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    Effect of Furrow Irrigation Pattern and Irrigation Amount on Comprehensive Quality and Yield of Greenhouse Tomato
    LI Hong-zheng, CAO Hong-xia, GUO Li-jie, WU Xuan-yi
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2016, 49 (21): 4179-4191.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2016.21.012
    Abstract489)   HTML2)    PDF (456KB)(801)       Save
    【Objective】This study aims at exploring the effects of different furrow irrigation patterns and irrigation amounts on the comprehensive quality, yield, irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) and comprehensive benefit of greenhouse tomato, optimizing the furrow irrigation pattern and irrigation amount of greenhouse tomato in northwest China, so as to provide a scientific basis for sustainable development of greenhouse tomato in the region. 【Method】Common furrow irrigation (CFI) and alternative furrow irrigation (AFI) were set as two furrow irrigation patterns. Based on the cumulative evaporation from a 20 cm diameter pan between two irrigations (E), 0.6E, 0.8E, 1.0E, 1.2E were set as four different levels of irrigation amount. The quality of tomato was evaluated comprehensively by principal component analysis (PCA) and grey correlation analysis (GCA). Principal components scores and grey weighted correlation degrees were regarded as the comprehensive quality of tomato. Weight values of comprehensive quality, yield and IWUE were calculated by the coefficient of variation method. Then, TOPSIS method was used to evaluate the comprehensive benefits of all irrigation treatments. 【Result】Tomato quality was affected by both furrow irrigation pattern and irrigation amount. The evaluation results of PCA and GCA were not completely consistent. However, both PCA and GCA acquired that tomato quality under AFI-0.6E and AFI-0.8E treatments were the best. Yield of AFI-0.6E treatment decreased by 22.56% while it just decreased by 9.42% under AFI-0.8E treatment compared to AFI-1.2E treatment which acquired the most yield. While, the IWUE of AFI-0.6E and AFI-0.8E had no significant difference. The result of TOPSIS showed that AFI-0.8E treatment had the largest comprehensive benefit. 【Conclusion】 AFI coupling with the irrigation amount of 0.8E could improve the quality of tomato and guarantee the yield and IWUE, consequently generate the largest comprehensive benefit. It was the optimal combination of furrow irrigation pattern and irrigation amount.
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    Cited: Baidu(3)
    Expression Analysis of Differential Proteins in Three Kinds of Flower Buds with Sex Differentiation of Asparagus
    LIU Meng, NIE Lan-chun, WANG Shan-shan, HU Shu-ming
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2016, 49 (21): 4192-4202.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2016.21.013
    Abstract346)   HTML3)    PDF (1033KB)(484)       Save
    【Objective】 To investigate the proteins which are related to the sex differentiation, and lay a foundation for revealing the molecular mechanism of sex differentiation in Asparagus officinalis L. 【Method】 Differential proteins were analyzed in female flower buds, male flower buds and hermaphroditic flower buds at hermaphroditic differentiation stage by 2-D electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics method. 【Result】 Compared male and female flower buds, 25 specific protein spots and 5 up-regulated protein spots were detected in male flower buds, 13 specific protein spots and 12 up-regulated protein spots were detected in female flower buds. Compared with male flower buds, 19 specific protein spots and 8 up-regulated protein spots were detected in hermaphroditic flower buds. The proteins were identified by LC-MS-MS and analyzed through bioinformatics. Six specific or up-regulated homologous proteins of Asparagus were identified in male flower buds, including luminal binding protein (BiP) which promoted the synthesis of alpha amylase; beta-amylase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and cytosolic phosphoglycerate kinase which are all involved in the glycolytic pathway, PAP fibrillin which is associated with liposomes,Os02g0634900 which its function is unknown. There were 16 specific or up-regulated homologous proteins of Asparagus were identified in hermaphroditic and female flower buds, including enolase 1 and cytosolic phospho-glycerate kinase which are involved in the glycolytic pathway, actin isoform B and actin which maintained cell structure, ATP synthase CF1 alpha subunit and ATP synthase beta subunit which participated in energy metabolism; small GTP-binding protein and GTP-binding protein which participated in material transportation, ribosome inactivating protein RIPm which depressed protein synthesis, ADP-ribosylation factor which participated in material transportation and signal transduction, nucleoside diphosphate kinase which catalyzed phosphate group transfer, plastid-lipid-associated protein which participated in lipid metabolism, oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 1 which was related to photosynthesis, porin which allowed ions, sugars and amino acids across the outer membrane, intracellular pathogenesis-related protein isoform 4 and hypothetical protein which their functions are unknown.【Conclusion】Beta-amylase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, cytosolic phosphoglycerate kinase, luminal binding protein (BiP), PAP fibrillin and Os02g0634900 which are homologous proteins of Asparagus are related to the male organ development. Enolase 1, cytosolic phosphoglycerate kinase, actin isoform B, actin, ATP synthase CF1 alpha subunit, small GTP-binding protein, GTP-binding protein, ribosome inactivating protein RIPm, with strong similarity to ADP-ribosylation factor, nucleoside diphosphate kinase, plastid-lipid-associated protein, oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 1, porin and hypothetical protein which are homologous proteins of Asparagus, ATP synthase beta subunit and intracellular pathogenesis-related protein isoform 4 are related to the female organ development. Oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 1 and porin which are homologous proteins of Asparagus might be the key proteins of female organ’s development.
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    Longan Pulp Extracts Ameliorate Scopolamine-Induced Learning and Memory of Impairment Mice
    BAI Ya-juan, LIU Lei, ZHANG Rui-fen, DENG Yuan-yuan, HUANG Fei, ZHANG Ming-wei
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2016, 49 (21): 4203-4213.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2016.21.014
    Abstract414)   HTML2)    PDF (529KB)(780)       Save
    【Objective】The objective of this experiment is to study the effect of different doses of both ethanol extract and aqueous extract of longan pulp on learning and memory function in dementia mice induced by scopolamine and to clarify the mechanism of longan pulp in improving learning and memory of imparment mice.【Method】The contents of the main active substances in the ethanol extract and water extract of longan pulp were analyzed. SPF male Kunming mice were randomly divided into 6 groups for 28 d administration: normal control group, model group, low/high dose longan pulp ethanol extract group (150 mg?kg-1/300 mg?kg-1), low/high dose longan pulp aqueous extract group (150 mg?kg-1/300 mg?kg-1). At the end of last time administration, the passive avoidance tests were performed after mice received scopolamine intraperitoneal injection, the indexes of step-through latency and shuttle number were marked as acquisition trial, the passive avoidance tests were performed again after 24 h which was marked as retention trial. Then detection of the antioxidant activities of serum and brain, such as SOD, GSH-Px, MDA, as well as ChAT and AChE of brain tissue were carried out. 【Result】By analyzing the constituents of longan pulp extract, it was found that longan pulp aqueous extract contains mainly polysaccharide and protein, and ethanol extract contains not only carbohydrates, but also abundant phenolic acid, flavonoid and phospholipid substances. Moreover, the content of total phenols, total flavonoids and total phospholipid in ethanol extraction was significantly higher than that of aqueous extract. The shuttle number of model mice in acquisition trial of passive avoidance test in 5 min (2.89) was 6.09 times of normal control (0.46). Meanwhile shuttle numbers of the high dose longan pulp ethanol extract and aqueous extract groups were 0.75 and 0.56, respectively, the numbers had no significant difference with normal control. The step-through latency of model group in acquisition trial of passive avoidance test was decreased to 130 s (normal control group was 300 s, P<0.05). Compared with model group, each dose of longan pulp ethanol extract and aqueous extract could significantly increase the dementia mice in the step-through latency of passive avoidance test (P<0.05) with dose-dependent, especially the high dose longan pulp ethanol extract and aqueous extract group (289.18 s, 290.80 s, respectively,) basically reached normal level. Biochemical examinations revealed that each dose of longan pulp ethanol extract and aqueous extract could significantly increase the activity of ChAT in brain of dementia mice and significantly reduce AChE activity (P<0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. At the same dose level, aqueous extract of longan pulp performed better than ethanol extract. ChAT activity recovered normal in high dose longan pulp ethanol extract group, low/high dose longan pulp aqueous extract groups. In the antioxidation, compared with the model group, longan pulp ethanol extract in high dose group was significantly increased SOD and GSH-Px activities and decreased MDA content significantly in serum and brain of dementia mice (P<0.05), basically reached normal, the effect was better than the same dose of aqueous extract of longan pulp.【Conclusion】Both ethanol extract and aqueous extract of longan pulp have repairing effects on memory deficits and behavioral disorders produced by scopolamine. It was suggested that ethanol extract and aqueous extract of longan pulp may be bene?cial to the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, but their action mechanisms might be different: to promote learning and memory, aqueous extract of longan pulp mainly regulates cholinergic nerve systemby polysaccharide or glycoprotein, and ethanol extract is mainly by means of providing antioxidation protection, phenolic acid, flavonoid and phospholipid are principal bioactive substances.
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    Cited: Baidu(7)
    Study on Producing Area Classification of Newhall Navel Orange Based on the Near Infrared Spectroscopy
    LIAO Qiu-hong, HE Shao-lan, XIE Rang-jin, QIAN Chun, HU De-yu, Lü Qiang1,YI Shi-lai, ZHENG Yong-qiang, DENG Lie
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2015, 48 (20): 4111-4119.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2015.20.012
    Abstract533)   HTML23)    PDF (930KB)(15980)       Save
    【Objective】Newhall navel orange (Citrus sinensis L.) fruits from different producing areas in China, exhibit contrasting quality and market values, due to wide-spreading location of various ecologies. Developing a recognition method based on Near-Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is very important to identify and distinguish fruits from different producing areas. 【Method】One representative orchard was selected from 17 main producing areas distributed throughout southern China, from which one 100 Newhall navel orange samples were collected. NIR spectra were collected with a SupNIR-1500 spectrograph from the surface of fruit equator and shoulder and the filtered juice for each sample, which were further preprocessed through principal component analysis (PCA) for reduced dimensions and noise. By studying artificial neural network (ANN), a classic three-layer ANN model was established with an input layer, a hidden layer of non-linear activation function and an output layer. By studying support vector machine (SVM) with the radial basis function (RBF) being the kernel function and the principal components of NIR spectra being the input, a one-to-one extended SVM model was established with 126 classifiers. Gene algorithm (GA) with excellent natural selection was used to identify the best Genetic character subset from the principal components as inputs of a SVM classifier, thus a GA-optimized SVM model was composed. These three models were used to classify the NIR spectra of filtered juice, thus the production areas of the oranges, the classification accuracies of which decided the best classifier. Furthermore, the accuracies of the best classifier were tested with the NIR spectra from fruit equator and shoulder surface being the inputs. As a comparison, the best NIR spectra could be identified. 【Result】 Producing area classification was implemented with the three-layer ANN classifier with NIR spectra of Newhall orange juice as the input, where the classifying accuracy reached up to 81.45% when there were 11 input neurons and 13 hidden neurons. The studied one-to-one extended SVM classifier with radial basis function being the core function, exhibited higher accuracy of 86.98% when the number of PC was 20, better than ANN classifier. For GA-SVM classifier took into account the interaction of individual inputs, where the PCA-processed results were optimized by GA. During the experiments, classification accuracy hit 89.72% when the population, generation, mating probability, and mutation probability were 200, 100, 0.7 and 0.01 respectively, surpassed ANN and SVM classifier. Subsequent research found the highest accuracy of GA-SVM classifier was 80% when taking the spectra from the fruit equator, and 69% from the shoulder, not good enough as that of orange juice.【Conclusion】Considering the accuracy, GA-SVM classifier was regarded with the most excellence among three investigated classifiers. Spectra of orange juice were selected as the best data to analyze origins traceability. Accuracy of spectra of fruit equator was inferior to juice but superior to the shoulder, thus had the potential for non-destructive origins classification.
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    Analysis of Aroma Components in Xihu Longjing Tea by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography- Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry
    ZHU Yin, YANG Ting, SHI Jiang, YU Fang-lin, DAI Wei-dong, TAN Jun-feng, GUO Li, ZHANG Yue, PENG Qun-hua, Lü Hai-peng, LIN Zhi
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2015, 48 (20): 4120-4146.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2015.20.013
    Abstract552)   HTML12)    PDF (2032KB)(1673)       Save
    Aroma is one of the most important factors affecting the quality of tea, and identifying the chemical composition of tea aroma will enrich the basic theory of aroma chemistry of tea and establish an important theoretic ground to improve and enhance the aroma quality of tea. 【Method】 Aroma components of Xihu Longjing tea were analyzed by using a comprehensive two- dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the separating capacities of GC×GC-TOFMS and GC-MS were compared. Then, the qualitative and relative quantitative analyses of aroma components separated by GC×GC-TOFMS were carried out according to the standard mass spectra in available databases, retention time, structured chromatograms and peak areas. Furthermore, the characteristic aroma compositions of Xihu Longjing tea were discussed according to the odor characteristics of its compounds with relatively high contents (≥0.5%). 【Result】 GC×GC-TOFMS technique displayed the strong superiority on the separating capacity by comparing the total ion chromatograms and chromatographic peaks with GC-MS. A total of 522 common volatile components were identified with a good match, and then further classified into 20 types of compounds, such as enols, alkenes, amines, alkanes, aldehydes, olefin aldehydes, ethers, alcohols, esters, lactones, allyl esters, ketenes, ketones, phenols, organic acids, sulphur compounds, nitrogen heterocyclic compounds, oxygen heterocyclic compounds, aromatic hydrocarbons, and alkynes; and the largest numbers of aromatic hydrocarbons (77), large numbers of alkanes (50), alkenes (43), esters (43) and ketones (41), and the minimum numbers of alkynes (3) were included. Relative quantitative analysis showed that 50 volatile components, including 1-penten-3-ol, cis-hex-3-en-1-ol, linalool, α-terpineol, geraniol, butane, methylcyclopentane, 2,2,4,6,6-pentamethylheptane, dodecane, heneicosane, tetracosane, hentriacontane, acetaldehyde, pentanal, hexanal, furfural, heptanal, phenylacetaldehyde, nonanal, 1-ethoxypropane, 2-ethoxybutane, 1-ethoxybutane, 1,1-diethoxyethane, 1-ethoxypentane, pentanol, tert-butanol, benzyl alcohol, phenethyl alcohol, phytol, diisobutyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, ethyl 2-(5-methyl-5-vinyltetrahydrofuran-2-yl) propan-2-yl carbonate, (Z)-hex-3-en-1-yl hexanoate, methyl palmitate, acetoin, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, 3-methylbutanoic acid, nonanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, linoleic acid, octadecanoic acid, dimethyl sulfoxide, benzothiazole, indole, caffeine, linalool oxide (pyranoid), 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran, ethylbenzene, phenylpropane, and 1-methylnaphthalene, were found to be relatively high contents in aroma components of Xihu Longjing tea, suggesting that they played an important role in effecting the aroma quality of Xihu Longjing tea. The analysis of characteristic aroma compositions indicated that enols, aldehydes, alcohols, esters and aromatic hydrocarbons with agreeable smell would be responsible for the outstanding aroma quality of Xihu Longjing tea, and the effects of alkanes, ethers, organic acids and sulphur compounds with no special smell or offensive odor and aroma compounds with low odor threshold values were also worth future research. 【Conclusion】 The successful application of GC×GC-TOFMS technology in tea aroma analysis has improved the number of identified compounds significantly, which could make up for the defects of GC-MS analysis to some extent and supply the advanced technical support for the future in-depth studies on the chemical composition of tea aroma and formation mechanism of tea aroma quality.
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    Optimization of the Process Conditions and Change of Volatile Flavor Components of Longan Pulp Fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria
    LIU Lei, WANG Hao, ZHANG Ming-wei, ZHANG Yan, ZHANG Rui-fen, TANG Xiao-jun, DENG Yuan-yuan
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2015, 48 (20): 4147-4158.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2015.20.014
    Abstract425)   HTML2)    PDF (435KB)(699)       Save

    【Objective】The optical fermentation conditions of longan pulp by lactic acid bacteria were established, and the change of volatile flavor compounds of longan pulp before and after fermentation was clarified. This research can guide the development of functional longan beverage. 【Method】Lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus bulgavicusStreptococus thermophilus=1﹕1) was domesticate in the medium containing 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% longan pulp and 10% skim milk. The acidity and pH of longan pulp were analyzed during the domestication. The conditions of fermented longan pulp by lactic acid bacteria were optimized through Box-Benhnken central composite experimental design based on the indicators of total acid. A regression model of four factors was established including the fermentation time, fermentation temperature, the content of skim milk powder and inoculation amount of lactic acid bacteria. Separation and analysis of the main volatile flavor compounds in longan pulp before and after fermentation were performed by headspace solid phase micro extraction and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. 【Result】The lactic acid bacteria with good fermentation ability was obtained in longan pulp with high concentration. After 12 h of fermentation, the acidity of 90% longan pulp increased from 9.5ºT to 104.4ºT, and pH decreased from 7.12 to 4.44. The acidity of 90% longan pulp was significantly higher than that of 60% and 70% longan pulp (P<0.05), there was no significant difference of pH between longan pulp with four concentrations. The results showed that the optimum conditions are as follows: fermentation time 12h, fermentation temperature 45℃, 5% the content of skim milk powder and 3% inoculation amount of lactic acid bacteria. Under this condition, the acidity of fermented fruit pulp increased from 9.5ºT to 105.1ºT. The relative error to the value predicted by the model was 1.2%. It indicated that this model can be used in practical production. The volatile flavor compounds in longan pulp significantly changed after the fermentation. 53 volatile flavor compounds were detected in fermented longan pulp, which contained 15 terpenes, 6 alcohols, 18 esters, 7 ketones, 3 aldehyde, 2 acids and 2 others. 18 volatile flavor compounds were newly produced by fermentation. After the fermentation, the contents of alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones and acids increased, and the contents of terpenes decreased. The main volatile flavor compounds in fermented longan pulp were ethanol 25.68 μg·g-1, 4-(1-methylethyl)- benzenemethanol 2.42 μg·g-1, acetaldehyde 1.95 μg·g-1, benzaldehyde 1.25 μg·g-1, ethyl acetate 2.19 μg·g-1, methyl benzoate 1.05 μg·g-1, methyl salicylate 1.93 μg·g-1, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone 1.085 μg·g-1, (E)-β-ocimene 97.81 μg·g-1, allo-ocimene 1.923 μg·g-1, and acetic acid 1.84 μg·g-1, respectively. Benzaldehyde and ethyl acetate were newly generated. The contents of ethanol, acetaldehyde, allo-ocimene and acetic acid increased after the fermentation. 【Conclusion】 Lactic acid bacteria fermentation significantly increased total acid and volatile flavor compounds of longan pulp. Longan pulp beverage fermented by lactic acid bacteria with a unique flavor can be developed by controlling fermentation conditions.

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    Cited: Baidu(11)
    Characteristics of Maillard Reaction Products from Enzymatic Hydrolysate of Chicken Bone Extract as Influenced by pH and Temperature
    HU Li, WANG Jin-zhi, ZHANG Chun-hui, TANG Chun-hong, DU Gui-hong, LI Xia, LI Chun-hong
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2015, 48 (18): 3689-3700.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2015.18.012
    Abstract367)   HTML1)    PDF (655KB)(699)       Save
    【Objective】To obtain the desired flavor quality and antioxidant activity Maillard reaction products (MRPs) from enzymatic hydrolysate of chicken bone extract, the effects of controlled Maillard reaction parameters on those qualities were studied in this paper.【Method】Enzymatic hydrolysate of the chicken bone extract was sequentially added with 0.5% (w/w) xylose, cysteine hydrochloride, and thiamin to adjust pH values at  pH 5, pH 7, and pH 9 with 6 mol·L-1 NaOH, respectively, then reacted for 90 min in the Maillard reaction kettle at 95, 105, 115, respectively. Indicators including UV absorption rate, browning rate, reducing power, ABTS+ radical scavenging activity were measured by UV-visible spectrophotometer. The MW distribution of peptides of different controlled reaction conditions were analyzed by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) with HPLC. Changes of flavor were observed by electronic nose and electronic tongue. The acceptability of MRPs flavor was determined by sensory evaluation. Changes of plasmid DNA damage protective effect of MRPs were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Correlation analysis between indexes of MRPs was also performed to establish possible linkages between controlled reaction condition and different parameters of MRPs in this study.【Result】The content of intermediate product increased with pH value. The higher the pH value was, the faster the primary reaction rate of Maillard was, while the degree of browning increased with temperature rose. The content of peptides of 1 000-200 Da in all the reaction systems accounted for more than 50% of the total peptides content, and was significantly correlated with sensory evaluation score (r=0.772, P<0.05). The contents of peptides of >3 000 Da, 3 000-1 000 Da, and <200 Da were highly positive correlated with each other (P<0.01), and were all highly negatively correlated with the peptides of 1 000-200 Da (P<0.01). Principal component analysis (PCA) on the flavor of each MRPs indicated that the temperature could significantly change the composition of volatile flavor of MRPs, while different pH value mainly caused the differences in taste of MRPs. Sensory evaluation score of each MRPs decreased with the increasing of pH, the score of the MRPs which prepared at pH 5 and 105 increased by 57.32% compared to the initial sample, and was the highest. Reducing power and ABTS+ scavenging capacity of the MRPs with pH 5 were significantly higher than that of pH 7 and 9, while DNA damage protection effect of MRPs was significantly positively correlated with ABTS + scavenging capacity (r=0.689, P<0.05). Correlation analysis results showed that sensory evaluation scorewas highly negatively correlated with UV absorption rate, browning rate and content of peptides with MW <200 Da (P<0.01), while UV absorption rate was highly negatively correlated with reducing power (P<0.01). 【Conclusion】In the Maillard reaction system of enzymatic hydrolysate of chicken bone extract, pH and the reaction temperature significantly affect the quality characteristics of MRPs. In the range of this experiment, MRPs with controlled reaction conditions of pH 5 and 105oC was better than the other groups on the flavor quality, color and comprehensive antioxidant activities.
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    Development and Mapping of Molecular Markers Closely Linked to CRb Gene Resistance to Clubroot Disease in Chinese Cabbage
    CHEN Hui-Hui, ZHANG Teng, LIANG Shan, CHEN Bing, ZHANG Chun-Yu, PU Zhong-Yun
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2012, 45 (17): 3551-3557.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.17.011
    Abstract956)      PDF (590KB)(854)       Save
    【Objective】The objective of this study is to develop molecular markers closely linked to clubroot resistance (CR) gene CRb in Chinese cabbage, and to evaluate their utility in germplasms of Brasisca rapa.【Method】A F2 mapping population was constructed with a cross between ‘CR Shinkii DH’ line, a Chinese cabbage doubled haploid line containing CRb gene, and a clubroot susceptible Chinese cabbage inbred line ‘07Q69’. Based on the target sequences showing homologous to the flanking markers TCR01, TCR05 and TCR09 linked to CRb on the chromosome A3 of Brassica rapa, primer pairs were designed and markers closely linked to CRb were developed. Forty-two germplasms belonging to different subspecies of B. rapa were employed to evaluate the transferability of markers linked to CRb.【Result】 Four co dominant and one dominant markers closely linked to CRb were developed and mapped. The markers TCR25 and TCR74 were located on one side of CRb, while TCR13, TCR42 and TCR34 were on the other side along with the previous markers TCR01 and TCR05. The CRb gene was flanked by two nearest markers TCR74 and TCR13 with the same genetic distance of 0.09 cM. The transferability evaluation of TCR74 and TCR13 showed that they possessed high polymorphism between clubroot resistant and susceptible sources.【Conclusion】The CRb gene was mapped between two codominant flanking markers with genetic distance of 0.18 cM. The two nearest flanking markers showed high polymorphism and good versatility between resistant and susceptible sources of B. rapa.  
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    Cited: Baidu(5)
    Simultaneous Determination of 18 Flavonoids in Citrus Fruits y High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
    ZHANG Yuan-Mei, ZHOU Zhi-Qin, SUN Yu-Jing, SHEN Yan, ZHONG Lie-Zhou, QIAO Li-Ping, YE Xing-Qian
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2012, 45 (17): 3558-3565.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.17.012
    Abstract720)      PDF (566KB)(1866)       Save
    【Objective】This study aimed to investigate a high-performance liquid chromatograph(HPLC)method for the determination of different kinds of flavonoids, namely, eriocitrin, taxifolin, narirutin, naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, rhoifolin, quercitrin, eridictyol, didymin, poncirin, naringenin, luteolin, kaempferol, diosmetin, sinensetin, nobiletin and tangeretin in citrus fruits. 【Method】The chromatographic separation was performed on a ZORABX SB-C18 column kept at 25℃ using methanol /formic acid/water mixture as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.7 mL•min-1 through gradient elution and the detection wavelength was set at 283 nm for flavanones, 330 nm for flavones and polymethoxylated flavones and 367 nm for flavonol. 【Result】 Results showed that the thorough separation of 18 flavonoids was achieved within 42 min. The method exhibited a linear range of 62.4-960 mg•L-1 (r=0.9998-1.0000) and limits of quantification (LOQ) ranging from 0.05-0.133 μg•mL-1. The average recovery rates of this method were 88.70%-104.76%, with a relative standard derivation range of 0.33%-3.05%. 【Conclusion】This method is simple, rapid, accurate , reliability, and can be used for the determination of flavonoids in citrus fruits.
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