Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2019, Vol. 52 ›› Issue (19): 3448-3459.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.19.014

• FOOD SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Analysis of Volatile Components in Cerasus Humilis (Bge.) Sok by Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

LI XiaoYing1,WANG HaiJing1,XU NingWei1,CAO CuiLing2,LIU JianZhen1,WU ChunCheng1,ZHANG LiBin1()   

  1. 1 College of Horticulture Science & Technology, Hebei Normal University of Science & Technology, Qinhuangdao 066600, Hebei
    2 Inspection and Quarantine Technique Centre, Qinhuangdao Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Qinhuangdao 066004, Hebei
  • Received:2019-03-27 Accepted:2019-08-21 Online:2019-10-01 Published:2019-10-11
  • Contact: LiBin ZHANG


【Objective】 The objective of this study was to optimize the pretreatment conditions and to analyze the volatiles of Cerasus Humilis (Bge.) Sok, further to evaluate the characteristics of the main aroma components.【Method】 The fruit of Cerasus humilis (Bge.) Sok was used as material, the volatiles were determined by headspace solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS), and the pretreatment conditions were optimized. Automatic Mass Spectral Deconvolution and Identification System (AMDIS), NIST11 database and retention index (RI) were applied to volatiles identify, internal standard to contents calculate, final the odor-activity values (OAVs) and aroma qualities were evaluated.【Result】 Total of 63 volatiles were identified, namely main of esters and alkanes, few of alcohols, arenes, aldehydes, terpenes, acid and ketone, with ranges from 0.01 to 3.25 μg·kg -1, in which ethyl benzoate as the highest. The OAVs showed ethyl hexanoate, phenethyl acetate, β-linalool, hexyl acetate, and nonanal were the main aroma components, alkanes almost the odorless. Green, fruity, floral, waxy and less woody and oily aromatic formed the odor qualities, while the former three performed the main odors reached 80% content. 【Conclusion】 The conditions were optimized as follows: samples loading for 5 g after cored and chipping, extraction temperature was 50℃, and both extraction and balance time was 30 min. The pretreatment had great influence on the volatiles detection, and preferable results would be yield by optimizing conditions. Results showed esters were the main components, except alkanes, and the most of them had aroma characteristics, presented medium or high strength, while green, fruity, floral were the major odor types.

Key words: Cerasus humilis (Bge.) Sok, volatile components, optimization analysis, odor-activity values (OAVs), aroma quality

Fig. 1

Effect of NaCl spiked on volatiles extraction from Cerasus humilis (Bge.) Sok Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences (P<0.05). The same as below"

Fig. 2

Effects of sample loading on volatiles extraction from Cerasus humilis (Bge.) Sok"

Fig. 3

Effects of extraction temperature on volatiles extraction from Cerasus humilis (Bge.) Sok"

Fig. 4

Effects of extraction time on volatiles extraction from Cerasus humilis (Bge.) Sok"

Fig. 5

Effects of balance time on volatiles extraction from Cerasus humilis (Bge.) Sok"

Fig. 6

The total ion chromatogram of volatiles of Cerasus humilis (Bge.) Sok"

Table 1

The volatiles and contents of Cerasus humilis (Bge.) Sok"

Retention time (min)
Content (μg·kg-1)
保留指数 RI 鉴定依据
Cal. Ref.
醇类 Alcohol
1 2-乙基-己醇 2-Ethyl-hexanol C8H18O 130 20.30 0.02 1034 1035 MS, RI
2 辛醇 Octanol C8H18O 130 23.64 0.03 1083 1087 MS, RI
3 壬醇 Nonanol C9H20O 144 29.12 0.28 1172 1171 MS, RI
4 (Z)-3-己烯-1-醇 (Z)-3-Hexen-1-ol C6H12O 100 8.87 0.01 855 855 MS, RI
5 苯乙醇 Phenylethyl alcohol C8H10O 122 26.05 0.15 1126 1121 MS, RI
芳香类 Arenes
6 邻二甲苯 o-Xylene C8H10 106 9.60 0.06 870 879 MS, RI
7 萘 Naphthalene C10H8 128 29.23 0.02 1174 1170 MS, RI
8 2-甲基萘 2-Methylnaphthalene C11H10 142 33.81 0.03 1289 1289 MS, RI
酸类 Acids
9 苯甲醛 Benzaldehyde C7H6O 106 14.96 0.12 956 961 MS, RI
10 壬醛 Nonanal C9H18O 142 25.62 0.16 1117 1107 MS, RI
11 (E)-3-甲基-4-癸烯酸 (E)-3-Methyl-4-decenoic acid C11H20O2 184 37.59 0.06 1413 1415 MS, RI
萜类 Terpenoids
12 β-芳樟醇 β-Linalool C10H18O 154 25.35 0.24 1111 1103 MS, RI
13 α-法呢烯 α-Farnesene C15H24 204 39.63 0.1 1512 1512 MS, RI
烷类 Alkyls
14 2-壬酮 2-Nonanone C9H18O 142 24.93 0.05 1102 1104 MS, RI
15 十二烷 Dodecane C12H26 170 30.25 0.48 1200 1200 MS, RI
16 十三烷 Tridecane C13H28 184 34.24 0.61 1300 1300 MS, RI
17 2-甲基-十三烷 2-Methyl-tridecane C14H30 198 36.36 0.04 1369 1362 MS, RI
18 法呢烷 Farnesane C15H32 212 36.72 0.08 1381 1378 MS, RI
19 十四烷 Tetradecane C14H30 198 37.33 0.32 1400 1400 MS, RI
20 正辛基环己烷 Octylcyclohexane C14H28 196 38.39 0.10 1451 1451 MS, RI
21 5-甲基-十四烷 5-Methyl-tetradecane C15H32 212 38.51 0.07 1456 1454 MS, RI
22 4-甲基-十四烷 4-Methyl-tetradecane C15H32 212 38.62 0.11 1462 1460 MS, RI
23 4,11-二甲基-十四烷 4,11-Dimethyl-tetradecane C16H34 226 38.70 0.85 1465 1464 MS, RI
24 3-甲基-十四烷 3-Methyl-tetradecane C15H32 212 38.87 0.14 1473 1470 MS, RI
25 十五烷 Pentadecane C15H32 212 39.44 1.31 1500 1500 MS, RI
26 5-丙基-十三烷 5-Propyl-tridecane C16H34 226 39.69 0.16 1515 1516 MS, RI
27 6-甲基-十五烷 6-Methyl-pentadecane C16H34 226 40.29 0.06 1551 1551 MS, RI
28 壬基环已烷 n-Nonylcyclohexane C15H30 210 40.37 0.22 1556 1556 MS, RI
29 4-甲基-十五烷 4-Methyl-pentadecane C16H34 226 40.45 0.04 1560 1557 MS, RI
30 2-甲基-十五烷 2-Methyl-pentadecane C16H34 226 40.53 0.15 1566 1564 MS, RI
Retention time (min)
Content (μg·kg-1)
保留指数 RI 鉴定依据
Cal. Ref.
31 3-甲基-十五烷 3-Methyl-pentadecane C16H34 226 40.65 0.12 1573 1571 MS, RI
32 十六烷 Hexadecane C16H34 226 41.11 0.36 1600 1600 MS, RI
33 2,6,10-三甲基-十五烷 2,6,10-Trimethyl-pentadecane C18H38 254 41.84 0.17 1643 1649 MS, RI
酯类 Esters
34 乙酸乙酯 Ethyl acetate C4H8O2 88 2.95 0.32 659 634 MS
35 己酸乙酯 Ethyl hexanoate C8H16O2 144 18.14 0.11 1003 1001 MS, RI
36 乙酸叶醇酯 (Z)-3-Hexenyl acetate C8H14O2 142 18.63 0.25 1010 1007 MS, RI
37 乙酸己酯 Hexyl acetate C8H16O2 144 19.15 0.66 1017 1017 MS, RI
38 苯甲酸甲酯 Methyl benzoate C8H8O2 136 24.87 0.05 1101 1093 MS, RI
39 异丁酸叶醇酯 (Z)-3-Hexenyl isobutyrate C10H18O2 170 27.79 0.21 1138 1145 MS, RI
40 丁酸己酯 Hexyl butanoate C10H20O2 172 28.05 0.10 1145 1148 MS, RI
41 己酸异丁酯 Isobutyl hexanoate C10H20O2 172 28.16 0.07 1147 1148 MS, RI
42 乙酸苯甲酯 Benzyl acetate C9H10O2 150 28.69 0.14 1161 1161 MS, RI
43 苯甲酸乙酯 Ethyl benzoate C9H10O2 150 28.92 3.25 1167 1170 MS, RI
44 4-辛烯酸乙酯 Ethyl 4-octenoate C10H18O2 170 29.87 0.04 1190 1191 MS, RI
45 辛酸乙酯 Ethyl octanoate C10H20O2 172 30.22 0.20 1199 1201 MS, RI
46 乙酸辛酯 Octyl acetate C10H20O2 172 30.80 0.04 1214 1213 MS, RI
47 异戊酸叶醇酯 cis-3-Hexenyl isovalerate C11H20O2 184 31.56 0.42 1233 1235 MS, RI
48 异戊酸己酯 Hexyl 2-methylbutyrate C11H22O2 186 31.74 0.24 1237 1239 MS, RI
49 2-辛烯酸乙酯 Ethyl (E)-2-octenoate C10H18O2 170 32.12 0.04 1247 1246 MS, RI
50 己酸异戊酯 Isoamyl hexanoate C11H22O2 186 32.23 0.05 1250 1251 MS, RI
51 乙酸苯乙酯 Phenethyl acetate C10H12O2 164 32.47 1.16 1256 1256 MS, RI
52 辛酸丙酯 Propyl octanoate C11H22O2 186 33.96 0.05 1293 1292 MS, RI
53 壬酸乙酯 Ethyl nonanoate C11H22O2 186 34.15 0.05 1298 1298 MS, RI
54 乙酸壬酯 Nonyl acetate C11H22O2 186 34.73 0.08 1316 1314 MS, RI
55 乙酸橙花酯 Neryl Acetate C12H20O2 196 36.95 0.03 1388 1372 MS, RI
56 (E)-己酸-2-己烯酯 (E)-2-Hexenyl hexanoate C12H22O2 198 37.10 0.14 1393 1391 MS, RI
57 癸酸乙酯 Ethyl caprate C12H24O2 200 37.25 0.21 1398 1398 MS, RI
58 (Z)-庚酸-3-己烯酯 (Z)-3-Hexenyl heptanoate C13H24O2 212 39.08 0.13 1483 1489 MS, RI
59 庚酸丁酯 Butyl heptanoate C11H22O2 186 39.17 0.07 1488 1490 MS, RI
60 (Z)-3-辛酸己烯酯 (Z)-3-Hexenyl octanoate C14H26O2 226 40.80 0.78 1582 1588 MS, RI
61 辛酸己酯 Hexyl octanoate C14H28O2 228 40.86 0.54 1585 1582 MS, RI
62 月桂酸乙酯 Ethyl laurate C14H28O2 228 41.05 0.17 1596 1597 MS, RI
63 软脂酸乙酯 Ethyl palmitate C18H36O2 284 46.14 0.09 1900 1914 MS, RI

Table 2

Strength and quality of aroma components of Cerasus humilis (Bge.) Sok"

Odor threshold (μg·kg-1)
Aroma quality[19,20,21]
Odor type[21,22]
Odor strength[21]
苯甲醛 Benzaldehyde 350[23] <0.001 苦杏仁味 Bitter almond-like 芳香型 Aromatic 高 High
邻二甲苯 o-Xylene 天竺葵香气 Geranium-like 芳香型 Aromatic 中 Medium
苯甲酸甲酯 Methyl benzoate 0.52[24] 0.096 杏仁味 Almond-like 酚香型 Phenolic 高 High
己酸乙酯 Ethyl hexanoate 0.01[25] 10.873 凤梨果香 Pineapple-like 果香型 Fruity 高 High
异丁酸叶醇酯 (Z)-3-Hexenyl isobutyrate 苹果香 Apple-like 果香型 Fruity 高 High
乙酸己酯 Hexyl acetate 2[26] 0.33 梨子香 Pear-like 果香型 Fruity 中 Medium
2-壬酮 2-Nonanone 5[26] 0.01 似草香、泥土气息 Weedy and earthy-like 果香型 Fruity 中 Medium
4-辛烯酸乙酯 Ethyl 4-octenoate 柑橘气味 Citrus-like 果香型 Fruity 中 Medium
2-辛烯酸乙酯 Ethyl (E)-2-octenoate 凤梨果香 Pineapple-like 果香型 Fruity 中 Medium
己酸异戊酯 Isoamyl hexanoate 苹果香 Apple-like 果香型 Fruity 中 Medium
2-乙基-己醇 2-Ethyl-hexanol 香草味 Herbaceou-like 花香型 Floral 中 Medium
β-芳樟醇 β-Linalool 0.5[27] 0.476 铃兰香气 Keiskei-like 花香型 Floral 中 Medium
苯乙醇 Phenylethyl alcohol 750[28] <0.001 玫瑰花香 Rose-like 花香型 Floral 中 Medium
乙酸苯甲酯 Benzyl acetate 茉莉花香 Jasmin fresh 花香型 Floral 中 Medium
壬醇 Nonanol 50[26] 0.006 玫瑰花、甜橙气息 Rose-and orange-like 花香型 Floral 中 Medium
乙酸辛酯 Octyl acetate 12[29] 0.003 花香、草香 Floral and herbal-like 花香型 Floral 中 Medium
乙酸苯乙酯 Phenethyl acetate 0.25[30] 4.629 甜蜜香味 Sweet honey-like 花香型 Floral 中 Medium
2-甲基萘 2-Methylnaphthalene 甜香 Sweety 花香型 Floral 中 Medium
乙酸橙花酯 Neryl Acetate 甜香 Sweet floral 花香型 Floral 中 Medium
乙酸乙酯 Ethyl acetate 5[17] 0.064 略带水果的酒香气味 Slightly fruity and winey-like 醚香型 Ethereal 高 High
α-法呢烯 α-Farnesene 草香 Herbal-like 木香型 Woody 中 Medium
(Z)-3-己烯-1-醇 (Z)-3-Hexen-1-ol 香草味 Herbaceous-like 青香型 Green 高 High
乙酸叶醇酯 (Z)-3-Hexenyl acetate 香蕉味 Banana-like 青香型 Green 高 High
丁酸己酯 Hexyl butanoate 250[29] <0.001 蔬菜气息 Vegetables-like 青香型 Green 中 Medium
己酸异丁酯 Isobutyl hexanoate 可可香气 Cocoa-like 青香型 Green 中 Medium
苯甲酸乙酯 Ethyl benzoate 60[26] 0.054 焦油味 Tar-like 青香型 Green 中 Medium
异戊酸叶醇酯 cis-3-Hexenyl isovalerate 青苹果气息 Green apple-like 青香型 Green 中 Medium
异戊酸己酯 Hexyl 2-methylbutyrate 生果实味 Raw fruit-like 青香型 Green 中 Medium
(E)-己酸-2-己烯酯 (E)-2-Hexenyl hexanoate 青香 Green 青香型 Green 中 Medium
庚酸丁酯 Butyl heptanoate 甘草味 Licorice-like 青香型 Green 中 Medium
(Z)-3-辛酸己烯酯 (Z)-3-Hexenyl octanoate 弱的青香 Faint Green-like 青香型 Green 中 Medium
辛酸己酯 Hexyl octanoate 新鲜蔬菜气息 Fresh Vegetables-like 青香型 Green 中 Medium
壬醛 Nonanal 1[24] 0.156 柑橘香 Citrus-like 醛香型 Aldehydic 高 High
萘 Naphthalene 21[31] 0.001 干树脂气味 Dry resinous 辛香型 Spicy 高 High
辛酸丙酯 Propyl octanoate 椰子气味 Coconut-like 椰子香型 Coconut 中 Medium
软脂酸乙酯 Ethyl palmitate 2000[32] <0.001 微弱蜡香 Soft waxy-like 脂蜡香型 Waxy 低 Low
辛醇 Octanol 110[28] <0.001 脂蜡香气、柑橘气息 Waxy and orange-like 脂蜡香型 Waxy 中 Medium
辛酸乙酯 Ethyl octanoate 5[33] 0.04 白兰地香气 Brandy-like 脂蜡香型 Waxy 中 Medium
壬酸乙酯 Ethyl nonanoate 略带脂肪-油脂气味 Slightly fatty-oily-like 脂蜡香型 Waxy 中 Medium
乙酸壬酯 Nonyl acetate 果香和栀子花香气 Fruity and gardenia-like 脂蜡香型 Waxy 中 Medium
癸酸乙酯 Ethyl caprate 23[32] <0.001 油脂、酒香气味 Oily and winey-like 脂蜡香型 Waxy 中 Medium
月桂酸乙酯 Ethyl laurate 花生香气 Peanut-like 脂蜡香型 Waxy 中 Medium

Fig. 7

Aroma profile analysis of Cerasus humilis (Bge.) Sok"

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