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Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2022, Vol. 21 Issue (3): 840-854    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63599-7
Special Issue: 农业生态环境-肥料及施用合辑Agro-ecosystem & Environment—Fertilizer
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Interactions between phosphorus availability and microbes in a wheat–maize double cropping system: a reduced fertilization scheme
YU Xiao-jing1, CHEN Qi1, SHI Wen-cong1, GAO Zheng1, SUN Xiao1, DONG Jing-jing1, LI Juan2, WANG Heng-tao3, GAO Jian-guo3, LIU Zhi-guang1, ZHANG Min1 
1 National Engineering Laboratory for Efficient Utilization of Soil and Fertilizer Resources/College of Resources and Environment/College of Life Sciences, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai’an 271018, P.R.China
2 Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs/Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, P.R.China
3 Shandong Zhongxin Agricultural Development Co., Ltd., Linshu 276700, P.R.China
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小麦-玉米轮作体系减磷措施调控土壤磷素有效性与微生物间的耦合机制研究鲜有报道。本研究基于初始高磷(30.36 mg kg-1)和低磷水平(9.78 mg kg-1)石灰性土壤,通过连续四季的盆栽试验(2016-2018),探究小麦-玉米轮作体系仅麦季施磷(Pw)较常规麦-玉两季均施磷肥(Pwm)措施对作物产量、土壤有效磷和微生物群落结构的影响。结果表明,高磷水平Pw处理较Pwm处理每年减少33.3%的磷肥投入情况下,作物总产量能够连续两年稳产。玉米大喇叭口期,Pw处理土壤水溶性磷浓度与Pwm处理含量无显著差异。土壤磷含量显着影响土壤微生物群落,尤其是真菌群落。Pw处理变形菌门的相对丰度和碱性磷酸酶(ALP)活性显著高于Pwm处理(分别为11.4和13.3%)。高磷水平下,土壤微生物对产量的贡献大于土壤有效磷的影响。Pw处理芽孢杆菌和根瘤菌相对丰度显著高于Pwm处理。芽孢杆菌与酸性磷酸酶(ACP)活性呈显着正相关,根瘤菌与ACP和ALP活性均呈显着正相关,可能利于土壤磷素活化。本研究说明高磷土壤条件下,小麦-玉米轮作体系仅麦季施磷可通过土壤磷有效性与微生物间的耦合实现全年作物稳产。

Abstract  Mechanisms controlling phosphorus (P) availability and the roles of microorganisms in the efficient utilization of soil P in the wheat–maize double cropping system are poorly understood.  In the present study, we conducted a pot experiment for four consecutive wheat–maize seasons (2016–2018) using calcareous soils with high (30.36 mg kg–1) and low (9.78 mg kg–1) initial Olsen-P content to evaluate the effects of conventional P fertilizer application to both wheat and maize (Pwm) along with a reduced P fertilizer application only to wheat (Pw).  The microbial community structure along with soil P availability parameters and crop yield were determined.  The results showed that the Pw treatment reduces the annual P input by 33.3% without affecting the total yield for at least two consecutive years as compared with the Pwm treatment in the high Olsen-P soil.  Soil water-soluble P concentrations in the Pw treatment were similar to those in the Pwm treatment at the 12-leaf collar stage when maize requires the most P.  Furthermore, the soil P content significantly affected soil microbial communities, especially fungal communities.  Meanwhile, the relative abundances of Proteobacteria and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of Pw were significantly higher (by 11.4 and 13.3%) than those of Pwm in soil with high Olsen-P.  The microfloral contribution to yield was greater than that of soil P content in soil with high Olsen-P.  Relative abundances of Bacillus and Rhizobium were enriched in the Pw treatment compared with the Pwm treatment.  Bacillus showed a significant positive correlation with acid phosphatase (ACP) activity, and Rhizobium displayed significant positive correlations with ACP and ALP in soil with high Olsen-P, which may enhance P availability.  Our findings suggested that the application of P fertilization only to wheat is practical in high P soils to ensure optimal production in the wheat and maize double cropping system and that the soil P availability and microbial community may collaborate to maintain optimal yield in a wheat–maize double cropping system.

Keywords:  wheat–maize rotation        Olsen-P        alkaline phosphatase        phosphorus fertilization        calcareous soils
Received: 04 September 2020   Accepted: 14 December 2020
Fund: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41977019), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFD0200201 and 2017YFD0200706), the Shandong Key Research and Development Program, China (2019GNC106011), the Provincial Agricultural Science and Technology Park Construction Project, Shandong (LKZ2018143).
About author:  YU Xiao-jing, E-mail:; Correspondence LIU Zhi-guang, Tel: +86-538-8241531, E-mail:; ZHANG Min, Tel: +86-538-8241531, E-mail:

Cite this article: 

YU Xiao-jing, CHEN Qi, SHI Wen-cong, GAO Zheng, SUN Xiao, DONG Jing-jing, LI Juan, WANG Heng-tao, GAO Jian-guo, LIU Zhi-guang, ZHANG Min. 2022. Interactions between phosphorus availability and microbes in a wheat–maize double cropping system: a reduced fertilization scheme. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 21(3): 840-854.

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