农业生态环境-有机碳与农业废弃物还田合辑Agro-ecosystem & Environment—SOC
|Quantifying in situ N2 fluxes from an intensively managed calcareous soil using the 15N gas-flux method
|LIU Yan1,2, WANG Rui1, PAN Zhan-lei1, 2, ZHENG Xun-hua1, 2, WEI Huan-huan3, ZHANG Hong-rui4, MEI Bao-ling4, QUAN Zhi5, FANG Yun-ting5, JU Xiao-tang6
|1 State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, P.R.China
2 College of Earth and Planet Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P.R.China
3 College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, P.R.China
4 School of Ecology and Environment, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021, P.R.China
5 CAS Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Management, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110164, P.R.China
6 College of Tropical Crops, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, P.R.China
本研究以华北玉麦轮作农田石灰性土壤为研究对象，针对玉米和小麦季的两次施肥事件，采用15N气体通量法（15NGF）对田间原位土壤N2通量进行为期一周的观测。施用肥料为15N标记尿素（丰度为99 atom％），施用量为130（玉米季）和150（小麦季）kg N ha–1；并于施肥后的第一、三和五天（缩写DAF 1、DAF 3和DAF 5）进行模拟灌水，控制灌水后土壤湿度达~60% WFPS。结果显示：当罩箱时间为2、4和6 h时，土壤N2通量的检测限分别为163–1565、81–485和54–281 μg N m–2 h–1。土壤N2通量为159–2943（平均：811）μg N m–2 h–1，98.3%的通量数据高于其检测限（即120个观测数据中仅2个达不到通量检测限）。灌溉时间显著影响玉米季观测期内的土壤N2平均通量，DAF 3处理较DAF 1和DAF 5处理高约80%（p<0.01）；而在小麦季，不同灌溉时间的N2通量无差异。而且，玉米季观测期内的N2通量和氧化亚氮（N2O）与N2产物比（N2O/(N2O+N2)）均较小麦季高约65%和11倍（p<0.01）。该差异主要归因于玉米季观测期内更高的土壤湿度、温度和氮底物的有效性，利用反硝化贡献N2排放和N2O/（N2O+N2）比值。该研究表明15NGF方法可应用于原位定量集约化石灰性农田土壤的N2通量。
Denitrification-induced nitrogen (N) losses from croplands may be greatly increased by intensive fertilization. However, the accurate quantification of these losses is still challenging due to insufficient available in situ measurements of soil dinitrogen (N2) emissions. We carried out two one-week experiments in a maize–wheat cropping system with calcareous soil using the 15N gas-flux (15NGF) method to measure in situ N2 fluxes following urea application. Applications of 15N-labeled urea (99 atom%, 130–150 kg N ha−1) were followed by irrigation on the 1st, 3rd, and 5th days after fertilization (DAF 1, 3, and 5, respectively). The detection limits of the soil N2 fluxes were 163–1 565, 81–485, and 54–281 μg N m−2 h−1 for the two-, four-, and six-hour static chamber enclosures, respectively. The N2 fluxes measured in 120 cases varied between 159 and 2 943 (811 on average) μg N m−2 h−1, which were higher than the detection limits, with the exception of only two cases. The N2 fluxes at DAF 3 were significantly higher (by nearly 80% (P<0.01)) than those at DAF 1 and 5 in the maize experiment, while there were no significant differences among the irrigation times in the wheat experiment. The N2 fluxes and the ratios of nitrous oxide (N2O) to the N2O plus N2 fluxes following urea application to maize were approximately 65% and 11 times larger, respectively (P<0.01), than those following urea application to wheat. Such differences could be mainly attributed to the higher soil water contents, temperatures, and availability of soil N substrates in the maize experiment than in the wheat experiment. This study suggests that the 15NGF method is sensitive enough to measure in situ N2 fluxes from intensively fertilized croplands with calcareous soils.
Received: 05 July 2021
Accepted: 10 August 2021
|Fund: This work was jointly supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41877333, 41830751 and 41761144054), the Basic Research Program of Frontier Sciences of Chinese Academy of Sciences (ZDBS-LY-DQCOO7), and the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFD0200100).
|About author: LIU Yan, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Correspondence WANG Rui, Tel: +86-10-82029400, E-mail: email@example.com
Cite this article:
LIU Yan, WANG Rui, PAN Zhan-lei, ZHENG Xun-hua, WEI Huan-huan, ZHANG Hong-rui, MEI Bao-ling, QUAN Zhi, FANG Yun-ting, JU Xiao-tang.
Quantifying in situ N2 fluxes from an intensively managed calcareous soil using the 15N gas-flux method. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 21(9): 2750-2766.
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