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    昆虫生防和生态合辑Insect Biocontrol and Ecology

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    Effects of Aschersonia aleyrodis on the life table and demographic parameters of Bemisia tabaci
    ZHANG Can, SHAO Zhen-fang, HAN Yue-ye, WANG Xing-min, WANG Ze-qing, Peter Dennis Musa, QIU Bao-li, Shaukat Ali
    2018, 17 (2): 389-396.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(17)61773-8
    Abstract722)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    The present study reports the sublethal effects of the entomopathogenic fungus, Aschersonia aleyrodis (Webber) on Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).  A fungal suspension of A. aleyrodis isolate Aa005 containing 1×107 conidia mL–1 was sprayed against B. tabaci on eggplant leaves under greenhouse conditions.  The effects of fungal application on survival as well as life table parameters of the whitefly were observed at different post inoculation periods.  The results indicated that A. aleyrodis can significantly affect the survival of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd nymphal instars of B. tabaci.  Developmental periods of different instar nymphs were not affected by fungal application.  A. aleyrodis spores persisted well and significantly affected the survivorship of young instar nymphs of B. tabaci at different post incubation periods.  Life table results suggested that A. aleyrodis has no impact on general fecundity and longevity of B. tabaci.  When the pathogen was exposed to the open environment and maintained for a relatively longer period, a reduction in the reproductive rate and intrinsic rate of increase was caused by the fungal spores, though the sublethal effects were not as good as the control treatment.  The results suggest that the ability of spores to suppress an increase in whitefly population persists well after incubation of spores to the external environment (up to 9 days).  
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    The damage risk evaluation of Aphis gossypii on wheat by host shift and fitness comparison in wheat and cotton
    FAN Yin-jun, LI Fen, Abd Allah A. H. Mohammed, YI Xiao-qin, ZHANG Min, Nicolas Desneux, GAO Xi-wu
    2018, 17 (03): 631-639.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(17)61784-2
    Abstract678)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    Aphids are considered as one of the key pests for wheat production worldwide.  Major aphid species that infest wheat in China include Sitobion avenae, Rhopalosiphum padi, Schizaphis graminum and Metopolophium dirhodum.  However, during our wheat field survey in Wenshang County of Shangdong Province, China, we observed that Aphis gossypii can feed on wheat.  The damage risk of A. gossypii on wheat was assessed using host shift method.  A population of A. gossypii collected from a wheat field in 2015 and another population reared on cotton under laboratory conditions for a decade without exposure to insecticides were used in the study.  The results of host shift demonstrated that the A. gossypii colony from wheat has not yet developed wheat specialization.  Moreover, the assessment of A. gossypii fitness on wheat and cotton showed that fecundity and net reproductive rate of A. gossypii population fed on wheat was significantly higher comparing to the population fed on cotton, whether the initial host of A. gossypii population was wheat or cotton.  This study raises a warning that the cotton aphid has potential to establish well on wheat and it may cause significant effects under specific circumstances.  Therefore, future studies are required to evaluate the effects of A. gossypii on wheat production.  
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    Release performance and sustained-release efficacy of emamectin benzoate-loaded polylactic acid microspheres
    YIN Ming-ming, ZHU Xin-yan, CHEN Fu-liang
    2018, 17 (03): 640-647.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(17)61763-5
    Abstract590)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to determine drug release rates based on emamectin benzoate concentrations in the medium.  Release kinetics equations were used to fit the drug release behavior.  The effects of particle size and release medium pH on the release rate were also investigated.  The indoor toxicity of emamectin benzoate-loaded polylactic acid microspheres on the diamondback moth larva (Plutella xylostella) was studied to explore drug sustained-release performance.  In acidic and neutral media, the drug release behavior of the microspheres was in accord with the first-order kinetics equation.  Increasing the spray dosage of emamectin benzoate-loaded polylactic acid microspheres initially resulted in an equivalent insecticidal efficacy with the conventional emamectin benzoate microemulsion.  However, the drug persistence period was four-fold longer than that observed using the conventional formulation.  The developed emamectin benzoate-loaded polylactic acid microspheres showed dramatic sustained-release performance.  A treatment threshold of greater than 35 mg mL–1 was established for an efficient accumulated release concentration of emamectin benzoate-loaded microspheres.
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    Sub-lethal effects of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) on field populations of the potato tuberworm Phthorimaea operculella Zeller in China
    YUAN Hui-guo, WU Sheng-yong, LEI Zhong-ren,?Silvia I. Rondon, GAO Yu-lin
    2018, 17 (04): 911-918.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(17)61898-7
    Abstract615)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    The potato tuberworm Phthorimaea operculella Zeller, is one of the most important potato pests worldwide including China.  Several reports indicate that P. operculella could be controlled biologically by the use of beneficial fungus such as Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv) Vuill.  However, limited information is available under growing conditions in China.  Thus, this study evaluated the sub-lethal effects of B. bassiana on the offspring of P. operculella by the age-stage, two-sex life table.  First instar larva of P. operculella were treated with 1×107 conidia mL–1 of the fungus, and several biological parameters were evaluated.  The fecundity, duration of the egg stage, all larval stages, pre-adult stage, and total pre-oviposition period, were significantly shorter than the control treatment.  Offspring of treated parents, presented a net reproductive rate and mean generation time of 17.43 per day and 24.98 days, respectively, compared to 65.79 per day and 26.51 days for the untreated ones.  This study provides basic information to help understanding the potential long-term effects of entomopathogenic fungi on P. operculella.
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    Species diversity of thrips (Thysanoptera) in selected avocado orchards from Mexico based on morphology and molecular data
    Daniel Bravo-Pérez, Ma. Teresa Santillán-Galicia, Roberto M. Johansen-Naime, Héctor González- Hernández, Obdulia L. Segura-León, Daniel L. Ochoa-Martínez, Stephanie Guzman-Valencia
    2018, 17 (11): 2509-2517.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(18)62044-1
    Abstract330)      PDF (851KB)(579)      
    Avocado is one of the most important crops in the world, and Mexico is the largest producer of this fruit.  Several insect pests affect its production, and thrips are amongst the most important.  A key step in the design of control methods is accurate species identification.  Despite this, formal reports on species diversity of thrips in Mexico are very scarce.  Morphological identification can sometimes be time-consuming and inconclusive.  Therefore, we explored the species diversity of thrips in Mexican avocado orchards (Michoacan state) based on partial sequences of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI).  Forty-four specimens were analysed, which represented approximately 8% of all individuals collected from five localities distributed in three Municipalities.  All specimens were analysed using the COI marker, and specimens within the genera Frankliniella were also analysed using a marker within the D2 domain of the 28S (28SD2) nuclear ribosomal DNA.  Molecular identifications were confirmed using morphological taxonomy.  Overall, six genera were found (Neohydatothrips, Scirtothrips, Frankliniella, Arorathrips, Caliothrips and Leptothrips).  All genera contained only one species, except Frankliniella, for which there were six species.  Data from the two molecular markers suggest the existence of cryptic species within Mexican F. occidentalis populations.
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    Microsatellites reveal strong genetic structure in the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura
    WU Huai-heng, WAN Peng, HUANG Min-song, LEI Chao-liang
    2019, 18 (3): 636-643.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(18)61989-6
    Abstract176)      PDF (285KB)(127)      
    The common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a voracious agricultural pest.  To increase understanding of the migration patterns and genetic diversity of different geographic populations of this species, we analyzed genetic variation in nine microsatellite loci among 576 individuals collected from 17 locations in China and one in Myanmar during 2011–2012.  We successfully identified 162 alleles, with an average of 18 alleles per locus and a range of 5 to 34.  The mean observed heterozygosity of the 18 populations ranged from 0.18 to 0.98, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.19 to 0.89.  For the nine microsatellite markers studied, polymorphism information content ranged from 0.18 to 0.88 (mean=0.64).  We found low genetic differentiation among the 18 populations (mean F-statistics (FST)=0.05) and high genetic diversity among individuals.  Principle coordinates analysis indicated no significant correlation between geographic and genetic distance (r=0.04).  The value of  Nm (Nm>4)  estimated using coalescent-based methods suggests strong gene flow with migration.  The nine microsatellite markers identified in this study will be beneficial for further investigation of migration patterns and genetic diversity in S. litura.
     
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    Effects of Paranosema locustae (Microsporidia) on the development and morphological phase transformation of Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Acrididae) through modulation of the neurotransmitter taurine
    LI Ao-mei, YIN Yue, ZHANG Yu-xin, ZHANG Liu, ZHANG Kai-qi, SHEN Jie, TAN Shu-qian, SHI Wang-peng
    2020, 19 (1): 204-210.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62637-7
    Abstract84)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    Neurotransmitters are important in the maintenance of phase transformation of Locusta migratoria (Arthropoda: Orthoptera).  Here, the effects of the entomopathogen Paranosema locustae on the neurotransmitter taurine in migratory locusts were studied using biochemical methods.  After inoculation with P. locustae, the taurine content of infected locusts significantly declined, but F/C values (ratio between the length of hind femur and the width of the head of locust) increased significantly, compared to healthy locusts.  Meanwhile, F/C values of infected locusts that were injected with 2 µg of taurine showed no significant differences from those of healthy locusts, demonstrating that supplemental taurine inhibited the changes in morphological phase caused by P. locustaeParanosema locustae infection also caused longer developmental durations and lower body weights of locusts, but these changes were unaffected after injection with taurine.  These results provided new insights into the mechanisms by which microsporidian parasites affected their locust hosts.
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    Overwintering parasitism is positively associated with population density in diapausing larvae of Chilo suppressalis
    HUANG Xiao-long, JIANG Ting, WU Zhen-ping, ZHANG Wan-na, XIAO Hai-jun
    2020, 19 (3): 785-792.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62815-7
    Abstract94)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    The suppression of overwintering population is essential in integrated pest management, but little is known about the biological mortality factors that reduce the overwintering density of Chilo suppressalis.  Here, we examine the parasitism of overwintering larvae, and assume that key parasitoids strengthen the over-wintering population suppression.  The natural parasitism incidence and related dominant parasitoids in overwintering larvae were investigated in two successive winters, in 2015–2016 and 2016–2017.  Parasitism rates were also assessed in larvae collected from 15 different counties in 2016.  The results showed that the parasitism incidence and dominant parasitoids in overwintering C. suppressalis larvae were significantly different for different sampling dates and sites.  Overwintering larvae of C. suppressalis were mainly parasitized by Cotesia chilonis, and less often by Eriborus sinicus and Micrurogaster ssata.  Regression analysis indicated that the natural incidence of parasites in overwintering C. suppressalis larvae was positively correlated with the over-wintering larval density.  The current work provides support for overwintering pest management strategies by showing the effectiveness of parasitoid communities as a bio-mortality factor for suppressing overwintering density.
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    How does the arthropod–plant system respond to abrupt and gradual increases in atmospheric CO2?
    ZHENG Xiao-xu, WU Gang
    2020, 19 (4): 1159-1161.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62880-7
    Abstract114)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    Global warming caused by elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) is a major environmental and policy issue.  The current global average temperature has been elevated by 1°C since the industrial revolution, and it is likely to reach a temperature increase of 1.5°C between 2030 and 2052 (IPCC 2018).  Human-caused emission of CO2 is responsible for the greenhouse effect and the atmospheric CO2 concentration is higher now than at any other time in the past 500 000 years, and it continues to rise (Lüthi et al. 2008).  Impacts of arthropod–plant interactions on carbon dynamics and the global climate are important but often ignored.  For example, outbreaks of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, in British Columbia during 2000–2020 will cause the release of an estimated 270 Mt carbon and convert the forest from a small carbon sink to a large carbon source (Kurz et al. 2008).   The annual carbon release due to outbreaks of this beetle is almost equivalent to the annual carbon emission from all forest fires occurring in Canada over 1959–1999 (Kurz et al. 2008).
    Most studies of arthropod–plant interactions have focused on the effects of ambient CO2 or abruptly increasing CO2 concentrations.  In general, these studies show that elevated CO2 has a positive direct effect on plant photosynthesis and photosynthate production (Bezemer and Jones 1998; Kim et al. 2015; Andresen et al. 2018; Thomey et al. 2019).  Most scientists expect C3 plants to benefit from this additional CO2 and outcompete C4 species, because the efficiency of C3 photosynthesis increases with increasing CO2 concentration to a far greater extent than it does in C4 photosynthesis (Hovenden and Newton 2018; Reich et al. 2018).  Yan et al. (2020) found that elevated CO2 increased photosynthetic rate, nodule number, yield and total phenolic content of Medicago truncatula.  Dong et al. (2018a) reported that elevated CO2 promoted the yield and nutritional quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).  After conducting a meta-analysis using 57 articles consisting of 1 015 observations, they found that elevated CO2 increased the concentrations of fructose, glucose, total phenols, and total flavonoids in the edible parts of vegetables by 14.2, 13.2, 8.9, and 45.5%, respectively, but decreased the concentrations of protein and nitrate, by 9.5 and 18.0%, respectively (Dong et al. 2018b).  Robinson et al. (2012) reviewed the evidence from 170 studies and concluded that plant biomass, C:N ratio, total phenolics and flavonoids increase under elevated CO2, while N-based secondary metabolites and plant terpenoid concentrations decrease.  Being an important limiting factor for phytophagous arthropods, changes in foliar C-based secondary metabolites (e.g., condensed tannins and phenolics) and N-based chemicals may have major effects on arthropod performance.
    Numerous studies have found that elevated CO2 indirectly influences arthropod performance via the changes in plant chemical composition (Ge et al. 2010; Xu et al. 2013; Wu 2014; Sun et al. 2018).  Wen et al. (2019) observed a significantly longer larval duration and lower fecundity of Nilaparvata lugens in elevated CO2.  After analyzing 122 studies, Robinson et al. (2012) concluded that elevated CO2 increases arthropod survival, abundance and relative consumption rate, but it reduces fecundity, relative growth rate and adult weight.  Many chewing pests, such as cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) and gypsy moth, exhibited lower fecundity, consumption rate and finite rate under elevated CO2 (Foss et al. 2013; Liu et al. 2017).  The sucking pests, however, displayed varied responses to elevated CO2.  For example, in aphids, the responses to elevated CO2 in terms of fecundity, development and population growth varied between different species, different hosts or even different genotypes of the same host (Sudderth et al. 2005; Gao et al. 2008; Guo et al. 2013).  The studies documented above indicated that the chewing arthropods and sap feeders employ different strategies in response to elevated CO2
    While it is clear that arthropod–plant interactions are affected by atmospheric CO2 concentrations, it is currently uncertain whether an abrupt increase in CO2 causes similar responses as the gradual increase has been observed since the industrial revolution.  A recent study of Bromus inermis (a perennial grass) and its associated arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) shows that abrupt and gradual CO2 change regimes may not elicit the same response (Klironomos et al. 2005).  In a long-term 6-year experiment in which plants were exposed to three CO2 regimes (ambient CO2, gradual increase in CO2, and abrupt increase in CO2) for 21 successive generations, more AMF taxa were lost when CO2 was raised abruptly than when a gradual increase of the same magnitude was implemented.  The abrupt change in CO2 resulted in a significant change in mycorrhizal diversity in the first generation, although little change occurred in subsequent generations.  Species richness of AMF was similar in the gradual and ambient CO2 treatments but was significantly lower in the abrupt CO2 change treatment (Klironomos et al. 2005).  It is not known whether these effects would be similar in an intact field experiment where fungal meta-community dynamics may come into play and mediate any local species extinctions.  A comparable long-term 3-year experiment (Wu et al., unpublished data) investigating impacts of abrupt vs. gradual increases in CO2 on life-history traits of N. lugens feeding on rice over 16 successive generations, indicated that the gradual increase in CO2 treatment can promote the growth and physiological metabolism of N. lugens relative to the abrupt CO2 increase treatment.  So, the effects of abrupt and gradual CO2 change regimes on arthropods, plants and their associated organisms could differ because the changes affecting organisms are initially the greatest for the first subsequent generation in the abrupt regime, while the evolutionary responses of the interacting organisms differ between the two regimes.
    Current generalizations about the effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 on arthropod–plant interactions are mainly based on experiments using the abrupt approach.  However, a major assumption of these approaches has not been tested, i.e., whether a single-step increase in CO2 yields similar responses in arthropod–plant systems as a gradual increase over several decades.  If a sudden increase in CO2 does not yield a response that is similar to a gradual increase of the same magnitude, some of these generalizations could be affected.  Hovenden and Newton (2018) considered that long-term experiments show unexpected plant responses to elevated CO2 concentrations.  Therefore, most current research may overestimate the impact of abrupt changes in CO2 concentrations on the arthropod–plant systems.  We must be cautious when designing experiments and explaining the effects of CO2 concentrations on the arthropod–plant system, because the magnitudes of responses to environmental changes that are significantly more abrupt may be different than those that would occur in nature.  Therefore, other model systems and intact ecosystems should be used to understand how an increase in atmospheric CO2 influences interactions between arthropods and their host plants.
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    Effects of a novel mesoionic insecticide, triflumezopyrim, on the feeding behavior of rice planthoppers, Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)
    ZHU Jun, SUN Wen-qing, LI Yao, GE Lin-quan, YANG Guo-qing, XU Jian-xiang, LIU Fang
    2020, 19 (10): 2488-2449.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63197-5
    Abstract125)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    The rice planthoppers, Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera, are important sap-sucking pests of rice in Asia.  The mesoionic insecticide triflumezopyrim was previously shown to be highly effective in controlling both N. lugens and S. furcifera.  In this study, electropenetrography (EPG) was used to evaluate the effect of three triflumezopyrim concentrations (LC10, LC50 and LC90) on the feeding behavior of N. lugens and S. furcifera.  EPG signals of planthoppes indicated that there were six different waveforms NP, N1, N2, N3, N4, and N5, which corresponded to non-penetration, stylet penetration into epidermis, salivation, extracellular movement of stylet, sap ingestion in phloem, and water ingestion in xylem during feeding.  Compared to untreated controls, triflumezopyrim at LC50 and LC90 prolonged the duration of the non-penetration period by 105.3 to 333.7%.  The probing frequencies of N. lugens exposed to triflumezopyrim at LC10 and LC50 were significantly increased; however, the probing frequencies of S. furcifera showed a significant decrease when exposed to triflumezopyrim at all concentrations.  Triflumezopyrim exposure prolonged the duration of salivation and shortened the duration of extracellular movement.  The duration of phloem sap ingestion decreased from 37.2 to 77.7% in the LC50 and LC90 treatments, respectively.  Differences in feeding behavior in response to triflumezopyrim and pymetrozine were minimal.  In summary, the results show that the LC50 and LC90 concentrations of triflumezopyrim inhibit the feeding activities of N. lugens and S. furcifera mainly by prolonging the duration of non-penetration and by shortening the duration of phloem sap ingestion, which may foster more efficient use of triflumezopyrim in Asia.
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    Attraction of bruchid beetles Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) to host plant volatiles
    WANG Hong-min, BAI Peng-hua, ZHANG Jing, ZHANG Xue-min, HUI Qin, ZHENG Hai-xia, ZHANG Xian-hong
    2020, 19 (12): 3035-3044.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63237-3
    Abstract113)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    Host-plant volatiles play an important role as cues for herbivores in search of resources, mates and oviposition sites in complex environments.  Plant volatile-based attractants can be developed for pest monitoring and control.  Previously, we indicated that mated female adults of Callosobruchus chinensis showed choice preference behavior toward 2-hexenal and benzaldehyde.  Our objective here was to investigate the synergistic effect of host-derived attractive volatiles in attracting C. chinensis under laboratory and field conditions in Shanxi Province, China.  We hypothesized that the ratio and concentration of volatiles derived from Vigna radiata play critical roles for C. chinensis in locating this host.  Therefore, we collected and identified the volatiles of mungbean by using headspace collection and GC-MS.  The effectiveness of different ratios and concentrations of two compounds (2-hexenal and benzaldehyde) that elicit C. chinensis searching behavior were examined in Y-tube olfactometer assays.  The combination of 300 μg μL–1 2-hexenal and 180 μg μL–1 benzaldehyde loadings exhibited a synergistic effect on attracting C. chinensis (82.35%).  Compared to control traps, the adults were significantly attracted to traps baited with blends, and more attraction to females than males was found for blend traps in the field experiments.  Our results suggest that blends of this specific concentration and ratio of benzaldehyde and 2-hexenal can be used in traps as attractants for C. chinensis monitoring and control in the field.
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