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Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2020, Vol. 19 Issue (4): 1085-1096    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62820- 0
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Antiviral activity of traditional Chinese medicinal plants Dryopteris crassirhizoma and Morus alba against dengue virus
Maqsood MARYAM1, 2, Kian Keong TE3, Fai Chu WONG4, Tsun Thai CHAI4, Gary K K LOW5, Seng Chiew GAN6, Hui Yee CHEE1  
1 Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia,  Serdang 43400, Malaysia
2 Faculty of Natural Sciences, SBK Women’s University Quetta, Balochistan 87300, Pakistan
3 Department of Chinese Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Sungai Long Campus, Kajang 43000, Malaysia
4 Department of Chemical Science, Faculty of Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (Kampar Campus), Kampar 31900, Malaysia 
5 Department of Population Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (Sungai Long Campus), Kajang 43000, Malaysia
6 Department of Pre-Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (Sungai Long Campus), Kajang 43000, Malaysia
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Abstract  
Dengue virus (DENV) has emerged as a major virus that is spread by mosquitoes.  Recently, it has spread to more than a hundred nations but continues to lack specific treatable medication.  Many traditional Chinese medicinal (TCM) plants are in practice for dengue fever in dengue endemic regions.  These traditional medicines persevere with treatments, which modern medicines lack.  The study aims to substantiate the anti-dengue potential of some traditional herbs and make them available for further studies to facilitate TCM users.  Twelve TCM plants aqueous extracts were evaluated, which are described as cool herbs used for the diseases with high fever.  Lead plants were established through detailed in vitro foci forming unit reduction analysis (FFURA) against all four serotypes and validated through quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR).  Four plants potentially inhibited the virus in primary phenotypic in vitro evaluation.  Two lead plants Dryopteris crassirhizoma (DC) and Morus alba (MA) were identified with half minimal inhibitory concentration (IC50) 130 and 221 µg mL–1, respectively, while the selectivity indices (SI) were 4.21 and 4.62, respectively.  Lead plants equally inhibited all four serotypes of DENV.  Time-of-addition analysis suggested that, DC was active at later stages of viral replication, whereas MA was active during the early stages and even showed some prophylactic activity.  Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) analysis revealed presence of flavonoids.  DC and MA are identified as potential anti-dengue plants, active against varied stages of dengue virus replication cycle.  These results may serve as the base knowledge for further investigation on their combined treatments or integrative treatment with western medicines, which may improve the overall anti-dengue activity in future.  
Keywords:  dengue virus        traditional Chinese medicines        TCM        complementary medicines        plant extracts        anti-dengue  
Received: 31 January 2019   Accepted: 04 March 2020
Fund: We are grateful to the Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia, in providing funding to this project through UTARSRF strategic research funding scheme IPRS/RMC/UTARSRF/PROGRAMME 2014-C1/007.
Corresponding Authors:  Correspondence Hui Yee Chee, E-mail: cheehy@upm.edu.my    
About author:  Maqsood Maryam, E-mail: maryam.umar1@yahoo.com;

Cite this article: 

Maqsood MARYAM, Kian Keong TE, Fai Chu WONG, Tsun Thai CHAI, Gary K K LOW, Seng Chiew GAN, Hui Yee CHEE. 2020. Antiviral activity of traditional Chinese medicinal plants Dryopteris crassirhizoma and Morus alba against dengue virus. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 19(4): 1085-1096.

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