Please wait a minute...
Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2018, Vol. 17 Issue (07): 1545-1555    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(17)61841-0
Special Focus: Regularity of population occurrence and migration in the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker) Advanced Online Publication | Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
Effects of constant and stage-specific-alternating temperature on the survival, development and reproduction of the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
LI Bo-liao, XU Xiang-li, JI Jia-yue, WU Jun-xiang
State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas/College of Plant Protection, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, P.R.China
Download:  PDF in ScienceDirect  
Export:  BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      
Abstract  Migratory insects make diverse adaptive strategies in response to changes in external environment.  Temperature has an impact on the survival, development, reproduction, and migration initiation of insects.  Previous research has primarily been focused on the effects of constant temperature on populations, but changing temperature has received less attention.  Three constant temperature treatments (20, 25 and 30°C) and three pupal-alternating temperature treatments (20–25, 25–20 and 25–30°C) were set up to study the relationship between temperature and population development by age-stage, two-sex life table analysis in the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata Walker, a notorious migratory pest in grain crops.  The 25°C treatment was considered optimal with 20 and 30°C as low suitable temperature and high temperatures, respectively.  The survival rate was relatively low before third instar larvae at  20°C (63.0%) and 20–25°C (70.1%), and extreme low after pupal stage at 30°C (20.6%).  Developmental duration of each stage was negatively correlated with temperature.  The adult pre-oviposition period, when most migratory insects initiate migration, was the shortest at 25°C (2.69 d) but was lengthened at both low suitable (7.48 d for 20°C, 6.91 d for 25–20°C and 4.57 d for 20–25°C) and high temperatures (3.74 d for 25–30°C and 5.00 d for 30°C).  Both low suitable and high temperature decreased lifetime fecundity, net reproductive rate and the intrinsic rate of increase, with variability observed across developmental duration and stage during non-optimal temperature.  The results expand knowledge of the relationship between changing temperature and armyworm population development, and adaptive strategies in complex ambient environment.
Keywords:  Mythimna separata        stage-specific-alternating temperature        life table        survival        reproduction  
Received: 15 June 2017   Accepted:
Fund: This work was supported by the Special Fund for Agro-scientific Research in the Public Interest of China (201403031).
Corresponding Authors:  Correspondence WU Jun-xiang, Mobile: +86-18092716199, E-mail:   
About author:  LI Bo-liao, Mobile: +86-18792478813, E-mail:;

Cite this article: 

LI Bo-liao, XU Xiang-li, JI Jia-yue, WU Jun-xiang. 2018. Effects of constant and stage-specific-alternating temperature on the survival, development and reproduction of the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 17(07): 1545-1555.

Arendt J, 1997. Adaptive intrinsic growth rates: An integration across taxa. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 72, 149–177.
Chapman J, Bell J, Burgin L, Reynolds D, Pettersson L, Hill J, Bonsall M, Thomas J. 2012. Seasonal migration to high latitudes results in major reproductive benefits in an insect. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109, 14924–14929.
Chapman J, Reynolds D, Wilson K. 2015. Long-range seasonal migration in insects: Mechanisms, evolutionary drivers and ecological consequences. Ecology Letters, 18, 287–302.
Chen R L, Sun Y J, Wang S Y, Zhai B P, Bao X Y. 1995. Migration of the oriental armyworm Mythimna separata in East Asia in relation to weather and climate. I. Northeastern China. In: Drake A G, Gatehouse V A, eds., Insect Migration: Tracking Resource in Space and Time. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom. pp. 93–104.
Chi H. 1988. Life-table analysis incorporating both sexes and variable development rates among individuals. Environmental Entomology, 17, 26–34.
Chi H. 2013. TWOSEX-MSChart: Computer program for age stage, two-sex life table analysis. National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan. [2013-03-21].
Chi H, Liu H. 1985. Two new methods for the study of insect population ecology. Bulletin of the Institute of Zoology, Academia Sinica, 24, 225–240.
Colvin J, Gatehouse A. 1993. Migration and the effect of three environmental factors on the pre-reproductive period of the cotton bollworm moth, Helicoverpa armigera. Physiological Entomology, 18, 109–113.
Delisle J, McNeil J. 1987. The combined effect of photoperiod and temperature on the calling behaviour of the true army worm, Pseudaletia unipuncta. Physiological Entomology, 12, 157–164.
Dingle H. 2014. Migration: The Biology of Life on the Move. Oxford University Press, New York.
Dingle H, Drake V. 2007. What is migration? Bioscience, 57, 113–121.
Domrös M, Peng G. 1988. The Climate of China. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Dubrovsky E. 2005. Hormonal cross talk in insect development. Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism, 16, 6–11.
Dunnett C. 1980. Pairwise multiple comparisons in the homogeneous variance, unequal sample size case. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 75, 789–795.
Efron B, Tibshirani R. 1994. An Introduction to the Bootstrap. CSC Press, Boca Raton.
Farrow R, McDonald G. 1987. Migration strategies and outbreaks of noctuid pests in Australia. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 8, 531–542.
Feng H Q, Zhao X C, Wu X F, Wu B, Wu K M, Cheng D F, Guo Y Y. 2008. Autumn migration of Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) over the Bohai Sea in northern China. Environmental Entomology, 37, 774–781.
Fitt G. 1989. The ecology of Heliothis species in relation to agroecosystems. Annual Review of Entomology, 34, 17–53
Goodman D. 1982. Optimal life histories, optimal notation, and the value of reproductive value. The American Naturalist, 119, 803–823.
Guppy J. 1969. Some effects of temperature on the immature stages of the armyworm, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), under controlled conditions. The Canadian Entomologist, 101, 1320–1327.
Han E N, Gatehouse A. 1991. Effect of temperature and photoperiod on the calling behavior of a migratory insect, the oriental armyworm Mythimna separata. Physiological Entomology, 16, 419–427.
Huang Y B, Chi H. 2013. Life tables of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae): with an invalidation of the jackknife technique. Journal of Applied Entomology, 137, 327–339.
Jiang X F, Liu Y Q, Luo L Z, Hu Y. 1998. Effects of high temperature on the immature stages of the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker). Journal of Beijing University of Agriculture, 13, 20–26. (in Chinese)
Jiang X F, Luo L Z, Hu Y. 2000. Influences of rearing temperature on flight and reproductive capacity of adult oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker). Acta Ecologica Sinica, 20, 288–292. (in Chinese)
Jiang X F, Luo L Z, Zhang L, Sappington T, Hu Y. 2011. Regulation of migration in Mythimna separata (Walker) in China: A review integrating environmental, physiological, hormonal, genetic, and molecular factors. Environmental Entomology, 40, 516–533.
Li G B, Wang H X, Hu W X. 1964. Route of the seasonal migration of the oriental armyworm moth in the eastern part of China as indicated by a three-year result of releasing and recapturing of marked moths. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 3, 101–110. (in Chinese)
Li X Z, Gong P Y, Wu K J. 1992. Life tables of the armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker), at different temperatures and its thermal requirement for development. Acta Entomologica Sinica, 35, 415–421. (in Chinese)
Lin C S. 1990. Physiology and Ecology of The Oriental Armyworm Mythimna Separata. Peking University, Beijing. (in Chinese)
McNeil J, Cusson M, Delisle J, Orchard L, Tobe S. 1995. Physiological integration of migration in Lepidoptera. In: Drake A G, Gatehouse V A, eds., Insect Migration: Tracking Resource in Space and Time. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom. pp. 279–302.
Nylin S, Gotthard K. 1998. Plasticity in life-history traits. Annual Review of Entomology, 43, 63–83.
Sappington T, Showers W. 1992. Reproductive maturity, mating status, and long-duration flight behavior of Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and the conceptual misuse of the oogenesis flight syndrome by entomologists. Environmental Entomology, 21, 677–688.
Sibly R, Atkinson D. 1994. How rearing temperature affects optimal adult size in ectotherms? Functional Ecology, 8, 486–493.
Smith A. 1984. Larval instar determination and temperature-development studies of immature stages of the common armyworm, Mythimna convecta (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Australian Journal of Entomology, 23, 91–97.
Socorro A, Gregg P. 1997. Calling behaviour in M. convecta females under different temperature and photoperiodic conditions. Physiological Entomology, 22, 20–28.
Solbreck C. 1978. Migration, diapause, and direct development as alternative life histories in a seed bug, Neacoryphus bicrucis. In: Dingle H, ed., Evolution of Insect Migration and Diapause. Springer-Verlag, New York, US. pp. 195–217.
Southwood T 1977. Habitat, the templet for ecological strategies? Journal of Animal Ecology, 46, 337–465.
Tuan S J, Lee C C, Chi H. 2014. Population and damage projection of Spodoptera litura (F.) on peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) under different conditions using the age-stage, two-sex life table. Pest Management Science, 70, 805–813.
Turgeon J, McNeil J. 1983. Modifications in the calling behaviour of Pseudaletia unipuncta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), induced by temperature conditions during pupal and adult development. The Canadian Entomologist, 115, 1015–1022. 
Wang G P, Zhang Q W, Ye Z H, Luo L Z. 2006. The role of nectar plants in severe outbreaks of armyworm Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in China. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 96, 445–455.
Zhang L, Jiang X F, Luo L Z. 2008. Determination of sensitive stage for switching migrant oriental armyworms into residents. Environmental Entomology, 37, 1389–1395.
Zhang Y H, Zhang Z, Jiang Y Y, Zeng J, Gao Y B, Cheng D F. 2012. Preliminary analysis of the outbreak of the third-generation armyworm Mythimna separata in China. Plant Protection, 38, 1–8. (in Chinese)
Zou S W. 1956. Review of the armyworm damage and control in the historical in China. Entomological Knowledge, 2, 241–246. (in Chinese)
[1] LI Chuan-ming, XU Jian, LIU Qin, HAN Guang-jie, XU Bin, YANG Yi-zhong, LIU Xian-jin. Potential influence of carbohydrate and amino acid intake by adults on the population dynamics of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(7): 1889-1897.
[2] GE Shi-shuai, HE Wei, HE Li-mei, YAN Ran, ZHANG Hao-wen, WU Kong-ming. Flight activity promotes reproductive processes in the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(3): 727-735.
[3] WU Li-hong, ZHOU Cao, LONG Gui-yun, YANG Xi-bin, WEI Zhi-yan, LIAO Ying-jiang, YANG Hong, HU Chao-xing . Fitness of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda to three solanaceous vegetables[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(3): 755-763.
[4] SU Hong-hua, JIANG Tao, SUN Yu, GU Hui-jie, WU Jiao-jiao, YANG Yi-zhong. Effect of three insect-resistant maizes expressing Cry1Ie, Cry1Ab/Cry2Aj and Cry1Ab on the growth and development of armyworm Mythimna separata (Walker)[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2020, 19(7): 1842-1849.
[5] TONG Hao-jie, AO Yan, LI Zi-hao, WANG Ying, JIANG Ming-xing. Invasion biology of the cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley: Current knowledge and future directions[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2019, 18(4): 758-770.
[6] CHEN Ying-ying, ZHANG Wei, MA Gang, MA Chun-sen. More stressful event does not always depress subsequent life performance[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2019, 18(10): 2321-2329.
[7] ZHANG Can, SHAO Zhen-fang, HAN Yue-ye, WANG Xing-min, WANG Ze-qing, Peter Dennis Musa, QIU Bao-li, Shaukat Ali . Effects of Aschersonia aleyrodis on the life table and demographic parameters of Bemisia tabaci[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2018, 17(2): 389-396.
[8] QIN Jian-yang, LIU Yue-qiu, ZHANG Lei, CHENG Yun-xia, LUO Li-zhi, JIANG Xing-fu. Effects of temperatures on the development and reproduction of the armyworm, Mythimna roseilinea: Analysis using an age-stage, two-sex life table[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2018, 17(07): 1506-1515.
[9] XIONG Wen-feng, XIE Jia, WEI Lu-ting, ZHANG Si-si, SONG Xiao-wen, GAO Shan-shan, LI Bin. Transcriptome analysis of hsp18.3 functions and regulatory systems using RNA-sequencing in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2018, 17(05): 1040-1056.
[10] ZHOU Rong, YANG Ya-lan, LIU Ying, CHEN Qi-mei, CHEN Jie, LI Kui . Association of CYP19A1 gene polymorphisms with reproductive traits in pigs[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2017, 16(07): 1558-1565.
No Suggested Reading articles found!