Please wait a minute...
Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2020, Vol. 19 Issue (4): 1117-1126    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62719-X
Agro-ecosystem & Environment Advanced Online Publication | Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
Effects of sediment load on the abrasion of soil aggregate and hydraulic parameters in experimental overland flow
WANG Jun-guang1, YU Bing2, NI Shi-min1, GUO Zhong-lu1, CAI Chong-fa1      
1 Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River), Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs/College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070. P.R.China
2 Hubei Water Resources Research Institute, Wuhan 430070. P.R.China
Download:  PDF in ScienceDirect  
Export:  BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      
Abstract  
The breakdown of soil aggregates under rainfall and their abrasion in overland flow are important processes in water erosion due to the production of more fine and transportable particles and, the subsequent significant effect on the erosion intensity.  Currently, little is known about the effects of sediment load on the soil aggregate abrasion and the relationship of this abrasion with some related hydraulic parameters.  Here, the potential effects of sediment load on soil aggregate abrasion and hydraulic parameters in overland flow were investigated through a series of experiments in a 3.8-m-long hydraulic flume at the slope gradients of 8.7 and 26.8%, unit flow discharges from 2×10–3 to 6×10–3 m2 s−1, and the sediment concentration from 0 to 110 kg m–3.  All the aggregates from Ultisols developed Quaternary red clay, Central China.  The results indicated that discharge had the most significant (P<0.01) effect on the aggregates abrasion with the contributions of 58.76 and 60.34%, followed by sediment feed rate, with contributions of 39.66 and 34.12% at the slope gradients of 8.7 and 26.8%, respectively.  The abrasion degree of aggregates was found to increase as a power function of the sediment concentration.  Meanwhile, the flow depth, friction factor, and shear stress increased as a power function along with the increase of sediment concentration at different slope gradients and discharges.  Reynolds number was obviously affected by sediment concentration and it decreased as sediment concentration increased.  The ratio of the residual weight to the initial weight of soil aggregates (Wr/Wi) was found to increase as the linear function with an increasing flow depth (P=0.008) or Reynolds number (P=0.002) in the sediment-laden flow.  The Wr/Wi values followed a power function decrease with increasing friction factor or shear stress in the sediment-laden flow, indicating that friction factor is the best hydraulic parameter for prediction of soil aggregate abrasion under different sediment load conditions.  The information regarding the soil aggregate abrasion under various sediment load conditions can facilitate soil process-based erosion modeling.
Keywords:  soil aggregate        sediment load        hydraulic parameters        overland flow  
Received: 03 January 2019   Accepted: 04 March 2020
Fund: This research was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41771304) and the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFC0505404).
Corresponding Authors:  Correspondence GUO Zhong-lu, Mobile: +86-18007112207, E-mail: zlguo@mail.hzau.edu.cn, zlguohzau211@163.com   
About author:  WANG Jun-guang, Mobile: +86-13207166429, E-mail: jgwang@mail.hzau.edu.cn;

Cite this article: 

WANG Jun-guang, YU Bing, NI Shi-min, GUO Zhong-lu, CAI Chong-fa. 2020. Effects of sediment load on the abrasion of soil aggregate and hydraulic parameters in experimental overland flow. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 19(4): 1117-1126.

Abrahams A D, Li G. 1998. Effect of saltation sediment on flow resistance and bed roughness in overland flow. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 23, 953–960.
Abrahams A D, Li G, Krishnan C, Atkinson J F. 2001. A sediment transport equation for interrill overland flow on rough surfaces. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 26, 1443–1459.
Abu-Hamdeh N H, Abo-Qudais S A, Othman A M. 2006. Effect of soil aggregate size on infiltration and erosion characteristics. European Journal of Soil Science, 57, 609–616.
Ali M, Seeger M, Sterk G, Moore D. 2013. A unit stream power based sediment transport function for overland flow. Catena, 101, 197–204.
Amezkéta E, Singer M J, Le Bissonnais Y. 1996. Testing a new procedure for measuring water-stable aggregation. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 60, 888–894.
An J, Liu Q J. 2017. Soil aggregate breakdown in response to wetting rate during the inter-rill and rill stages of erosion in a contour ridge system. Catena, 157, 241–249.
Le Bissonnais Y. 1996. Aggregate stability and assessment of soil crustability and erodibility: I. Theory and methodology. European Journal of Soil Science, 47, 425–437.
Le Bouteiller C, Naaim-Bouvet F, Mathys N, Lavé J. 2011. A new framework for modeling sediment fining during transport with fragmentation and abrasion. Journal of Geophysical Research (Earth Surface), 116(F3), 1–15.
Fox D M, Le Bissonnais Y. 1998. Process-based analysis of aggregate stability effects on sealing, infiltration, and interrill erosion. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 62, 717–724.
Gimenez R, Govers G. 2002. Flow detachment by concentrated flow on smooth and irregular bed. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 66, 1475–1483.
Guy B T, Dickinson W T, Rudra R P, Wall G J. 1990. Hydraulics of sediment-laden sheet flow and the influence of simulated rainfall. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 15, 101–118.
Guy B T, Rudra R P, Dickenson W T, Sohrabi T M. 2009. Empirical model for calculating sediment-transport capacity in shallow overland flows: Model development. Biosystems Engineering, 103, 105–115.
Hu S X, Abrahams A D. 2006. Partitioning resistance to overland flow on rough mobile beds. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 31, 1280–1291.
ISSCAS (Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Science). 1978. Soil Physical and Chemical Analysis. Shanghai Science and Technology Press, Shanghai. (in Chinese)
Jiang F S, Gao P Y, Si X J, Zhan Z Z, Zhang H D, Lin J S, Ji X, Wang M K, Huang Y H. 2018. Modelling the sediment transport capacity of flows in steep nonerodible rills. Hydrological Processes, 32, 3852–3865.
Kiani-Harchegani M, Sadeghi S H, Asadi H. 2018. Comparing grain size distribution of sediment and original soil under raindrop detachment and raindrop-induced and flow transport mechanism. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 63, 312–323.
Kinnell P I A. 2005. Raindrop impact induced erosion processes and prediction: A review. Hydrological Processes, 19, 2815–2844.
Kinnell P I A. 2009. The impact of slope length on the discharge of sediment by rain impact induced saltation and suspension. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 34, 1393–1407.
Kuenen P H. 1956. Experimental abrasion of pebbles: 2. Rolling by currents. The Journal of Geology, 64, 336–368.
Lado M, Ben-Hur M, Shainberg I. 2004. Soil wetting and texture effects on aggregate stability, seal formation, and erosion. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 68, 1992–1999.
Larionov G A, Bushueva O G, Dobrovol’skaya N G, Kiryukhina Z P, Litvin L F, Maksimova I A. 2007. Destruction of soil aggregates in slope flows. Eurasian Soil Science, 40, 1128–1134.
Legout C, Leguédois S, Le Bissonnais Y. 2005. Aggregate breakdown dynamics under rainfall compared with aggregate stability measurements. European Journal of Soil Science, 56, 225–237.
Li G, Abrahams A. 1997. Effect of saltating sediment load on the determination of the mean velocity of overland flow. Water Resources Research, 33, 341–347.
Li Z X, Cai C F, Shi Z H, Wang T W. 2005. Aggregate stability and its relationship with some chemical properties of red soils in subtropical China. Pedosphere, 15, 129–136.
Ma R M, Li Z X, Cai C F, Wang J G. 2014. The dynamic response of splash erosion to aggregate mechanical breakdown through rainfall simulation events in Ultisols (subtropical China). Catena, 121, 279–287.
Martínez-Mena M, Deeks L K, Williams A G. 1999. An evaluation of a fragmentation fractal dimension technique to determine soil erodibility. Geoderma, 90, 87–98.
Mahmoodabadi M, Sajjadi S A. 2016. Effects of rain intensity, slope gradient and particle size distribution on the relative contributions of splash and wash loads to rain-induced erosion. Geomorphology, 253, 159–167.
Meyer L D, Monke E J. 1965. Mechanics of soil erosion by rainfall and overland flow. Transactions of the ASAE, 8, 572–580.
Meyer L D, Wischeier W H. 1969. Mathematical simulation of the process of soil erosion by water. Transactions of the ASAE, 12, 762.
Nearing M A, Norton L D, Bulgakov D A, Larionov G A, West L T, Dontsova K M. 1997. Hydraulic and erosion in eroding rills. Water Resources Research, 33, 865–876.
Nearing M A, Simanton J R, Norton L D, Bulygin S J, Stone J. 1999. Soil erosion by surface water flow on a stony, semiarid hillslope. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 24, 677–686.
Prosser I P, Rustomji P. 2000. Sediment transport capacity relations for overland flow. Progress in Physical Geography, 24, 179–193.
Rickenmann D. 1990. Bedload transport capacity of slurry flows at steep slopes. In: Vischer D, ed., Mitteilung der Versuchsanstalt far Wasserbau, Hydrologie und Glazi-ologie. Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich, Switzerland. pp. 1–249.
Rose C W. 1985. Developments in soil erosion and deposition models. Advances in Soil Science, 2, 2–63.
Sadeghi S H, Harchegani M K, Asadi H. 2017. Variability of particle size distributions of upward/downward splashed materials in different rainfall intensities and slopes. Geoderma, 290, 100–106.
Sha Y Q. 1965. An Introduction to Sediment Kinematic. China Industry Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
Shi P, Thorlacius S, Keller T, Keller M, Schulin R. 2017. Soil aggregate breakdown in a field experiment with different rainfall intensities and initial soil water contents. European Journal of Soil Science, 68, 853–863.
Shi Z H, Yan F L, Li L, Li Z X, Cai C F. 2010. Interrill erosion from disturbed and undisturbed samples in relation to topsoil aggregate stability in red soils from subtropical China. Catena, 81, 240–248.
Summer W, Zhang W. 1998. Sediment transport analysed by energy derived concepts. In: Modelling Soil Erosion, Sediment Transport and Closely Related Hydrological Processes. International Association of Hydrological Sciences, Vienna. pp. 355–362.
Valmis S, Dimoyiannis D, Danalatos N G. 2005. Assessing interrill erosion rate from soil aggregate instability index, rainfall intensity and slope angle on cultivated soils in central Greece. Soil and Tillage Research, 80, 139–147.
Wang J G, Li Z X, Cai C F, Yang W. 2012. Effects of transport distance and flow discharge of overland flow on destruction of Ultisol aggregates. Particuology, 10, 607–613.
Wang J G, Li Z X, Cai C F, Yang W, Ma R M, Zhang G B. 2013. Effects of stability, transport distance and two hydraulic parameters on aggregate abrasion of Ultisols in overland flow. Soil and Tillage Research, 126, 134–142.
Wang J G, Yu B, Yang W, Cheng J N, Song Y R, Cai C F. 2017. The abrasion of soil aggregate under different artificial rough beds in overland flow. Catena, 155, 183–190.
Wang Z, Yang X, Liu J, Yuan Y. 2015. Sediment transport capacity and its response to hydraulic parameters in experimental rill flow on steep slope. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 70, 36–44.
Warrington D N, Mamedov A I, Bhardwag A K, Levy G J. 2009. Primary particle size distribution of eroded material affected by degree of aggregate slaking and seal development. European Journal of Soil Science, 60, 84–93.
Wendling V, Legout C, Gratiot N, Michallet H, Grangeon T. 2016. Dynamics of soil aggregate size in turbulent flow: Respective effect of soil type and suspended concentration. Catena 141, 66–72.
Wu B, Wang Z L, Shen N, Wang S. 2016. Modelling sediment transport capacity of rill flow for loess sediments on steep slopes. Catena 147, 453–462.
Wuddivira M N, Stone R J, Ekwue E I. 2009. Clay, organic matter, and wetting effects on splash detachment and aggregate breakdown under intense rainfall. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 73, 226–232.
Xiao H, Liu G, Liu P L, Zheng F L, Zhang J Q, Hu F N. 2017. Developing equations to explore relationships between aggregate stability and erodibility in Ultisols of subtropical China. Catena, 157, 279–285.
Yalin Y S. 1963. An expression for bed-load transportation. Journal of Hydraulics Division, American Society of Civil Engineers, 89, 221–250.
Yan F L, Shi Z H, Li Z X, Cai C F. 2008. Estimating interrill soil erosion from aggregate stability of Ultisols in subtropical China. Soil and Tillage Research, 100, 34–41.
Zhao C H, Gao J E, Zhang M J, Zhang T, Wang F. 2015. Response of roll wave to suspended load and hydraulics of overland flow on steep slope. Catena, 133, 394–402.
Zhao G, Mu X, Wen Z, Wang F, Gao P. 2013. Soil erosion, conservation, and eco-environment changes in the Loess Plateau of China. Land Degradation & Development, 24, 499–510.
Zhang G H, Luo R T, Cao Y, Shen R C, Zhang X C. 2010a. Impacts of sediment load on Manning coefficient in supercritical shallow flow on steep slopes. Hydrological Processes, 24, 3909–3914.
Zhang G H, Shen R C, Luo R T, Cao Y, Zhang X C. 2010b. Effects of sediment load on hydraulics of overland flow on steep slopes. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 35, 1811–1819.
Zhang G H, Wang L L, Tang K M, Luo R T, Zhang X C. 2011. Effects of sediment size on transport capacity of overland flow on steep slopes. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 56, 1289–1299.
[1] LUAN Hao-an, YUAN Shuo, GAO Wei, TANG Ji-wei, LI Ruo-nan, ZHANG Huai-zhi, HUANG Shao-wen. Changes in organic C stability within soil aggregates under different fertilization patterns in a greenhouse vegetable field[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(10): 2758-2771.
[2] LUAN Hao-an, GAO Wei, TANG Ji-wei, LI Ruo-nan, LI Ming-yue, ZHANG Huai-zhi, CHEN Xin-ping, Dainius MASILIUNAS, HUANG Shao-wen. Aggregate-associated changes in nutrient properties, microbial community and functions in a greenhouse vegetable field based on an eight-year fertilization experiment of China[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2020, 19(10): 2530-2548.
[3] GUAN Song, LIU Si-jia, LIU Ri-yue, ZHANG Jin-jing, REN Jun, CAI Hong-guang, LIN Xin-xin. Soil organic carbon associated with aggregate-size and density fractions in a Mollisol amended with charred and uncharred maize straw[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2019, 18(7): 1496-1507.
[4] LIU Kai-lou, HUANG Jing, LI Da-ming, YU Xi-chu, YE Hui-cai, HU Hui-wen, HU Zhi-hua, HUANG Qing-hai, ZHANG Hui-min. Comparison of carbon sequestration efficiency in soil aggregates between upland and paddy soils in a red soil region of China[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2019, 18(6): 1348-1359.
[5] DU Zhang-liu, WU Wen-liang, ZHANG Qing-zhong, GUO Yan-bin , MENG Fan-qiao. Long-Term Manure Amendments Enhance Soil Aggregation and Carbon Saturation of Stable Pools in North China Plain[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2014, 13(10): 2276-2285.
No Suggested Reading articles found!