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Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2017, Vol. 16 Issue (01): 1-15    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(16)61337-0
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Tillage, crop residue, and nutrient management effects on soil organic carbon in rice-based cropping systems: A review
Rajan Ghimire1, Sushil Lamichhane2, Bharat Sharma Acharya3, Prakriti Bista4, Upendra Man Sainju5
1 Agricultural Science Center, New Mexico State University, NM 88101, USA
2 Soil Science Division, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Khumaltar, Nepal
3 Department of Natural Resource Ecology and Management, Oklahoma State University, OK 74078, USA
4 Columbia Basin Agricultural Research Center, Oregon State University, OR 97801, USA
5 Northern Plains Agricultural Research Lab, USDA-ARS, MT 59270, USA
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Abstract  Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration is one of the major agricultural strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, enhance food security, and improve agricultural sustainability. This paper synthesizes the much-needed state-of-knowledge on the effects of tillage, crop residue, and nutrient management practices on SOC sequestration and identifies potential research gap, opportunities, and challenges in studying SOC dynamics in rice (Oryza sativa L.)-based cropping systems in South Asia, mainly in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Improved management practices such as reduced- and no-tillage management, nitrogen (N) fertilizer and farmyard manure (FYM) application, and crop residue addition can improve SOC accumulation. Positive effects of no-tillage, crop residue addition, N addition through manure or compost application, and integration of organic and chemical fertilizers on SOC accumulation in rice-based cropping systems have been documented from South Asia. However, limited data and enormous discrepancies in SOC measurements across the region exist as the greatest challenge in increasing SOC sequestration and improving agricultural sustainability. More research on SOC as influenced by alternative tillage, crop residue, and nutrient management systems, and development of SOC monitoring system for existing long-term experiments will advance our understanding of the SOC dynamics in rice-based cropping systems and improve agricultural system sustainability in South Asia.
Keywords:  carbon mapping      carbon sequestration      crop residue, no-tillage      rice-wheat system  
Received: 16 October 2015   Accepted:
Corresponding Authors:  Rajan Ghimire, Tel: +1-575-985-2292, E-mail:    
About author:  Rajan Ghimire, Tel: +1-575-985-2292, E-mail:

Cite this article: 

Rajan Ghimire, Sushil Lamichhane, Bharat Sharma Acharya, Prakriti Bista, Upendra Man Sainju . 2017. Tillage, crop residue, and nutrient management effects on soil organic carbon in rice-based cropping systems: A review. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 16(01): 1-15.

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[10] WANG Wen, LIAO Yun-cheng , GUO Qiang. Seasonal and Annual Variations of CO2 Fluxes in Rain-Fed Winter Wheat Agro-Ecosystem of Loess Plateau, China[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2013, 12(1): 147-158.
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