Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2023, Vol. 56 ›› Issue (21): 4163-4174.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2023.21.003


Identification and Evaluation of Drought Tolerance and Screening of Drought-Tolerant Germplasm for Core Germplasms in Proso Millet at Adult Stage

WANG Qian1,3(), DONG KongJun2(), XUE YaPeng1,3, LIU ShaoXiong1, WANG RuoNan1,3, YANG JiaQi1, LU Ping1, WANG RuiYun3, YANG TianYu2(), LIU MinXuan1()   

  1. 1 Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081
    2 Crop Research Institute, Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou 730070
    3 College of Agronomy, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu 030801, Shanxi
  • Received:2023-04-28 Accepted:2023-06-12 Online:2023-11-01 Published:2023-11-06
  • Contact: YANG TianYu, LIU MinXuan


【Objective】Drought is one of the major constraints influencing on the growth, development, and yield of proso millet. To screen excellent drought-tolerant accessions and identification indicators will promote the drought-tolerant varieties breeding and drought tolerance molecular mechanisms analysis of proso millet.【Method】In this study, 200 core germplasm accessions of proso millet were used to identify field drought tolerance at adult stage in 2021-2022 at Dunhuang, Gansu province, with two treatments of normal irrigation and drought stress. Eleven morphological indicators, such as leaf area (LA), main stem diameter (MSD), number of main stem nodes (NMSN), main panicle length (MPL), peduncle length (PL), plant height (PH), straw weight per plant (SWPP), panicle weight per plant (PWPP), grain weight per plant (GWPP), thousand grain weight (TGW), and yield per plot (YPP) were determined. Comprehensive drought tolerance coefficient (CDTC value), drought resistance index (DRI value), and drought resistance comprehensive evaluation value (D value) were combined to identify the drought tolerance of proso millet at adult stage.【Result】There were significant differences in all eleven indexes among different accessions under different water treatments, including leaf area, main stem diameter, number of main stem nodes, main panicle length, peduncle length, plant height, straw weight per plant, panicle weight per plant, grain weight per plant, thousand grain weight, and yield per plot. The growth of proso millet was inhibited under drought stress treatments. Compared with the normal irrigation treatments, all the eleven indexes under drought treatments were significantly reduced, and yield per plot was more sensitive to drought treatments. The correlation analysis found that certain degrees of correlation existed among the drought tolerance coefficients of all traits, the correlation between panicle weight per plant and grain weight per plant was strongest, with a correlation coefficient of 0.943. Eleven evaluation indexes were converted into six comprehensive indexes by principal component analysis, with a cumulative variance contribution of 80.667%. The drought tolerance ranking of proso millet accessions based on CDTC value, DRI value and D value was generally consistent. The 200 proso millet accessions were classified into four categories according to D value cluster analysis, 10 of cluster Ⅰ were highly drought tolerant, 70 of cluster Ⅱ were drought tolerant, 81 of cluster Ⅲ were drought sensitive, and 39 of cluster Ⅳ were highly drought sensitive. Plant height, grain weight per plant, panicle weight per plant and main panicle length were highly correlated with D value, with correlation coefficients of 0.756, 0.697, 0.696 and 0.679, respectively. The regression equation for the drought tolerance evaluation was constructed by stepwise regression analysis: Y=-1.509+0.362X1+0.174X2+0.349X3+0.389X4+0.307X5+ 0.251X6+0.218X7.【Conclusion】The drought resistance comprehensive evaluation value method could be suitable for evaluating the drought resistance of proso millet at adult stage. Ten accessions with highly drought tolerance, such as Balinzuogedashu (00000525), Gaotaiwumizi (00002677) and Minlehongmizi (00002687). Plant height, panicle weight per plant and main panicle length could be used as primary evaluation indexes for drought tolerance of proso millet at adult stage.

Key words: proso millet, adult stage in the field, drought tolerance identification, drought tolerant germplasm screening

Fig. 1

Number of test materials from different provinces, cities, and autonomous"

Table 1

Values of all indexes in test proso millet accessions under normal irrigation and drought stress treatments"

PH (cm)
WW 148.37 79.10 182.51 23.01 0.16 -30.823 0.000** 0.839
DS 119.80 73.57 146.03 15.42 0.13
PL (cm)
WW 22.87 16.53 32.03 2.49 0.11 -7.548 0.000** 0.708
DS 21.86 15.68 28.00 2.46 0.11
MSD (cm)
WW 7.41 4.36 9.10 1.02 0.14 -3.175 0.000** 0.910
DS 7.31 4.22 9.08 0.97 0.13
WW 7.32 6.43 8.00 0.34 0.05 -19.921 0.000** 0.719
DS 6.95 6.03 7.82 0.36 0.05
MPL (cm)
WW 36.62 21.01 45.72 4.31 0.12 -17.773 0.000** 0.799
DS 33.28 21.28 44.02 4.03 0.12
LA (cm2)
WW 54.32 26.56 68.66 8.86 0.16 -9.354 0.000** 0.851
DS 51.20 25.40 69.78 8.28 0.16
SWPP (g)
WW 25.65 6.18 59.38 9.32 0.36 -6.362 0.000** 0.902
DS 23.83 6.77 50.07 8.72 0.37
PWPP (g)
WW 18.20 9.73 30.57 3.71 0.20 -16.056 0.000** 0.537
DS 14.60 8.68 23.72 2.50 0.17
GWPP (g)
WW 11.06 4.87 19.42 2.61 0.24 -17.256 0.000** 0.546
DS 8.30 3.75 15.15 2.00 0.24
TGW (g)
WW 5.97 4.50 7.03 0.61 0.10 -11.638 0.000** 0.832
DS 5.69 4.18 6.85 0.58 0.10
YPP (g)
WW 216.92 61.68 446.72 86.14 0.40 -16.619 0.000** 0.805
DS 156.78 44.50 385.92 66.83 0.43

Table 2

Descriptive statistics of drought tolerance coefficient of proso millet traits under drought stress treatments"

性状Trait 最小值Min 最大值Max 平均值Average 标准偏差SD 变异系数CV
株高PH 0.644 1.034 0.815 0.072 0.089
穗下节间长度PL 0.771 1.247 0.959 0.081 0.085
主茎直径MSD 0.835 1.237 0.990 0.061 0.062
主茎节数NMSN 0.857 1.060 0.950 0.035 0.037
主穗长MPL 0.708 1.126 0.911 0.070 0.077
叶面积LA 0.696 1.241 0.947 0.088 0.093
单株草重SWPP 0.523 1.461 0.942 0.163 0.173
单株穗重PWPP 0.531 1.246 0.820 0.152 0.185
单株粒重GWPP 0.452 1.376 0.770 0.181 0.232
千粒重TGW 0.783 1.131 0.954 0.059 0.061
小区产重YPP 0.399 1.319 0.743 0.188 0.253

Fig. 2

Correlation analysis among drought tolerance coefficient of all indexes DTC_PH, DTC_PL, DTC_MSD, DTC_NMSN, DTC_MPL, DTC_LA, DTC_SWPP, DTC_PWPP, DTC_GWPP, DTC_YPP and DTC_TGW represent the drought tolerance coefficient of plant height, peduncle length, main stem diameter, number of main stem nodes, main panicle length, leaf area, straw weight per plant, panicle weight per plant, grain weight per plant, yield per plot and thousand grain weight"

Table 3

Eigenvectors and contribution rates on principal components of eleven traits for proso millet accessions"

主成分Principal component
株高PH 0.691 0.425 -0.074 -0.310 -0.086 0.035
穗下节间长度PL 0.149 0.597 -0.245 0.519 -0.015 0.061
主茎直径MSD 0.330 0.145 0.509 0.086 0.662 0.386
主茎节数NMSN 0.325 0.574 0.009 -0.363 -0.376 0.405
主穗长MPL 0.564 0.491 -0.050 0.308 0.087 -0.206
叶面积LA 0.379 0.326 0.462 -0.193 0.008 -0.638
单株草重SWPP 0.231 -0.239 0.690 0.392 -0.314 0.113
单株穗重PWPP 0.821 -0.404 -0.001 0.142 -0.158 0.086
单株粒重GWPP 0.831 -0.409 -0.061 0.059 -0.129 0.063
千粒重TGW 0.549 -0.091 -0.399 0.223 0.299 -0.022
小区产量YPP 0.561 -0.427 -0.205 -0.350 0.106 -0.126
特征值 Eigenvalues 3.209 1.814 1.222 0.968 0.832 0.800
贡献率Contribution rate (%) 29.174 16.487 11.105 8.966 7.595 7.340
累积贡献率Cumulative contribution (%) 29.174 45.660 56.766 65.732 73.327 80.667

Table 4

Top 10 proso millet accessions with strong drought tolerance evaluated by CDTC value, DRI value and D value"

Material name
CDTC value
Material name
DRI value
Material name
D value
1 188 糜子
1.083 194 黄糜子
4.252 80 巴林左疙塔黍
2 80 巴林左疙塔黍
1.070 93 灵武70天
3.111 12 高台乌糜子
3 33 骨都白
1.066 193 花糜子
2.966 14 民乐红糜子
4 109 白圪塔糜
1.046 192 糜子
2.845 33 骨都白
5 107 小青糜
1.030 188 糜子
2.730 109 白圪塔糜
6 81 五原黑黍子
1.026 186 白糜子
2.545 199 笊篱白
7 190 黄糜子
1.022 191 额敏红糜
2.511 51 黄糜子
8 28 古浪半个红
1.018 51 黄糜子
2.410 52 白糜子
9 51 黄糜子
1.003 127 小白黍
2.376 53 红鹌鹑尾
10 29 S02036 0.997 31 小黍子
2.275 97 小黄糜子

Table 5

Correlation between CDTC value, DRI value and D value"

指标Index CDTC值CDTC value DRI值DRI value DD value
CDTC值CDTC value 1
DRI值DRI value 0.580** 1
DD value 0.685** 0.515** 1

Fig. 3

Cluster analysis of D value in proso millet germplasm Ⅰ: The highly drought-tolerant accessions; Ⅱ: The drought-tolerant accessions; Ⅲ: The drought-sensitive accessions; Ⅳ: The highly drought-sensitive accessions"

Table 6

Correlation of DTC value and D value of each trait in proso millet"

Correlation coefficient
P value
株高PH 0.756 0.000
穗下节间长度PL 0.341 0.000
主茎直径MSD 0.448 0.000
主茎节数NMSN 0.446 0.000
主穗长MPL 0.679 0.000
叶面积LA 0.318 0.000
单株草重SWPP 0.138 0.000
单株穗重PWPP 0.696 0.000
单株粒重GWPP 0.697 0.000
千粒重TGW 0.491 0.000
产量YPP 0.372 0.000
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