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Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2021, Vol. 20 Issue (8): 2090-2099    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63323-8
Special Issue: 棉花合辑Cotton
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Effects of plant density and nitrogen rate on cotton yield and nitrogen use in cotton stubble retaining fields
WANG Shi-hong1, 2*, MAO Li-li1*, SHI Jia-liang3, NIE Jun-jun1, SONG Xian-liang1, SUN Xue-zhen1 
1 Agronomy College, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai’an 271018, P.R.China
2 Liaocheng Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Liaocheng 252000, P.R.China
3 Dezhou Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Dezhou 253000, P.R.China
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增施氮肥可以加速棉花秸秆的分解,进而通过增加土壤氮素的供应能力和棉株氮素的吸收能力来提高棉花的产量。长期秸秆还田和高施氮量条件下,改变种植密度和施氮量是否可以提高棉花产量的研究目前尚不清楚。本研究于2016年至2017年在山东聊城进行,试验设置三个种植密度和五个施氮量,种植密度分别为5.25(D5.25)、6.75(D6.75)和8.25(D8.25)株m-2,施氮量分别为0(N0)、105(N105)、210(N210)、315(N315)和420(N420)kg ha-1量化了种植密度和施氮量对棉花产量、氮肥利用、叶片衰老、土壤无机氮和表观氮平衡的影响。与常规组合(D5.25N315)相比,种植密度增加28.6%、施氮量减少33.3%(D6.75N210)可以保持较高的棉花产量,而种植密度增加28.6%、施氮量减少66.7%(D6.75N105)仅可在第一年实现高产;生物量则随着种植密度和施氮量的增加而增加,两年均在D8.75N420获得最高值。与D5.25N315相比,D6.75N105时NAE和NRE分别增加30.2%和54.1%,而D6.75N105时NAE和NRE则分别增加104.8%和88.1%;施氮量105 kg ha-1时土壤无机氮急剧下降,但在D6.75N210未发现差异;施氮量105 kg ha-1时,土壤氮素缺乏发生,但在D6.75N210时,土壤氮素缺乏未发生;施氮量为210-420 kg ha-1时叶片净光合速率和氮浓度均高于其他处理。综上,秸秆还田条件下,D6.75N210是黄河流域棉区和其他具有类似生态的地区的优先组合。

Increasing nitrogen (N) rate could accelerate the decomposition of crop residues, and then improve crop yield by increasing N availability of soil and N uptake of crops.  However, it is not clear whether N rate and plant density should be modified after a long period of cotton stubble return with high N rate.  This study seeks to assess the effects of N rate and plant density on cotton yield, N use efficiency, leaf senescence, soil inorganic N, and apparent N balance in cotton stubble return fields in Liaocheng, China, in 2016 and 2017.  Three plant densities 5.25 (D5.25), 6.75 (D6.75) and 8.25 (D8.25) plants m–2 and five N rates 0 (N0), 105 (N105), 210 (N210), 315 (N315), and 420 (N420) kg ha–1  were investigated.  Compared to the combination used by local farmers (D5.25N315), a 33.3% N reduction and a 28.6% increase in plant density (D6.75N210) can maintain high cotton yield, while a 66.7% N reduction at 6.75 plants m–2 (D6.75N105) can only achieve high yield in the first year.  Biological yield increased with the increase of N rate and plant density, and the highest yield was obtained under 420 kg N ha–1 at 8.25 plants m–2 (D8.25N420) across the two years under investigation.  Compared to D5.25N315, N agronomic efficiency (NAE) and N recovery efficiency (NRE) in D6.75N210 increased by 30.2 and 54.1%, respectively, and NAE and NRE in D6.75N210 increased by 104.8 and 88.1%, respectively.  Soil inorganic N decreased sharply under 105 kg N ha–1, but no change was found under 210 kg N ha–1 at 6.75 plants m–2.  N deficit occurred under 105 kg N ha–1, but it did not occurr under 210 kg N ha–1 at 6.75 plants m–2.  Net photosynthetic rate and N concentration of leaves under N rate ranging from 210 to 420 kg ha–1 were higher than those under N rate of 0 or 105 kg N ha–1 at all three densities.  The findings suggest that D6.75N210 is a superior combination in cotton stubble retaining fields in the Yellow River Valley and other areas with similar ecologies.
Keywords:  leaf senescence        N application rate        N use efficiency        seed cotton yield        soil apparent N surplus  
Received: 03 February 2020   Accepted:
Fund: The study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31601253), the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province, China (ZR2016CQ20), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2017M610438), and the Modern Agro-industry Technology Research System of Shandong Province, China (SDAIT-03-03/05).
Corresponding Authors:  Correspondence SUN Xue-zhen, Tel: +86-538-8242487, E-mail:; SONG Xian-liang, Tel: +86-538-8242309, E-mail:    
About author:  WANG Shi-hong, E-mail:; MAO Li-li, E-mail:; * These authors contributed equally to this study.

Cite this article: 

WANG Shi-hong, MAO Li-li, SHI Jia-liang, NIE Jun-jun, SONG Xian-liang, SUN Xue-zhen. 2021. Effects of plant density and nitrogen rate on cotton yield and nitrogen use in cotton stubble retaining fields. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 20(8): 2090-2099.

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