan B J. 2008. Amino acid sources in the adult diet do not affect life span and fecundity in the fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Ecological Entomology, 33, 429–438.
O’Brien D M, Fogel M L, Boggs C L. 2002. Renewable and non renewable resources: Amino acid turnover and allocation to reproduction in Lepidoptera. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99, 4413–4418.
O’Brien D M, Schrag D P, Del Rio C M. 2000. Allocation to reproduction in a Hawkmoth: A quantitative analysis using stable carbon isotopes. Ecology, 81, 2822–2831.
Pavlik D T, Fleishman E, Wang N, Boswell P, Blair R B. 2018. Sugars in nectar sources and their use by butterflies (Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea) in the Sierra Nevada, California. Journal of the Lepidopterists’ Society, 72, 165–174.
Reifer M L, Harrison S J, Bertram S M. 2018. How dietary protein and carbohydrate influence field cricket development, size and mate attraction signalling. Animal Behaviour, 139, 137–146.
Selvaraj K, Chander S, Sujithra M. 2012. Determination of multiple-species economic injury levels for rice insect pests. Crop Protection, 32, 150–160.
Settele J, Settle W H. 2018. Conservation biological control: Improving the science base. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 115, 8241–8243.
Shono Y, Hirano M. 1989. Improved mass-rearing of the rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) using corn seedlings. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 24, 258–263.
Vamsi D K K, Kanumoori D S S M, Chhetri B. 2019. Additional food supplements as a tool for biological conservation of biosystems in the presence of inhibitory effect of the prey. Acta Biotheoretica, 26, 1–35.
Wäckers F L, Romeis J, Rijn P V. 2007. Nectar and pollen feeding by insect herbivores and implications for multitrophic interactions. Annual Review of Entomology, 52, 301–323.
Wang W, Lu S L, Liu W X, Cheng L S, Zhang Y B, Wan F H. 2014. Effects of five naturally occurring sugars on the longevity, oogenesis, and nutrient accumulation pattern in adult females of the synovigenic parasitoid Neochrysocharis formosa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Neotropical Entomology, 43, 564–573.
Watt W B, Hoch P C, Mills S G. 1974. Nectar resource use by colias butterflies. Oecologia, 14, 353–374.
Wei X, Johnson S J, Hammond A M. 1998. Sugar-feeding strategy of adult Velvetbean Caterpillar (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Environmental Entomology, 27, 1235–1241.
Xu J, Li C M, Yang Y J, Qi J H, Zheng X S, Hu R L, Lu Z X, Liu Q. 2012. Growth and reproduction of artificially fed Cnaphalocrocis medinalis. Rice Science, 19, 247–251.
Xu J, Liu Q, Li C M, Han G J. 2019. Field effect of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis granulovirus (CnmeGV) on the pest of rice leaffolder. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 18, 2115–2122.
Zhang X X, Gong J G, Lu Z Q, Liu W J. 1980. Preliminary report on the biological and ecological characteristics study of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée). Chinese Journal of Applied Entomology, 6, 3–7. (in Chinese)
Zheng X S, Lu Y H, Zhu P Y, Zhang F C, Tian J C, Xu H X, Chen G H, Nansen C, Lu Z X. 2017. Use of banker plant system for sustainable management of the most important insect pest in rice fields in China. Scientific Reports, 7, 45581.
Zhou Y, Zhao S Y, Wang M L, Yu W H, Wyckhuys K A, Wu K M. 2019. Floral visitation can enhance fitness of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) long-distance migrants. Journal of Economic Entomology, 19, 247–251.
Zhu P Y, Gurr G M, Lu Z X, Heong K, Chen G H, Zheng X S, Xu H X, Yang Y J. 2013. Laboratory screening supports the selection of sesame (Sesamum indicum) to enhance Anagrus spp. parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) of rice planthoppers. Biological Control, 64, 83–89.
Zhu P Y, Lu Z X, Heong K, Chen G H, Zheng X S, Xu H X, Yang Y J, Nicol H I, Gurr G M. 2014. Selection of nectar plants for use in ecological engineering to promote biological control of rice pests by the predatory bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis (Heteroptera: Miridae). PLoS ONE, 9, e108669.
Zhu P Y, Wang G H, Zheng X S, Tian J C, Lu Z X, Heong K L, Xu H X, Chen G H, Yang Y J, Gurr G M. 2015. Selective enhancement of parasitoids of rice Lepidoptera pests by sesame (Sesamum indicum) flowers. Biocontrol, 60, 157–167.
[1] XU Lei, ZHAO Tong-hua, Xing Xing, XU Guo-qing, XU Biao, ZHAO Ji-qiu.

Model fitting of the seasonal population dynamics of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, in the field [J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2023, 22(6): 1797-1808.

[2] YANG Ya-jun, XU Hong-xing, WU Zhi-hong, LU Zhong-xian. Effects of inhibitors on the protease profiles and degradation of activated Cry toxins in larval midgut juices of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(8): 2195-2203.
[3] GE Shi-shuai, HE Wei, HE Li-mei, YAN Ran, ZHANG Hao-wen, WU Kong-ming. Flight activity promotes reproductive processes in the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(3): 727-735.
[4] YANG Ya-jun, XU Hong-xing, WU Zhi-hong, LU Zhong-xian. pH influences the profiles of midgut extracts in Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) and its degradation of activated Cry toxins[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2020, 19(3): 775-784.
[5] XU Jian, LIU Qin, LI Chuan-ming, HAN Guang-jie. Field effect of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis granulovirus (CnmeGV) on the pest of rice leaffolder[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2019, 18(9): 2115-2122.
[6] TONG Hao-jie, AO Yan, LI Zi-hao, WANG Ying, JIANG Ming-xing. Invasion biology of the cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley: Current knowledge and future directions[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2019, 18(4): 758-770.
[7] CHEN Ying-ying, ZHANG Wei, MA Gang, MA Chun-sen. More stressful event does not always depress subsequent life performance[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2019, 18(10): 2321-2329.
[8] WANG Ying, ZHAO Yan-cun, FAN Lin-lin, XIA Xiu-dong, LI Ya-hui, ZHOU Jian-zhong. Identification and characterization of Pichia membranifaciens Hmp-1 isolated from spoilage blackberry wine[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2018, 17(09): 2126-2136.
[9] ZHANG Zhi, ZHANG Yun-hui, WANG Jian, LIU Jie, TANG Qing-bo, LI Xiang-rui, CHENG Deng-fa, ZHU Xun. Analysis on the migration of first-generation Mythimna separata (Walker) in China in 2013[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2018, 17(07): 1527-1537.
[10] LI Bo-liao, XU Xiang-li, JI Jia-yue, WU Jun-xiang. Effects of constant and stage-specific-alternating temperature on the survival, development and reproduction of the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2018, 17(07): 1545-1555.
[11] XIONG Wen-feng, XIE Jia, WEI Lu-ting, ZHANG Si-si, SONG Xiao-wen, GAO Shan-shan, LI Bin. Transcriptome analysis of hsp18.3 functions and regulatory systems using RNA-sequencing in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2018, 17(05): 1040-1056.
[12] ZHOU Rong, YANG Ya-lan, LIU Ying, CHEN Qi-mei, CHEN Jie, LI Kui . Association of CYP19A1 gene polymorphisms with reproductive traits in pigs[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2017, 16(07): 1558-1565.
[13] JIANG Li-ben, ZHU Zhan-fei, GE Lin-quan, YANG Guo-qing, WU Jin-cai. Rice Grain Damage by Combination and Sequence Infestations by the Rice Leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), and the White-Backed Rice Planthopper, Sogatella furcifera Horváth (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2014, 13(11): 2460-2470.
[14] LIU Su, HUANG Yuan-jie, QIAO Fei, ZHOU Wen-wu, GONG Zhong-jun, CHENG Jia-an , ZHU Zeng-rong . Cloning, Tissue Distribution, and Transmembrane Orientation of the Olfactory Co-Receptor Orco from Two Important Lepidopteran Rice Pests, the Leaffolder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis) and the Striped Stem Borer (Chilo suppressalis)[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2013, 12(10): 1816-1825.
No Suggested Reading articles found!