|Cytogenetics and germplasm enrichment in Brassica allopolyploids in China
|LI Zai-yun1, WANG You-ping2, 3
|1 National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, P.R.China
2 College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, P.R.China
3 Key Laboratory of Agrobiology of Jiangsu, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014, P.R.China
Abstract This paper reviews research advances in cytogenetics and germplasm innovation in Brassica allopolyploids, particularly oilseed rape (Brassica napus), in China. Three naturally evolved Brassica allotetraploid species are cytologically stable but tend to preferentially lose several chromosomes from one subgenome when induced by alien chromosome elimination. A-subgenome is extracted from B. napus, and the ancestral Brassica rapa was restituted after the total loss of C-subgenome chromosomes. Genome-wide genetic and epigenetic alterations were observed in both natural and synthetic Brassica allotetraploids. B. napus was subjected to extensive interspecific hybridization with landraces of B. rapa and Brassica juncea, which exhibit abundant phenotype variations, to widen the genetic diversity in breeding and select numerous elite germplasm resources and cultivars; these cultivars include the representative Zhongyou 821, which also parented numerous other varieties. Novel B. napus genotypes were obtained using Brassica trigenomic hybrids and allohexaploids (2n=54, AABBCC) by combining subgenomes from extant allotetraploids and diploids as bridge. Alien additions, substitutions, and translocations of the B. napus genome were developed by intergeneric/intertribal sexual and somatic hybridizations with several crucifers. Furthermore, mitochondrial DNA recombination promoted the production of novel cytoplasmic male sterile lines.
Received: 08 December 2016
This study was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFD0102000, 2016YFD0101000), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31330057), and Yangzhou University for Excellent Talent Support Program, China.
Correspondence WANG You-ping, Tel: +86-514-87997303, Fax: +86-514-97991747, E-mail: email@example.com
Cite this article:
LI Zai-yun, WANG You-ping.
Cytogenetics and germplasm enrichment in Brassica allopolyploids in China. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 16(12): 2698-2708.
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