Please wait a minute...
Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2018, Vol. 17 Issue (2): 488-492    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(17)61812-4
Short Communication Advanced Online Publication | Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
Experimental infectivity of Theileria luwenshuni and Theileria uilenbergi in Chinese Kunming mice
LI You-quan1, 2, GUO Peng-fei1, LIU Jun-long1, LIU Zhi-jie1, HAN Yuan1, LI Xuan1, LIU Ai-hong1, GUAN Gui-quan1, 2, LIU Guang-yuan1, 2, LUO Jian-xun1, 2, YIN Hong1, 2 
1 State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology/Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou 730046, P.R.China
2 Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009, P.R.China
Download:  PDF in ScienceDirect  
Export:  BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      
Abstract  Theileria luwenshuni and Theileria uilenbergi are important tick-borne pathogens and cause substantial losses to the sheep industry in China.  The improvement in detection techniques has allowed the identification of multi-homing parasitism in Theileria parasites.  Herein we evaluated the experimental infectivity of T. luwenshuni and T. uilenbergi in Chinese Kunming mice by screening blood samples of experimentally inoculated mice by microscopic examination (ME) and PCR.  T. luwenshuni infected Chinese Kunming mice and 20 mice inoculated with this parasite were positive by ME and PCR.  In addition, T. uilenbergi infected mice and 20 mice inoculated with this species were positive by ME and PCR.  However, the number of red blood cells and the levels of hemoglobin of 40 infected mice had no obvious changes in the course of infection.  Our results demonstrated the multi-homing parasitism of T. luwenshuni and T. uilenbergi, which were believed to be parasites of sheep and goats.  This study was the first to demonstrate the infection of T. luwenshuni and T. uilenbergi in Kunming mice. 
Keywords:  Theileria luwenshuni        Theileria uilenbergi        infection        mouse        PCR        microscopic examination  
Received: 04 September 2017   Accepted:

This study was financially supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFD0501200, 2016YFC1202000, 2016YFC1202002), the earmarked fund for China Agriculture Research System (CARS-37), the National natural science foundation of china (31272556, 31402189, 31372432), the Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Program, China (2014ZL010), the National Basic Research Program of China (2015CB150300), the Special Funds for Agro-scientific Research in the Public Research, China (201303035), the Gansu International Collaboration Special Project, China (1504WKCA056), the Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center Programme for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology Project, China. 

Corresponding Authors:  Correspondence YIN Hong, E-mail:; LUO Jian-xun, E-mail:   
About author:  LI You-quan, Tel: +86-931-8342515, Fax: +86-931-8340977, E-mail:

Cite this article: 

LI You-quan, GUO Peng-fei, LIU Jun-long, LIU Zhi-jie, HAN Yuan, LI Xuan, LIU Ai-hong, GUAN Gui-quan, LIU Guang-yuan, LUO Jian-xun, YIN Hong . 2018. Experimental infectivity of Theileria luwenshuni and Theileria uilenbergi in Chinese Kunming mice. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 17(2): 488-492.

Aktas M, Dumanli N, Angin M. 2004. Cattle infestation by Hyalomma ticks and prevalence of Theileria in Hyalomma species in the east of Turkey. Veterinary Parasitology, 119, 1–8.

Allsopp B A, Baylis H A, Allsopp M T, Cavalier-Smith T, Bishop R P, Carrington D M, Sohanpal B, Spooner P. 1993. Discrimination between six species of Theileria using oligonucleotide probes which detect small subunit ribosomal RNA sequences. Parasitology, 107, 157–165.

Chen Z, Liu Q, Jiao F C, Xu B L, Zhou X N. 2014. Detection of piroplasms infection in sheep, dogs and hedgehogs in Central China. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, 3, doi: 10.1186/2049-9957-3-18

Fell A H, Preston P M, Ansell J D. 1990. Establishment of Theileria-infected bovine cell lines in scid mice. Parasite Immunology, 12, 335–359.

Hagiwara K, Tsuji M, Ishihara C, Tajima M, Kurosawa T, Iwai H, Takahashi K. 1993. Theileria sergenti infection in the Bo-RBC-SCID mouse model. Parasitology Research, 79, 466–470.

Han J, Jang H, Lee S, Na K. 2009. High prevalence of Theileria sp. in wild Chinese water deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus) in South Korea. Veterinary Parasitology, 164, 311–314.

Lee S H, Kim K T, Kwon O D, Ock Y, Kim T, Choi D, Kwak D. 2016. Novel detection of Coxiella spp., Theileria luwenshuni, and T. ovis endosymbionts in deer keds (Lipoptena fortisetosa). PLoS ONE, 11, e0156727.

Li Y, Chen Z, Liu Z, Liu J, Yang J, Li Q, Li Y, Cen S, Guan G, Ren Q, Luo J, Yin H. 2014a. Molecular identification of Theileria parasites of northwestern Chinese Cervidae. Parasites & Vectors, 14, 225.

Li Y, Chen Z, Liu Z, Liu J, Yang J, Li Q, Li Y, Ren Q, Niu Q, Guan G, Luo J, Yin H. 2014b. First report of Theileria and Anaplasma in the Mongolian gazelle, Procapra gutturosa. Parasites & Vectors, 7, 614.

Li Y, Liu J, Liu Z, Yang J, Li Y, Li Q, Qin G, Chen Z, Guan G, Luo J, Yin H. 2015. Report of Theileria luwenshuni and Theileria sp. RSR from cervids in Gansu, China. Parasitology Research, 114, 2023–2029.

Li Y, Luo J, Guan G, Ma M, Liu A, Liu J, Ren Q, Niu Q, Lu B, Gao J, Liu Z, Dang Z, Tian Z, Zhang B, He Z, Bai Q, Yin H. 2009. Experimental transmission of Theileria uilenbergi infective for small ruminants by Haemaphysalis longicornis and Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis. Parasitology Research, 104, 1227–1231.

Li Y, Luo J, Liu Z, Guan G, Gao J, Ma M, Dang Z, Liu A, Ren Q, Lu B, Liu J, Zhao H, Li J, Liu G, Bai Q, Yin H. 2007. Experimental transmission of Theileria sp. (China 1) infective for small ruminants by Haemaphysalis longicornis and Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis. Parasitology Research, 101, 533–538.

Li Y, Zhang X, Liu Z, Chen Z, Yang J, He H, Guan G, Liu A, Ren Q, Niu Q, Liu J, Luo J, Yin H. 2014c. An epidemiological survey of Theileria infections in small ruminants in central China. Veterinary Parasitology, 200, 198–202.

Luo J, Lu W. 1997. Cattle theileriosis in China. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 29(Suppl. 4), 4S–7S.

Luo J, Yin H. 1997. Theileriosis of sheep and goats in China. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 29, 8s–9s.

Phipps L P, Hernández-Triana L M, Goharriz H, Welchman D, Johnson N. 2016. Detection of Theileria luwenshuni in sheep from Great Britain. Parasites & Vectors, 9, 203.

Qin G, Li Y, Liu J, Liu Z, Yang J, Zhang L, Liu G, Guan G, Luo J, Yin H. 2016. Molecular detection and characterization of Theileria infection in cattle and yaks from Tibet Plateau Region, China. Parasitology Research, 115, 2647–2652.

Schnitter L, Yin H, Jianxun L, Ludwig W, Shayan P, Rahbari S, Voss-Holtmann A, Ahmed J S. 2000. Ribosomal small-subunit RNA gene-sequence analysis of Theileria lestoquardi and a Theileria species highly pathogenic for Theileria buffeli (syn T. orientalis) in cattle. Research in Veterinary Science, 86, 352–358.

Simuunza M, Weir W, Courcier E, Tait A, Shiels B. 2011. Epidemiological analysis of tick-borne diseases in Zambia. Veterinary Parasitology, 175, 331–342.

Tsuji M, Hagiwara K, Takahashi K, Ishihara C, Azuma I, Siddiqui W A. 1992. Theileria sergenti proliferates in SCID mice with bovine erythrocyte transfusion. Journal of Parasitology, 78, 750–752.

Tsuji M, Terada Y, Arai S, Okada H, Ishihara C. 1995. Use of the Bo-RBC-SCID mouse model for isolation of a Babesia parasite from grazing calves in Japan. Experimental Parasitology, 81, 512–518.

Yan W, Yao L, Liu W, Sun K, Zhang Z, Zhang L. 2017. A kind of rd1 mouse in C57BL/6J mice from crossing with a mutated Kunming mouse. Gene, 607, 9–15.

Yin H. 2000. Biological and molecular characterization of Theileria sp. infective to sheep and goats. Ph D thesis, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China. pp. 6–122. (in Chinese)

Yin H, Guan G Q, Ma M L, Luo J X, Lu B Y, Yuan G, Bai Q, Lu C, Yuan Z, Preston P. 2002. Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis ticks transmit at least two different Theileria species: One is infective to yaks, one is infective to sheep. Veterinary Parasitology, 107, 29–35.

Yin H, Liu Z, Guan G, Liu A, Ma M, Ren Q, Luo J. 2008. Detection and differentiation of Theileria luwenshuni and T. uilenbergi infection in small ruminants by PCR. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 55, 233–237.

Yin H, Schnittger L, Luo J X, Ulrike S, Ahmed J. 2007. Ovine theileriosis in China: A new look at an old story. Parasitology Research, 101(Suppl. 2), S191–S195.
[1] YANG Yan-mei, LIU Pei, LI Hong-mei, PENG Huan, DU Xia, DONG Ye, HU Xian-qi. Study on PCR rapid molecular detection technique of Meloidogyne vitis[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2022, 21(11): 3408-3416.
[2] WANG Li-xia, WANG Jie, LUO Gao-ling, YUAN Xing-xing, GONG Dan, HU Liang-liang, WANG Su-hua, CHEN Hong-lin, CHEN Xin, CHENG Xu-zhen. Construction of a high-density adzuki bean genetic map and evaluation of its utility based on a QTL analysis of seed size[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(7): 1753-1761.
[3] Bongekile NGOBESE, Oliver Tendayi ZISHIRI, Mohamed Ezzat EL ZOWALATY. Molecular detection of virulence genes in Campylobacter species isolated from livestock production systems in South Africa[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2020, 19(6): 1656-1670.
[4] YANG Chun-tao, SI Bing-wen, DIAO Qi-yu, JIN Hai, ZENG Shu-qin, TU Yan. Rumen fermentation and bacterial communities in weaned Chahaer lambs on diets with different protein levels[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2016, 15(7): 1564-1574.
[5] LI Yu-yi, PANG Huan-cheng, HAN Xiu-fang, YAN Shou-wei, ZHAO Yong-gan, WANG Jing, ZHAI Zhen, ZHANG Jian-li. Buried straw layer and plastic mulching increase microflora diversity in salinized soil[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2016, 15(7): 1602-1611.
[6] Janel L Huffman, Chance W Riggins, Lawrence E Steckel, Patrick J Tranel. The EPSPS Pro106Ser substitution solely accounts for glyphosate resistance in a goosegrass (Eleusine indica) population from Tennessee, United States[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2016, 15(06): 1304-1312.
No Suggested Reading articles found!