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Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2018, Vol. 17 Issue (04): 826-836    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(17)61717-9
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Enzymatic activity and chlorophyll fluorescence imaging of maize seedlings (Zea mays L.) after exposure to low doses of chlorsulfuron and cadmium
ZHAO Li-juan1, 2, XIE Jing-fang1, ZHANG Hong3, WANG Zhen-tao1, JIANG Hong-jin1, GAO Shao-long1
1 College of Environment and Resource, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, P.R.China
2 Department of Biology, Xinzhou Teachers University, Xinzhou 034000. P.R.China
3 Shanxi Academy of Analytical Science, Taiyuan 030006, P.R.China
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Abstract  The aim of this research was to study the influence of chlorsulfuron residue and cadmium on the enzymatic activity and photosynthetic apparatus of maize (Zea mays L.) plants.  Chlorsulfuron and cadmium at 0.001 and 5.0 mg kg–1, respectively, were mixed and applied to soil prior to planting.  The levels of chlorsulfuron- and cadmium-induced stress to plants were estimated by growth, chlorophyll content, lipid peroxide content, enzyme activities, and major fluorescence parameters of chlorophyll (revealed by the fluorescence imaging system FluorCam).  Chlorsulfuron negatively affected the chlorophyll content, photochemical efficiency of photosystem II in the dark-adapted state, the maximum efficiency of photosystem II, photochemical quenching coefficient, and steady-state fluorescence decline ratio in the leaves of maize seedlings.  However, cadmium did not produce noticeable changes.  Plants that were exposed to both chlorsulfuron and cadmium showed an obvious increase in the steady-state fluorescence decline ratio.  These results implied that the seedlings possessed more resistance to cadmium than to chlorsulfuron and their resistance to chlorsulfuron toxicity was enhanced by the presence of cadmium.  The results also suggested that chlorophyll fluorescence imaging reveals overall alterations within the leaves but may not reflect small-scale effects on tissues, as numeric values of specific parameters are averages of the data collected from the whole leaf.
Keywords:  major parameters of Chl fluorescence imaging        germination        growth        metals        sulfonylurea herbicides  
Received: 30 March 2017   Accepted:

This research was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (30740037), the Special Fund for Agro-scientific Research in the Public Interest, China (201103024), and the Foundation for Graduate Innovation, Shanxi University, China (011452901009).

Corresponding Authors:  Correspondence XIE Jing-fang, Tel/Fax: +86-351-7018807, E-mail:   
About author:  ZHAO Li-juan, E-mail:;

Cite this article: 

ZHAO Li-juan, XIE Jing-fang, ZHANG Hong, WANG Zhen-tao, JIANG Hong-jin, GAO Shao-long . 2018. Enzymatic activity and chlorophyll fluorescence imaging of maize seedlings (Zea mays L.) after exposure to low doses of chlorsulfuron and cadmium. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 17(04): 826-836.

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