|Advances in pathogenesis of Streptococcus suis serotype 2
|FAN Hong-jie1, 2
|1 MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, P.R.China
2 Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009, P.R.China
Abstract Streptococcus suis is one of the major pathogens of swine streptococcosis. Among them, the strongest virulence and highest rate of clinical isolation serotype is S. suis serotype 2 (SS2). Moreover, SS2 is also an important zoonosis pathogen, which caused severe public health issues in China. It has been reported that SS2 has several virulence factors, including muramidase released protein, extracellular factors, capsule, fibronectin-binding protein, enolase, hemolysin, small RNA, biofilm, two-component regulatory systems, STK/STP, etc., whose functions involved in adhesion, anti-phagocytosis, inflammatory pathway activation, invasion, etc. Actually, SS2 has developed a variety of ways to escape from host immune system during evolution. In particularly, capsule could resist phagocytosis through inhibiting sphingosine dependent immune cell recognition, which plays an important role in escaping host inflammation response; moreover, superoxide dismutase encoding by sodA enables SS2 escaping reactive oxygen species (ROS) in host immune cells; besides, binding complement factor h with Fhb could suppress the activation of complement alternative pathway and bactericidal effect. And SS2 could also hinder the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) to avoid trapping by swine neutrophils, while host immune globulin could be degraded by IgA1 hydrolase and IgM protease. In addition, SS2 could escape host immune defense with the help of multiple transcriptional factors and micro-RNA. So far, the pathogenesis of meningitis, arthritis caused by SS2 infection, is still unclear, and the virulence regulatory mechanism of phosphorylation, micro-RNA need to be further clarified. Importantly, the study of interaction mechanism of pathogen and host contribute to further demonstration the pathogenesis of SS2.
Received: 18 May 2017
This study was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2017YFD0500203), the National Transgenic Major Program of China (2014ZX0800946B), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31672574), the Special Fund for Agro-scientific Research in the Public Interest, China (201403054), the Jiangsu Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Fund, China ([CX (16) 1028]), and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China (PAPD).
Correspondence FAN Hong-jie, Tel: +86-25-84396219, E-mail: email@example.com
Cite this article:
Advances in pathogenesis of Streptococcus suis serotype 2. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 16(12): 2834-2847.
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