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Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2023, Vol. 22 Issue (5): 1574-1589    DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2023.04.021
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Elucidation of the structure, antioxidant, and interfacial properties of flaxseed proteins tailored by microwave treatment

YU Xiao1, 2, DUAN Zi-qiang2, QIN Xiao-peng2, ZHU Ying-ying2, HUANG Feng-hong1, PENG Deng-feng1, BAI Yan-hong2#, DENG Qian-chun1#

1 Oil Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Hubei Key Laboratory of Lipid Chemistry and Nutrition/Key Laboratory of Oilseeds Processing, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Wuhan 430062, P.R.China

2 College of Food and Bioengineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry/Henan Key Laboratory of Cold Chain Food Quality and Safety Control, Zhengzhou 450002, P.R.China 

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微波预处理有望同步实现亚麻籽中营养物质释放、酶灭活、生氰糖苷脱毒和风味强化等。本研究探讨微波预处理对亚麻籽分离蛋白(FPI抗氧化和界面特性的影响,重点关注FPI组成和分子结构的改变。结果表明,微波预处理(700 W, 1~5 min)使亚麻籽脱脂粉中贮藏蛋白组装更为紧密,随后与油脂体膜碎组分相互渗透。微波预处理1~5min过程中,FPI的平均粒径逐渐减小(-37.84~60.66%p<0.05)而Zeta电位值呈先降低后逐步增加至初始水平。借助荧光光谱、二级结构和蛋白亚基分析显示,微波预处理诱导了FPI的构象伸展亚基链交联和解聚同时发生,从而改变了FPI中清蛋白和球蛋白交互作用和聚集特性。微波预处理能够诱导酚类化合物在FPI特异性富集以及体外抗氧化活性的增强。与之伴随的,FPI表现出较低的气-水界面活性,制备的泡沫具有松散/多孔的界面结构,起泡性和泡沫稳定性明显削弱。此外,短时间微波预处理(1~3min)增加了FPI-水界面活性,制备的乳滴粒径降低界面致密性增加,进一步延长微波预处理时间至5 min时,由于乳滴内脂质溢漏和流变行为改变使乳液发生轻度物理失稳。总之,微波预处理亚麻籽能够基于贮藏蛋白组分的原位结构实现功能特性的定制。

Abstract  The microwave treatment is commonly applied to flaxseed to release nutrients, inactivate enzymes, remove cyanogens, and intensify flavors. The current study aimed to explore the influences of microwave exposure on the antioxidant and interfacial properties of flaxseed protein isolates (FPI), focusing on the altering composition and molecular structure. The results showed that after microwave exposure (700 W, 1–5 min), more compact assembly of storage proteins and subsequent permeation by membrane fragments of oil bodies occurred for cold-pressing flaxseed flours. Moreover, the particle sizes of FPI was progressively reduced with the decrement ranged from 37.84 to 60.66% , whereas the zeta potential values initially decreased and then substantially recovered during 1–5 min of microwave exposure. The conformation unfolding, chain cross-linking, and depolymerization were sequentially induced for FPI based on the analysis of fluorescence emission spectra, secondary structure, and protein subunit profiles, thereby affecting the dispersion or aggregation properties between albumin and globulin fractions in FPI. Microwave exposure retained specific phenolic acids and superior antioxidant activities of FPI. The inferior gas–water interface absorption and the loose/porous assembly structure were observed for the foams prepared by FPI, concurrent with obviously shrinking foaming properties upon microwave exposure. Improving oil–water interface activities of FPI produced the emulsion droplets with descending sizes and dense interface coating, which were then mildly destabilized due to the lipid leakage and weakened rheological behavior with microwave exposure extended to 5 min. Our findings elucidated that microwave treatment could tailor the application functionality of protein fractions in flaxseed based on their structural remodeling.
Keywords:  microwave exposure        flaxseed protein isolates        antioxidant activities        interface properties        composition structure  
Received: 05 August 2022   Accepted: 03 April 2023
Fund: Thanks to the National Natural Science Foundation of China (32072267), the Wuhan Scientific and Technical Payoffs Transformation Project, China (2019030703011505) and the Key Scientific Research Projects of Henan Province, China (2321021110139) for providing financial supports.
About author:  #Correspondence BAI Yan-hong, E-mail:; DENG Qian-chun, E-mail:

Cite this article: 

YU Xiao, DUAN Zi-qiang, QIN Xiao-peng, ZHU Ying-ying, HUANG Feng-hong, PENG Deng-feng, BAI Yan-hong, DENG Qian-chun. 2023. Elucidation of the structure, antioxidant, and interfacial properties of flaxseed proteins tailored by microwave treatment. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 22(5): 1574-1589.

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