Please wait a minute...
Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2019, Vol. 18 Issue (1): 115-123    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(18)62104-5
Special Issue: 植物细菌真菌合辑Plant Bacteria/Fungus
Plant Protection Advanced Online Publication | Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
Effect of plant extracts on activity of some defense enzymes of apple fruit in interaction with Botrytis cinerea
Jalal Gholamnezhad
Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture & Natural Resources, Ardakan University, P.O. Box 184, Ardakan 8951895491, Iran
Download:  PDF in ScienceDirect  
Export:  BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      
The efficacy of seven plant extracts (neem, fennel, lavender, thyme, pennyroyal, salvia and asafetida) in controlling postharvest of apple (caused by Botrytis cinerea) was evaluated in vitro and in vivoIn vitro, all plant extracts treatments inhibited spore germination.  Inhibitory rates of pore germination was 17.41 and 20.83% for neem extract treatment (methanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively) with significant difference compared to control (73.6 and 85.33%) for aqueous and methanol extracts.  In the storage conditions, the application of aqueous extract of neem (at concentration of 25%) resulted in 89.11% reduction of disease severity compared with the untreated control.  Results of enzymes activity showed the plant extracts can increase the activity of peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, β-1,3-glucanase and polyphenol oxidase in the presence of pathogens, in apple fruits.  However, the results of this research revealed that application of neem extracts was more effective than the application of other plant extracts.  According to this study, it could be concluded that plant extracts may be useful to control postharvest disease as a safe alternative option to chemical fungicides. 
Keywords:  Botrytis cinerea        defense enzymes        plant extracts        spore germination
Received: 05 February 2018   Accepted: 02 January 2019
Corresponding Authors:  Correspondence Jalal Gholamnezhad, Tel: +98-353-5252254, Fax: +98-353-2226767, E-mail:,    

Cite this article: 

Jalal Gholamnezhad. 2019. Effect of plant extracts on activity of some defense enzymes of apple fruit in interaction with Botrytis cinerea. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 18(1): 115-123.

Abeles F B, Bosshart R P, Forrence L E, Habig W E. 1970. Preparation and purification of glucanase and chitinase from bean leaves. Plant Physiology, 47, 129–134.
Anguelova-Merhar V S, Van der Westhuizen A J, Pretorias Z A. 2001. β-1,3-Glucanase and chitinase activities and the resistance response of wheat to leaf rust. Journal of Phytopathology, 149, 381–384. 
Ayoub M, Niazi A U. 2012. Control of wheat rust by leaves extract of poisonous phanergamic plants. Journal of Biology Science, 1, 490–491.
Bania I, Mahanta R. 2012. Evalution of peroxidases from various plant sources. International Journal of Scientific and Research, 2, 1–5.
Bennett R N, Wallsgrove R M. 1994. Secondary metabolites in plant defence mechanisms. New Phytologist, 127, 617–633.
Bradford M M. 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of microgram quantities of protein, utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry, 72, 248–254.
Ceredi G, Mari M, Antoniacci L, Montuschi C, De Paoli E, Gengotti S. 2009. Ten years of field trials on grey mold control on strawberries. Acta Horticulturae, 842, 327–330.
Cowan M M. 1999. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 12, 564–582.
Da Cruz Cabral L, Fernandez Pinto V, Patriarca A. 2013. Application of plant derived compounds to control fungal spoliage and mycotoxin production in foods. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 166, 1–14.
Dey U, Harlapur S I, Dhutraj D N, Suryawanshi A P, Jagtap J P, Apet K T. 2013. Effect of fungicides, botanicals, bioagents and Indigenous Technology Knowledge (ITK’s) on germination of urediniospores of Puccinia sorghi in vitro. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 8, 4960–4971.
Elad Y, Williamson B, Tudzynski P, Delen N. 2004. Botrytis: Biology, Pathology and Control. Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. p. 403.
Fallik E, Archbold D D, Hamilton-Kemp T R, Clements A M, Collins R W. 1998. (E)-2-Hexenal can stimulate Botrytis  cinerea growth in vitro and on strawberries in vivo during storage. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 123, 875–881.
Fernandez-Ortuno D, Chen F, Schnabel G. 2013. Resistance to cyprodinil and lack of fludioxonil resistance in Botrytis cinerea isolates from strawberry in North and South Carolina. Plant Disease, 97, 81–85.
Gholamnejad J, Etebarian H R, Roustaee A. Sahebani N. 2009. Biological control of apple blue mold by isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of Plant Protection  Research, 49, 270–275.
Gholamnezhad J, Sanjarian F, Goltapeh E M, Safaei N, Razavi K H. 2016a. Effect of salicylic acid on enzyme activity in wheat on immediate early time after infection with Mycosphaerella graminicola. Plant Science, 47, 1–8.
Gholamnezhad J, Sanjarian F, Goltapeh E M, Safaei N, Razavi K H. 2016b. Study of defense genes expression profile pattern of wheat in response to infection by Mycosphaerella graminicola. Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, 8, 43–55. (in Farsi)
Gurnania N, Gupta M, Mehta D, Mehta BK. 2016. Chemical composition, total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of crude extracts from red chilli seeds (Capsicum frutescens L.). Journal of Taibah University for Science, 10, 462–470.
Harman G E, Petzoldt R, Comis A, Chen J. 2004. Interactions between Trichoderma harzianum strain T22 and maize inbred line molt and effects of these interaction on diseases caused by Pythium ultimum and Colletotrichum graminicola. Phytopathology, 94, 147–153.
Janisiewicz W J, Conway W S. 2010. Combining biological control with physical and chemical treatments to control fruit decay after harvest. Stewart Postharvest Review, 6, 1–16.
Joseph B, Darand M A, Kumar V. 2008. Bioefficacy of plant extracts to control Fusarium solani f. sp. melangenaeincitant of brinjal wilt. Global Journal of Biotechnology & Biochemistry, 3, 56–59.
Kumari A, Kumar R, Maurya S, Choudhary J S, Kumar S. 2013. Antifungal efficacy of aqueous extracts of neem cake, karanj cake and vermin compost against some phytopathogenic fungi. Bioscan, 8, 671–674.
Van Loon L C, Bakker P A H M, Van der Heijdt W H W, Wendehenne D, Pugin A. 2008. Early responses of tobacco suspension cells to rhizobacterial elicitors of induced systemic resistance. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 21, 1609–1621.
Mandal S, Mitra A. 2007. Reinforcement of cell wall in roots of Lycopersicon esculentum through induction of phenolic compounds and lignin by elicitors. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 71, 201–209.
Martins N, Barros L, Henriques M, Silva S. 2015. Activity of phenolic compounds from plant origin against Candidaspecies. Industrial Crops and Products, 74, 648–670.
Naserinasab F, Sahebani N, Etebarian H R. 2011. Biological control of Meloidogyne javanica by Trichoderma harzianum BI and salicylic acid on tomato. African Journal of Food Science, 5, 276–280.
Nawrocka J, Snochowska M, Gajewska E, Pietrowska E, Szczech M, Ma?olepsza U. 2011. Activation of defense responses in cucumber and tomato plants by selected polish Trichoderma strains. Vegetable Crops Research Bulletin, 75, 105–116.
Nisa F, Hermawan A, Murwanti R, Meiyanto E. 2012. Antiproliferative effect of  Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr. leaves etanolic extract on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)antracene induced male rat liver. Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 2, 99–106.
Pane C, Spaccini R, Piccolo A, Scala F, Bonanomi G. 2011. Compost amendments enhance peat suppressiveness to Pythium ultimum, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia minor. Biological Control, 56, 115–124.
Rodriguez D J, Castillo D H, Garcia R R, Sanchez J L A. 2005. Antifungal activity of Aloe vera pulp and liquid fraction against plant pathogenic fungi. Industrial Crop and Products, 21, 81–87.
Sari E, Etebarian H R. 2009. Effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 on the resistance of wheat seedling roots to the take-all fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. Phytoparasitica, 37, 67–76.
Shi C, Dai Y, Bingle X, Xu X, Xie Y, Liu Q. 2001. The pu-rification and spectral properties of polyphenol oxidase I from Nicotiana tabacum. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter, 19, 381–382.
Sriram S, Manasa S B, Savitha M J. 2009. Potential use of elicitors from Trichoderma in induced systemic resistance for the management of Phytophthora capsici in red pepper. Biological Control, 23, 449–456.
Surekha C H, Neelapu N R R, Kamala G, Siva Prasad B, Sankar Ganesh P. 2013. Efficacy of Trichoderma viride to induce disease resistance and antioxidant responses in legume Vigna mungo infested by Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria alternata. International Journal of Agricultural Science and Research, 3, 285–294.
Verma M, Brar S K, Tyagi R D, Surampalli R Y, Valéro J R. 2007. Antagonistic fungi, Trichoderma spp.: Panoply of biological control. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 37, 1–20.
Villers P. 2014. Aflatoxins and safe storage. Frontiers of  Microbiology, 5, 1–6.
Wang J W, Zheng L P, Wu J Y, Tan R X. 2006. Involvement of nitric oxide in oxidative burst, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activation and Taxol production induced by low-energy ultrasound in Taxus yunnanensis cell suspension cultures. Nitric Oxide, 15, 351–358.
Welinder K G. 1992. Superfamily of plant, fungal and bacterial peroxidases. Current Opinion in Structural Biology, 2, 388–393.
Xiao W, Sheen J, Jang J C. 2000. The role of hexokinase in plant sugar signal transduction and growth and development. Plant Molecular Biology, 44, 451–461. 
Yan F, Xu S, Chen Y, Zheng X. 2014. Effect of rhamnolipids on Rhodotorula glutinis biocontrol of Alternaria alternata infection in cherry tomato fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 97, 32–35.
[1] SI He-long, ZHANG Kang, LI Bai, YUAN Xue-mei, ZANG Jin-ping, CAO Hong-zhe, XING Ji-hong, DONG Jin-gao. BcSDR1 is involved in regulation of glucose transport and cAMP and MAPK signaling pathways in Botrytis cinerea[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2022, 21(9): 2628-2640.
[2] TANG Qiong, ZHENG Xiao-dong, GUO Jun, YU Ting. Tomato SlPti5 plays a regulative role in the plant immune response against Botrytis cinerea through modulation of ROS system and hormone pathways[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2022, 21(3): 697-709.
[3] Maqsood MARYAM, Kian Keong TE, Fai Chu WONG, Tsun Thai CHAI, Gary K K LOW, Seng Chiew GAN, Hui Yee CHEE. Antiviral activity of traditional Chinese medicinal plants Dryopteris crassirhizoma and Morus alba against dengue virus[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2020, 19(4): 1085-1096.
No Suggested Reading articles found!