Please wait a minute...
Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2017, Vol. 16 Issue (09): 2047-2054    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(17)61661-7
Animal Science · Veterinary Medicine Advanced Online Publication | Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
Evaluation of an attenuated vaccine candidate based on the genotype C of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 in albino guinea pigs
MA Lei*, ZHU Yuan-mao*, YANG Ting, XUE Fei
Division of Livestock Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150069, P.R.China
Download:  PDF in ScienceDirect  
Export:  BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      
Abstract  Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) is considered as one of the most important respiratory tract pathogens of both young and adult cattle, and widespread among cattle in the world.  BPIV3 was first reported in China in 2008 and four strains of BPIV3 were isolated from Shandong Province, known as genotype C (BPIV3c).  Pathogen investigations had shown that BPIV3c infection was very common among cattle in China.  To date, BPIV3 can be classified into genotypes A, B and C based on genetic and phylogenetic analysis.  Serological survey also demonstrates that BPIV3 infection is widespread in China, however, there is still no available vaccine for BPIV3 prevention in China nowadays.  In the present study, the BPIV3c strain SD0835 was continuously passaged on Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells for hundreds of times, and the pathogenicity of passage 209 was reduced in guinea pigs.  The passage 209 of BPIV3c strain SD0835 was used as a live vaccine candidate to immunize the guinea pigs.  The vaccination results revealed that two vaccinations could induce excellent serum neutralizing antibody responses as well as proliferation of T lymphocytes.  The vaccinated guinea pigs were well protected against challenge with a low passage of BPIV3c strain SD0835.  Additionally, the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets of animals in vaccinated group increased after immunization; T cell subsets on day 2 after challenge in both groups decreased, and the decline of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets levels of four guinea pigs in vaccinated group was relatively moderate, comparing with that of the control group.  These data support further testing of the attenuated virus as an effective candidate vaccine.
Keywords:   bovine parainfluenza virus type 3        attenuated vaccine        genotype C        guinea pig  
Received: 17 February 2017   Accepted: 05 September 2017

This study was funded by a grant from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31372452), a fund for Science and Technology Plan from Harbin Science and Technology Bureau, Heilongjiang Province, China (2012AA6BN020), and a grant from the National Key Technologies R&D Program of China during the 12th Five-Year Plan period (2012BAD12B03-3).  

Corresponding Authors:  Correspondence XUE Fei, Tel: +86-451-51051740, Fax: +86-451-51997166, E-mail:    
About author:  MA Lei, E-mail:;

Cite this article: 

MA Lei, ZHU Yuan-mao, YANG Ting, XUE Fei. 2017. Evaluation of an attenuated vaccine candidate based on the genotype C of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 in albino guinea pigs. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 16(09): 2047-2054.

Autio T, Pohjanvirta T, Holopainen R, Rikula U, Pentikainen J, Huovilainen A, Rusanen H, Soveri T, Sihvonen L, Pelkonen S. 2007. Etiology of respiratory disease in non-vaccinated, non-medicated calves in rearing herds. Veterinary Microbiology, 119, 256–265.

Babcock A H, Renter D G, White B J, Dubnicka S R, Scott H M. 2010. Temporal distributions of respiratory disease events within cohorts of feedlot cattle and associations with cattle health and performance indices. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 97, 198–219.

Breker-Klassen M M, Yoo D, Mittal S K, Sorden S D, Haines D M, Babiuk L A. 1995. Recombinant type 5 adenoviruses expressing bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 glycoproteins protect Sigmodon hispidus cotton rats from bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 infection. Journal of Virology, 69, 4308–4315.

Bryson D G, McNulty M S, Ball H J, Neill S D, Connor T J, Cush P F. 1979. The experimental production of pneumonia in calves by intranasal inoculation of parainfluenza type III virus. Veterinary Record, 105, 566–573.

Dong X M, Zhu Y M, Cai H, Lv C, Gao Y R, Yu Z, Xue F. 2012. Studies on the pathogenesis of a Chinese strain of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 infection in Balb/c mice. Veterinary Microbiology, 158, 199–204.

Erickson J J, Lu P, Wen S, Hastings A K, Gilchuk P, Joyce S, Shyr Y, Williams J V. 2015. Acute viral respiratory infection rapidly induces a CD8+ T cell exhaustion-like phenotype. The Journal of Immunology, 195, 4319–4330.

Fernandez F, Costantini V, Barrandeguy M, Parreno V, Schiappacassi G, Maliandi F, Leunda M, Odeon A. 2009. Evaluation of experimental vaccines for bovine viral diarrhea in bovines, ovines and guinea pigs. Revista Argentina de Microbiología, 41, 86–91.

Horwood P F, Gravel J L, Mahony T J. 2008. Identification of two distinct bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 genotypes. Journal of General Virology, 89, 1643–1648.

Huo Z Y, Tong Q, Hu J X, Wang W. 2012. Serological survey of antibodies against bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 in three regiond of North China. Chinese Journal of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 33, 124–126. (in Chinese)

King C. 2009. New insights into the differentiation and function of T follicular helper cells. Nature Reviews Immunology, 9, 757–766.

Konishi M, Ohkura T, Shimizu M, Akiyama M, Kameyama K, Takeuchi K. 2014. Complete genome sequence of the first isolate of genotype C bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 in Japan. Genome Announcements, 2, e01215-14.

Maidana S S, Lomonaco P M, Combessies G, Craig M I, Diodati J, Rodriguez D, Parreno V, Zabal O, Konrad J L, Crudelli G, Mauroy A, Thiry E, Romera S A. 2012. Isolation and characterization of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Argentina. BMC Veterinary Research, 8, 83.

Neill J D, Ridpath J F, Valayudhan B T. 2015. Identification and genome characterization of genotype B and genotype C bovine parainfluenza type 3 viruses isolated in the United States. BMC Veterinary Research, 11, 112.

Noone C M, Paget E, Lewis E A, Loetscher M R, Newman R W, Johnson P A. 2008. Natural killer cells regulate T-cell proliferation during human parainfluenza virus type 3 infection. Journal of Virology, 82, 9299–9302.

Oem J K, Lee E Y, Lee K K, Kim S H, Lee M H, Hyun B H. 2013. Molecular characterization of a Korean bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 isolate. Veterinary Microbiology, 162, 224–227.

Parreno V, Lopez M V, Rodriguez D, Vena M M, Izuel M, Filippi J, Romera A, Faverin C, Bellinzoni R, Fernandez F, Marangunich L. 2010. Development and statistical validation of a guinea pig model for vaccine potency testing against Infectious Bovine Rhinothracheitis (IBR) virus. Vaccine, 28, 2539–2549.

Shi H F, Zhu Y M, Dong X M, Cai H, Ma L, Wang S, Yan H, Wang X Z, Xue F. 2014. Pathogenesis of a genotype C strain of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 infection in albino guinea pigs. Virus Research, 188, 1–7.

Sieg S, Muro-Cacho C, Robertson S, Huang Y, Kaplan D. 1994. Infection and immunoregulation of T lymphocytes by parainfluenza virus type 3. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciencesof the United States of America, 91, 6293–6297.

Snowder G D, Van Vleck L D, Cundiff L V, Bennett G L, Koohmaraie M, Dikeman M E. 2007. Bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle: phenotypic, environmental, and genetic correlations with growth, carcass, and longissimus muscle palatability traits. Journal of Animal Science, 85, 1885–1892.

Thomas L H, Cook R S, Howard C J, Gaddum R M, Taylor G. 1996. Influence of selective T-lymphocyte depletion on the lung pathology of gnotobiotic calves and the distribution of different T-lymphocyte subsets following challenge with bovine respiratory syncytial virus. Research in Veterinary Science, 61, 38–44.

Wyatt L S, Shors S T, Murphy B R, Moss B. 1996. Development of a replication-deficient recombinant vaccinia virus vaccine effective against parainfluenza virus 3 infection in an animal model. Vaccine, 14, 1451–1458.

Zhou L, Chong M M, Littman D R. 2009. Plasticity of CD4+ T cell lineage differentiation. Immunity, 30, 646–655.

Zhu J, Paul W E. 2010. Heterogeneity and plasticity of T helper cells. Cell Research, 20, 4–12.

Zhu Y M, Shi H F, Gao Y R, Xin J Q, Liu N H, Xiang W H, Ren X G, Feng J K, Zhao L P, Xue F. 2011. Isolation and genetic characterization of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 from cattle in China. Veterinary Microbiology, 149, 446–451.
[1] MA Fang, WANG Guang-yu, ZHOU Hong, MA Zhe, LIN Hui-xing, FAN Hong-jie. Evaluating the efficacy of an attenuated Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus vaccine produced by multi-gene deletion in pathogenicity island SeseCisland_4[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2019, 18(5): 1093-1102.
No Suggested Reading articles found!