|Potassium sulphate induces resistance of rice against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola
|LIU Mao-Yan1, 2, 3, PENG De-liang2, SU Wen1, XIANG Chao2, JIAN Jin-zhuo2, ZHAO Jie2, PENG Huan2, LIU Shi-ming2, KONG Ling-an2, DAI Liang-ying1, HUANG Wen-kun2, LIU Jing1
1 Key Laboratory for Biology and Control of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, College of Plant Protection, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, P.R.China
2 State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, P.R.China
3 School of Agricultural Science, Xichang University, Xichang 615013, P.R.China
钾（K）是一种重要的营养元素，可以提高作物的抗逆性/耐受性。K在抗植物寄生线虫中的应用表明，K处理可以减少线虫病的发生，提高作物产量。然而，K在水稻抗拟禾谷根结线虫（Meloidogyne graminicola）中的研究仍然缺乏。本研究首先用K2SO4直接处理线虫，发现K2SO4对线虫的死亡率、侵染率以及发育水平无显著影响；接着通过温室盆栽接种，发现0.5 mM K2SO4处理水稻后，根中的根结和线虫数量分别下降了57.2±4.4% 和59.2±6.6%，成年雌虫比例（70.9±5.6%）显著低于对照（90.7±5.1%），同时幼虫比例（27.0±6.3%）显著高于对照（6.0±3.2%），而水稻的生长不受影响；统计Pluronic明胶中水稻根尖吸引的线虫数量，发现接种后6小时K2SO4处理与清水处理之间并无显著差异；对接种后7天根结中巨细胞的形态、大小和数量进行显微观察，发现两个处理间也不存在显著差异；接着检测根结中胼胝质沉积，发现K2SO4处理后其沉积面积增加了67.9%，同时其合成基因OsGSL1和降解基因OsGNS5分别显著上调和下调；另外检测H2O2累积发现，接种后8和24 小时K2SO4处理的根中H2O2含量分别增加了78.2% 和118.7%，同时其合成基因OsRbohB也显著上调；再对水杨酸、茉莉酸、乙烯以及油菜素内酯等信号通路相关基因和病程相关蛋白基因的表达进行定量分析，发现在线虫侵染初期K2SO4处理显著上调了某些抗病相关基因的表达；最后对K通道基因OsAKT1和转运蛋白基因OsHAK5缺陷型植株进行接种，发现根结和线虫数量显著增加并且线虫的发育加快，同时K2SO4的作用降低。这些说明K2SO4通过激发基础防御反应提高了水稻对线虫的抗性，并且K通道和转运蛋白积极参与了寄主抗性。K及其通道和转运蛋白在寄主抗性中的应用，为进一步研究水稻抗线虫机制以及钾在植物抗生物胁迫中的功能奠定了基础。低钾能诱导水稻对拟禾谷根结线虫的抗性，为田间有效利用钾肥防控线虫病害提供了理论依据。
Potassium (K), an important nutrient element, can improve the stress resistance/tolerance of crops. The application of K in resisting plant-parasitic nematodes shows that the K treatment can reduce the occurrence of nematode diseases and increase crop yield. However, data on K2SO4 induced rice resistance against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola are still lacking. In this work, K2SO4 treatment reduced galls and nematodes in rice plants and delayed the development of nematodes. Rather than affecting the attractiveness of roots to nematodes and the morphological phenotype of giant cells at feeding sites, such an effect is achieved by rapidly priming hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation and increasing callose deposition. Meanwhile, galls and nematodes in rice roots were more in the potassium channel OsAKT1 and transporter OsHAK5 gene-deficient plants than in wild-type, while the K2SO4-induced resistance showed weaker in the defective plants. In addition, during the process of nematode infection, the expression of jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET)/brassinolide (BR) signaling pathway-related genes and pathogenesis-related (PR) genes OsPR1a/OsPR1b was up-regulated in rice after K2SO4 treatment. In conclusion, K2SO4 induced rice resistance against M. graminicola. The mechanism of inducing resistance was to prime the basal defense and required the participation of the K+ channel and transporter in rice. These laid a foundation for further study on the mechanism of rice defense against nematodes and the rational use of potassium fertilizer on improving rice resistance against nematodes in the field.
Received: 27 November 2021
Accepted: 07 May 2022
This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (32172382, 31801716, and 31571986), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2021YFC2600404), and the Scientific Research Project of Hunan Provincial Department of Education of China (19B259).
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Cite this article:
LIU Mao-Yan, PENG De-liang, SU Wen, XIANG Chao, JIAN Jin-zhuo, ZHAO Jie, PENG Huan, LIU Shi-ming, KONG Ling-an, DAI Liang-ying, HUANG Wen-kun, LIU Jing.
Potassium sulphate induces resistance of rice against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 21(11): 3263-3277.
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