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    Guidance: Nitrogen Management with High Yield and High Efficiency for Oilseed Rape in China
    LU Jian-wei
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2016, 49 (18): 3504-3505.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2016.18.004
    Abstract373)   HTML7)    PDF (202KB)(582)       Save
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    Integrated Nitrogen Management Strategy for Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) in China
    REN Tao, LU Jian-wei
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2016, 49 (18): 3506-3521.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2016.18.005
    Abstract448)   HTML7)    PDF (637KB)(628)       Save
    Oilseed rape is one of the predominant oil crops in China. Yangtze River Basin is the key winter oilseed rape production region in China, where the specific climatic conditions, soils and cultivation practices induce the different characteristics of soil nutrient supply, crop growth and nutrient demand. High crop yield, high economic benefit and high nutrient use efficiency are the determinants of agricultural production and sustainable development. Asynchrony between oilseed rape nitrogen (N) demand and soil N supply in space and time is the major reason that excessive N or deficient N input is the most important limiting factor of rapeseed yield and economic benefit. Optimal N fertilization is critical to achieve high seed yield and high N fertilizer use efficiency. In this paper, the authors reviewed the recent perspectives on oilseed rape N management, including crop N uptake, soil N supply, the critical N fertilizer application methods and the matching techniques. Further, considering the characteristics of crop growth and soil N supply, an integrated N management strategy, of which the key is “promotion in early and stabilization in late” to match crop N uptake and soil N supply, is put forward. The core content of the strategy includes (1) adjusting the timing and proportion of N fertilization and N sources to satisfy N requirement in the seedling period, focusing on soil N supply to promote N transfer and re-utilization since stem elongation period; (2) Depending on soil N supply under different rotations and/or crop straw incorporation, coordinating the distribution of N fertilizer in whole growing season; (3) Synergistic interaction with other practices including optimal plant density, fertigation, application with other nutrients and mechanization to obtain high seed yield and high N fertilizer use efficiency.
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    Effects of Nitrogen and Planting Density on Accumulation, Translocation and Utilization Efficiency of Carbon and Nitrogen in Transplanting Rapeseed with Blanket Seedling
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2016, 49 (18): 3522-3531.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2016.18.006
    Abstract387)   HTML3)    PDF (410KB)(499)       Save
    Objective In order to discuss the relationship between carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolism and yield in transplanting rapeseed with blanket seedling, the effects of different N application rates and planting densities on accumulation, translocation and utilization efficiency of carbon and nitrogen were studied. Method In this study, Ningza 1818 was planted by artificial transplanting with blanket seedling. The differences of C and N accumulation and translocation rates before and after flowering period, carbon utilization efficiency for grain production (CUEg) and nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain production (NUEg) under different years, nitrogen application rates and densities were studied. ResultThe results showed that transplanting rapeseed with blanket seedling could obtain high yield (3 750 kg·hm-2) under suitable conditions. The yield increased significantly with increased densities under 0 and 225 kg·hm-2 N rates. There was no significant difference among 1 plant per spot, 2 plants per spot and 3 plants per spot with 125 000 spots/hm2 transplanting density under 300 kg·hm-2 N rate. The ability of C accumulation was significantly higher than that of N accumulation in rapeseed. The average C/N ratio before and after the early flowering period was 16.30 and 114.37, respectively. The CUEg and NUEg were declined with the increased N application, and the decline rates of NUEg were higher than those of CUEg. From the flowering period to the ripening period, the N translocation rate of the leaf was the highest, while that of the stem and the root ranked the second and the last, respectively. The N translocation rate of the leaf, stem and root from the flowering period to the ripening period ranged from 73.90% to 78.56%, 38.96% to 67.08% and 24.45% to 37.06% under different treatments. The differences of the N translocation rates of the leaf were slight, whereas those of the stem and root increased with increased N rates. From the flowering period to the ripening period, the C translocation rates of the leaf were positive values, which ranged from 23.16% to 29.08%. It increased generally as the N rates increased, and the differences resulted from N treatments were slight. From the flowering period to the ripening period, the root and the stem still accumulated C, and the C translocation rates of the root and the stem were negative values.ConclusionIn the areas with the late harvest date of former crops, mechanical transplanting technology with blanket seedling could improve the production capacity of rapeseed. The ability of N metabolism before flowering was higher than that of after-flowering period while the ability of C metabolism had an opposite trend. N supply at early stage was conducive to form nutrition framework, which promoted the accumulation of C and yield formation from the flowering period to the ripening period.
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    Characteristics of Photosynthetic Nitrogen Allocation in Leaves of Different Positions in Winter Oilseed Rape at Seedling Stage Under Suitable Nitrogen Level
    LIU Tao, LU Jian-wei, REN Tao, WANG Wei, WANG Zhen, WANG Shao-hua
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2016, 49 (18): 3532-3541.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2016.18.007
    Abstract432)   HTML1)    PDF (1664KB)(707)       Save
    【Objective】 This study was carried out to investigate the effects of nitrogen allocation on the photosynthetic apparatus of leaves at different positions in winter oilseed rape under suitable nitrogen level at seedling stage and to analyze the limiting factors that affect the photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency by nitrogen nutrition, and provide a theoretical basis for the reasonable application of nitrogen fertilizer.【Method】A field experiment was carried out with designed four nitrogen levels (0, 45, 180, 360 kg·hm-2, marked as N0, N45, N180 and N360, respectively). The dry matter at seedling stage and seed yield were determined. Then the N0 and N180 treatments were selected, the plant leaves were equally divided into 3 groups (upper, middle and lower) by leaf number from top to bottom. Some physiology and photosynthetic parameters (e.g., net photosynthetic rate (Pn max), nitrogen content (NA), chlorophyll content (Cc) and soluble protein nitrogen content (NS)) tested on leaves at different positions were measured to calculate nitrogen allocation in the photosynthetic apparatus (carboxylation, bioenergetics and light-harvesting components). 【Result】 Seed yield was increased significantly by nitrogen fertilization, compared with N0 treatment, N45, N180 and N360 were increased by 170%, 505.6% and 604.1%, respectively and the dry matter accumulation was consistent with the yield. Compared with N0 treatment, NA, Cc and Pn max were significantly increased in different leaf positions by nitrogen fertilization, but photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE) has significantly declined in the upper and middle leaves. For nitrogen allocation on the photosynthetic apparatus, the proportion of the carboxylation (PC), bioenergetics (PB) and light harvesting system (PL) in the upper and middle leaves of N180 treatment were lower than that of N0 treatment, but the nitrogen contents of those components were higher than that of N0 treatment and the increasing extent of the components were 20.6%, 11.8% and 28.8%, respectively. The ratio between soluble protein nitrogen content (NS) and non-soluble protein nitrogen content (Nnon-S) was not significantly influenced by whether nitrogen fertilization or not in the same position leaves, but the photosynthetic component partitioning in NS or Nnon-S was significantly influenced, which the ratio of nitrogen content of the carboxylation (NC) to NS was an average of 83.4% in all leaves in N0 treatment, while that of the N180 treatment was only 60.3%. Based on boundary line approach to quantify the influence of each component of the photosynthetic apparatus for PNUE, the results indicated that the influence degrees of PC and PB were 26.8% and 42.6%, significantly higher than that of PL. The influence of nitrogen nutrition on PNUE was dominated by PC and PB, which the average proportion reached 77.8%. PC was the main limiting factor of PNUE in upper leaves, which the influence degree reached 83.3%, while dominated by PB and PL in the lower leaves.【Conclusion】 Nitrogen fertilizer had a significant effect on increasing yield of winter rape and the optimum nitrogen application rate was 180 kg·hm-2. More nitrogen was allocated to photosynthetic apparatus by plant, and the photosynthetic nitrogen can be degraded earlier in the lower leaves under nitrogen deficiency. Suitable nitrogen level can maintain the distribution of the photosynthetic proteins within the types of their proteins. The effect of nitrogen nutrition on photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency is dominated by allocation of nitrogen to the carboxylation and bioenergetics. The dominant effect by the distribution of the carboxylation was transformed to the dominant effect by the distribution of the light harvesting system and bioenergetics along with the decline of leaf position.
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    Cited: Baidu(5)
    Differences in Carbon Accumulation and Transport in Brassica napus with Different Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Its Effects on Oil Formation
    ZHANG Xiao-long, ZHANG Zhen-hua, SONG Hai-xing, YU Jia-ling, GUAN Chun-yun
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2016, 49 (18): 3542-3550.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2016.18.008
    Abstract381)   HTML4)    PDF (387KB)(359)       Save
    【Objective】The differences in carbon (C) accumulation and transport in Brassica napus with different nitrogen use efficiencies (NUE), were studied in order to supply a theoretical basis for elucidating the mechanism of high NUE genotypes in coordinating the contradiction between C and N metabolism and promoting oil formation.【Method】A soil culture experiment was conducted to study the differences of C accumulation and distribution in different organs of B. napus with different NUE at different growth stages (stem elongation stage, flowering stage, silique stage and harvest stage) under normal- and limited-N conditions, and using 13C isotope labeling to determine the C redistribution proportion and amount from vegetative organs to reproductive organs, analyze the contribution of C accumulation and transport to grain yield and oil accumulation.【Result】No significant differences in grain oil content between high- and low-NUE genotypes under the normal and limited-N application levels were observed, but the oil yield of high-NUE genotype was significantly higher than that of low-NUE genotype. Compared with limited-N, oil content was slightly decreased, but oil production was increased significantly under normal-N. There was no differences in C accumulation amount between high- and low-NUE genotypes, while the differences in C accumulation amount at different N application levels was significant, C accumulation amount of normal –N was significantly higher than that of limited-N. C allocation proportion in plant organs between high- and low-NUE genotypes was different, C allocation proportion in roots and leaves of high-NUE genotype was higher than that of low-NUE genotype at stem elongation stage and flowering stage, and C allocation proportion in silique and grain of high-NUE genotype was higher than that of low-NUE genotype at silique stage and harvest stage. While, C allocation proportion in stem of high-NUE genotype was lower than that of low-NUE genotype at the whole growth stage, and C allocation proportion in stem and root of high-NUE genotype was lower than that of low-NUE genotype at the whole growth stage. Compared with limited-N, C allocation proportion in leaves was increased at stem elongation stage and flowering stage under normal-N, while C allocation proportion in root was decreased. In addition, C allocation proportion in grain at harvest stage under normal-N was higher than what was observed in limited-N. As the development of plant growth stages, C distribution proportion and amount from vegetative organs to reproductive organs was gradually increased, the differences between genotypes were increased. Redistribution proportion and amount of C from vegetative organs to silique at silique stage and redistribution proportion and amount of C from vegetative organs to grain at harvest stage in high-NUE genotype was higher than that in low-NUE genotype, the significant different was occurred under normal-N. Redistribution proportion and amount of C in silique of high-NUE genotype was lower than that in low-NUE genotype under limited-N, and reversed results was observed under normal-N, the significant difference was occurred under limited-N. The 50% or more of C accumulation at stem elongation stage was left from vegetative organs, which was corresponding with redistribution proportion into reproductive organs, but C reduction proportion was significantly higher than C re-distribution proportion, which was because of the carbohydrate respiration consumption. 【Conclusion】 There was no significant difference in C accumulation between high- and low-NUE B. napus genotypes at different growth stages. However, higher proportion of C was redistributed from vegetative organs to reproductive organs in high-NUE genotype than that in low-NUE genotype at later growth stages. This is one of the important mechanisms for high-NUE genotype possesses with higher C source to relieve the contradictions between C and N, and promote oil formation during the process of grain formation.
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    Effects of Different Cultivations and Nitrogen Application Methods on Seed Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)
    LIU Bo, LU Jian-wei, LI Xiao-kun, CONG Ri-huan, WU Li-shu, YE Chuan, ZHENG Wei, XU Wei-ming, YAO Zhong-qing, REN Tao
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2016, 49 (18): 3551-3560.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2016.18.009
    Abstract422)   HTML12)    PDF (2279KB)(674)       Save
    【ObjectiveField experiments were carried out to study the effect of different cultivations and nitrogen (N) application methods on seed yield and N use efficiency of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in the main planting areas, and provide theoretical support for high efficient fertilization management in oilseed rape.【Method】 Field trials were conducted in Hubei and Jiangxi provinces during the period of 2010-2011. Three methods of N application (i.e., surface broadcast placement, plough placement, and concentrate placement) were taken to analyze the impact on rapeseed yield, dry matter accumulation and N uptake between the transplanted oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) (TOR) and direct-sown oilseed rape (DOR).【Result】 Under the same processing conditions, the seed yield level of TOR was higher than DOR and the difference value was 299.1-544.2 kg·hm-2. The TOR could obtain higher biomass compared to DOR between aboveground and underground according to the dry matter dynamics, furthermore, N accumulation increased significantly by 33.1%-54.8% on average for TOR. Moreover, the agronomic efficiency (AEN) and N apparent recovery efficiency (REN) were significantly increased in TOR compared to the DOR, respectively, which AEN increased by 20.2% from 6.5 to 7.8 kg·kg-1, and REN increased by 37.5% from 27.6% to 37.5%. N application had a significant effect on seed yield, especially for TOR. Different N application methods resulted in a noticeable impact on yield, dry matter accumulation, N uptake and N use efficiency, following as concentrating> ploughing > broadcasting. The concentrating could increase yield and N accumulation compared to broadcasting, increased yield by 18.2%-23.8% and N accumulation increased by 19.0%-37.0% for TOR and DOR,respectively. Compared with broadcasting, the AEN of concentrating increased by 27.7% ranged from 6.9 to 8.8 kg·kg-1 and REN increased by 27.2% ranged from 33.3% to 42.3% in TOR, meanwhile, the AEN of concentrating increased by 31.7% ranged from 5.7 to 7.5 kg·kg-1 and REN increased by 50.7% ranged from 22.0% to 33.2% in DOR. The increase amplitude in underground biomass accounted for 61.8% under concentrating during the whole period and the aboveground portion was 50.5% compared with broadcasting for TOR, while it was 78.5% and 66.7% for DOR, respectively.【Conclusion】 The growth and yield formation were more sensitive to different N application methods in DOR. Dry matter accumulation including underground and aboveground part after anthesis can be coordinately achieved synchronous accumulative under Concentrating. Therefore, both Banding and Holing can efficiency during the oilseed rape production among all the N application methods.
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    The Possible Effects of Global Warming on Cropping Systems in China Ⅻ. The Possible Effects of Climate Warming on Geographical Shift in Safe Planting Area of Rice in Cold Areas and the Risk Analysis of Chilling Damage
    WANG Xiao-yu, YANG Xiao-guang, Lü Shuo, CHEN Fu
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2016, 49 (10): 1859-1871.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2016.10.003
    Abstract454)   HTML4)    PDF (2148KB)(748)       Save
    【Objective】The period from 1961 to 2010 was divided into two stages, i.e., 1961-1980 and 1981-2010, combined with the scenarios of different temperature increases, then the geographical shift of rice safe planting areas in Heilongjiang province and the possible risk of chilling damage after the shift influenced by historical and future climate warming were quantitatively analyzed. 【Method】 Using the standard of the accumulated temperature zone and some agro-meteorological indicators, combined with ArcGis method, the geographical shift of accumulated temperature zones and northern limit for rice in cold planting areas were compared and analyzed. Using the risk assessment standard of chilling damage, the change characteristics of delayed chilling damage and sterile chilling damage in sensitive area of rice in cold areas were analyzed. The chilling damage characteristics in sensitive region under the background of climate warming and the risk evolution trends under the scenarios of different temperature increases were also evaluated.【Result】Compared with the results during the period from 1961 to 1980, the accumulated temperature zones moved northward and eastward obviously during 1981-2010, the average of which was northward 1.19°. The regions of maximum geographical shift were the fifth accumulated temperature zone and the sixth accumulated temperature zone. The region of maximum area increasing was the second accumulated temperature zone, which nearly covered Songnen Plain. The accumulated temperature zones under the future climate warming scenarios moved northward obviously. The region of maximum area increasing was the first accumulated temperature zone. Compared with the period 1961-1980, the average geographical shift of safe northern limit for rice in cold areas was northward 121 km and the maximum spatial displacement was in central part of Nenjiang- Wudalianchi- northern part of Xunke. The safe northern limit of rice in cold areas under the scenarios of 1-3℃ temperature increasing moved northward 410.5-545 km and the maximum spatial displacement was in northern part of Huma, Heilongjiang province. Rice could be planted in the whole region except Mohe under the scenarios of 3℃ temperature increasing. Compared rice sensitive planting region with nonsensitive region, the chilling damage risk in the sensitive region was obviously higher than nonsensitive region and the risk of sterile chilling damage was higher than delayed chilling damage. In rice safe planting areas of Heilongjiang province, the frequency of severe chilling damage was the highest, followed by light chilling damage, the frequency of moderate chilling damage was the lowest. The severe and light delayed chilling damage in the sensitive region during 1981-2010 showed an obvious increase. The risk of moderate delayed chilling damage in both sensitive region and nonsensitive region was low. The different grades of sterile chilling damage in sensitive region were higher than that in nonsensitive region. The different grades of chilling damage in sensitive region would be higher than that in nonsensitive region under future temperature increasing scenarios.【Conclusion】Under the background of climate warming as well as scenarios of different temperature increases, the accumulated temperature zones and safe northern limit of rice in cold areas had shown an obvious northward moving. The risk of chilling damage in sensitive region was obviously higher than that in nonsensitive region. The risk of chilling damage would be decreased as temperature increasing, but the defensive measures in sensitive region should be strengthened, such as adopting improved cultivation techniques, planting early-maturing varieties, as well as avoiding blind area and varieties expansion in rice planting areas.
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    Effect of Different Ratios of Basal to Tiller Nitrogen on Rice Yield and Nitrogen Utilization Under Different Soil Fertility
    FAN Li-hui, XU Shan-shan, HOU Peng-fu, XUE Li-hong, LI Gang-hua, DING Yan-feng, YANG Lin-zhang
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2016, 49 (10): 1872-1884.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2016.10.004
    Abstract584)   HTML7)    PDF (477KB)(610)       Save
    【Objective】 The objective of the experiment is to study the effect of ratio of basal and tiller fertilizer on yield, nitrogen use efficiency and rice population indices, and explore the optimum split ratio of basal and tiller fertilizer under different soil fertility for high-yielding rice. 【Method】 In this study, a field plot experiment was carried out with five different ratios of basal and tiller N fertilizer (0:10, 3:7, 5:5, 7:3, 10:0) under low and high fertility soil using Wuyunjing 23 as planting material, respectively. The tiller dynamics, dry matter accumulation and translocation, N uptake and utilization, and yield and yield components were measured.【Result】 Under low fertility soil, the maximum tiller number decreased, while the tillering rate, dry matter accumulation, nitrogen utilization and yield showed an inclination first then declination with the increasing ratio of tiller fertilizer, the yield and NUE were significantly higher than other treatments when the basal: tiller ratio of 3:7 and 5:5 with the total N rate of 300 and 240 kg·hm-2, which could reach 13.12 t·hm-2, 13.16 t·hm-2 and 27.00 kg·kg-1, 29.28 kg·kg-1, respectively. Under high soil fertility, with the increasing ratio of tiller fertilizer, the panicle number first increased then declined while grains per panicle appeared increasing, a declination tendency was observed for yield and nitrogen utilization, but the differences among different treatments were not significant. Compared with those under low soil fertility, the tillering rate and maximum tillers were higher and the duration to maximum tillers was shorten under high soil fertility; more dry matter was accumulated after heading under high soil fertility, thus the filling rate and grain weight was higher than that of low soil fertility which resulted in the higher yield under high soil fertility. The tiller number and the maximum tillers were the lowest under no basal fertilizer treatment, and the tillering was delayed in spite of the soil fertility, which proved that basal fertilizer is essential for tillering. With the increase of basal N rate, the time for tillering was shorten, but the tillering rate reduced and the time to effective panicles was prolonged due to the lack of nitrogen supply at tillering stage. Therefore, optimizing the N split ratio of basal to tillering is essential for high rice yield. For this study, 60 kg N·hm-2 of basal N and 1:1 of basal to tillering N was optimum for low fertility soil, and the N rate can be reduced from 300 kg·hm-2 to 240 kg·hm-2 while maintaining the high yield of 13 t·hm-2.【Conclusion】The effect of different ratios of basal and tiller N fertilizer on yield and NUE varied with the soil fertility condition, and also depends on the total N rate. For low fertility soil, rational split ratio of basal and tiller N is very important to achieve the high yield and avoid the excess N input.
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    Cited: Baidu(3)
    Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Requirement and Their Physiological Efficiency for Winter Wheat Affected by Soil Surface Managements in Dryland
    HE Gang, WANG Zhao-hui, LI Fu-cui, DAI Jian, LI Qiang, XUE Cheng, CAO Han-bing, WANG Sen, LIU Hui, LUO Lai-chao, HUANG Ming
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2016, 49 (9): 1657-1671.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2016.09.003
    Abstract573)   HTML3)    PDF (401KB)(630)       Save
    【Objective】 The objective of the study was to determine the effects of soil surface managements on nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) requirements and their physiological efficiencies for the grain yield formation and nutrient accumulation of winter wheat in dryland.【Method】 A field experiment was carried out to study the effects of plastic film mulching (PM), straw mulching (SM), planting green manure (GM), and straw mulching plus planting green manure (SGM) on winter wheat grain yield, grain N, P and K concentrations, their requirements and physiological efficiencies for grain yield formation and nutrient accumulation.【Result】 PM decreased N requirement and increased N physiological efficiency for grain yield formation, and thus increased grain yield by 6%. SM decreased crop N uptake, so it decreased the grain yield by 7%. Grain yield was also decreased by 5% with both the GM and SGM, which could be explained by increased nutrient requirement and decreased physiological efficiency for grain yield formation. Grain N concentration was decreased by 8% with the PM, which was associated with the increased N requirement for grain N accumulation and decreased its physiological efficiency. PM increased crop K uptake, and then increased grain K concentration by 4%. SM decreased grain N concentration by 4%, whereas it increased grain P and K concentration by 6% and 4%, respectively, and this was caused by the decreased P and K requirement, and increased their physiological efficiencies for the grain nutrient accumulation. Grain N concentration was increased by 8% with the GM, which was observed to be linked to the increased N physiological efficiency for grain nutrient accumulation. SGM had no effect on the grain N and P concentration, whereas it increased the grain K concentration by 4% due to the increased K physiological efficiency for grain nutrient accumulation. 【Conclusion】 Overall, PM decreased the N requirement and increased the N physiological efficiency for grain yield formation, thus increased the grain yield. However, PM increased N requirement and decreased its physiological efficiency for grain N accumulation, thus it was an unprofitable measure for increasing grain the N concentration. SM had an adverse impact on crop nutrient uptake, thus inhibited the grain yield formation and its nutrient accumulation. GM and SGM increased the nutrient requirement and decreased the nutrient physiological efficiency for grain yield formation, thus decreased the grain yield. GM was beneficial for increasing the grain N physiological efficiency for grain nutrient accumulation, thus increased the grain N concentration. Therefore, for improving winter wheat grain yield and nutritional quality with the plastic film mulching and straw mulching in dryland, increasing N fertilizer application rate should be a critical strategy. Planting green manure during summer fallow is an effective measure for improving soil fertility, but it has a potential risk of decreasing grain yield. To avoid the yield decrease, annual precipitation and its distribution over seasons should be considered when planting green manure during the fallow season.
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    Cited: Baidu(6)
    Effects of Spraying Chemical Topping Agents on Canopy Structure and Canopy Photosynthetic Production in Cotton
    YANG Cheng-xun, ZHANG Wang-feng, XU Shou-zhen, SUI Long-long, LIANG Fu-bin, DONG Heng-yi
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2016, 49 (9): 1672-1684.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2016.09.004
    Abstract556)   HTML5)    PDF (982KB)(619)       Save
    【Objective】 The objectives of this two-year field experiment were to study the effects of two chemical topping agents, Flumetralin and Mepiquat chloride, on the characteristics of plant type, canopy structure, canopy photosynthetic production and yield of cotton and to determine how the changes of canopy structure affect canopy photosynthetic production and yield. The results of this study will provide a theoretical basis for more effective use of chemical topping agents.【Method】The study included two cotton cultivars Xinluzao 45 and Zhangmiansuo 50 and one cotton strain 45-21. Conventional manual topping was used as the control treatment. Plant height, plant width, leaf area index (LAI), leaf chlorophyll contents, canopy light transmittance, canopy apparent photosynthetic rate, and yield components were among the variables that were measured. The effects of chemical topping technology on LAI, canopy light transmittance, canopy apparent photosynthetic rate and yield were studied. 【Result】 Plant height was significantly higher in the chemically-topped treatments than in the manually-topped treatment, plant width was significantly lesser in the chemically-topped treatments than in the manually-topped treatment, and lateral growth was significantly inhibited after spraying. The LAI and leaf chlorophyll contents were greater in the chemically-topped treatments than in the manually-topped treatment, the difference in LAI and leaf chlorophyll contents were extremely significant at the early boll opening stage. Light transmittance in the upper and middle canopy layers was greater in the chemically-topped treatments than in the manually-topped treatment. However, late in the growing season, light transmittance in the lower canopy layers was lesser than in the manually-topped treatment. Leaf chlorophyll contents increased to a maximum and then decreased at the end of the growing season. Chemical topping increased leaf chlorophyll content. Canopy apparent photosynthetic rates were significantly greater in the chemically-topped treatments than in the manually-topped treatment. Furthermore, canopy apparent photosynthetic rates remained high for a longer time in the chemically-topped treatments. At the early boll opening stage, canopy apparent photosynthetic rate in the chemically-topped treatments was 16.04 μmol·m-2·s-1 which was 14.35%-16.40% greater than those in the manually-topped treatment. Canopy respiration rates were significantly greater in the chemically-topped treatments than in the manually-topped treatment during the first part of the season. After reaching a maximum there was no significant difference among the treatments. The ratio of canopy respiration rate to total apparent photosynthetic rate was higher in the chemically-topped treatment than in the manually topped treatment. Chemical topping increased the number of bolls per plant. Cotton yield in the Flumetraline treatment was greater than that in the manually-topped treatment. 【Conclusion】Chemical topping technology can shape plant type and adjust the formation of cotton canopy structure. Compared with manual topping, chemical topping increased the LAI and the leaf chlorophyll content. The LAI and chlorophyll content both remained high for a relatively longer time in the chemically-topped treatments. Chemical topping improved light distribution in the canopy and increased the photosynthetic area, thus ensuring the chemically-topped treatments had the highest canopy apparent photosynthetic rate and the longest duration of photosynthetic activity.
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    Cited: Baidu(7)
    Effects of Straw Management and Sowing Methods on Soybean Agronomic Traits and Soil Physical Properties
    WANG Xing, WU Cun-xiang, QI Yu-jun, XU Ze-jun,WANG Zong-biao, HAN Tian-fu
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2016, 49 (8): 1453-1465.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2016.08.003
    Abstract522)   HTML1)    PDF (571KB)(575)       Save
    【Objective】 This study is to evaluate the effects of wheat straw management and sowing methods on soybean growth and development and soil physical properties in the wheat-soybean double-cropping system of Yellow-Huai-Hai Rivers Valley, to illustrate the key points of no-till sowing technologies, and to assess the utilization value of a new method of no-tillage plus straw mulching and precise sowing (NTSMPS), in order to provide the technical solution for improving summer soybean productivity in this region. 【Method】The split-plot field experiment, in which the main-plot factor was the sowing method while the sub-plot factor was straw-returning amount, was performed in Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province, China, in 2012-2014. The sowing method factor had three levels: NTSMPS, conventional no-tillage plus-mechanical drilling (CNSD), and rotary-tillage plus artificial broadcasting (RTAB), and the straw returning amount had two levels: Total-amount and half-amount straw returning. With six treatments, we compared the effects of straw management and sowing methods on soybean sowing and emergence quality, growing process, yield, soil physical properties and wheat straw decomposition rate. 【Result】 The emergence date of NTSMPS was 1 day and 1-3 days earlier than that of CSND and RTAB, respectively. Meanwhile, the emergence rate of NTSMPS was the highest among the three treatments. Furthermore, the date of beginning bloom (R1 stage) of NTSMPS was 0.1-2.3 days earlier than that of the other two sowing methods, and this difference was significant (P<0.05). However, straw returning amount had no effect on emergence speed and growth rate. The yield in the NTSMPS was 4.12%-12.40% and 1.96%-5.50% higher in a comparison with that of CSND and RTAB, respectively. In contrary, there was insignificant difference of yield among two straw returning amount levels. Compared with RTAB, NTSMPS and CSND resulted in an obvious reduction in soil temperature and increase in soil moisture during sowing and seedling emergence (P<0.05). Soil humidity was higher in treatment with total-amount straw application than in treatment with half-amount straw returning, while soil temperature was lower only in the dry year (2012). Wheat residue decomposition ratio of RTAB was lower as compared to NTSMPS and CSND. However, wheat straw of NTSMPS exerted no hazardous influence on the sowing and growth of the next season crop (winter wheat).【Conclusion】Straw mulching is a good way for wheat residue management in wheat-soybean double cropping system because of its functions in soil moisture remaining, temperature adjustment, soil sealing prevention, soybean emerging enhancement, and organic matter and mineral supply for the next-season wheat. NTSMPS technology is powerful to synchronously resolve the sticky questions of wheat residue management, and soil fertility improvement and can be widely used in the Yellow-Huai-Hai River Valley and similar areas.
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    Cited: Baidu(1)
    Effects of Shade Degrees on Photosynthesis and Lodging Resistance Degree of Different Shade Tolerance Soybean
    LIU Ting, LIU Wei-guo, REN Meng-lu, DU Yong-li, DENG Yu-chuan, ZOU Jun-lin, FANG Ping, YANG Wen-yu
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2016, 49 (8): 1466-1475.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2016.08.004
    Abstract587)   HTML11)    PDF (407KB)(662)       Save
    【Objective】Under the maize/soybean relay strip intercropping system, shading from high crop maize leads to soybean seedling thinning, lodging and decreasing soybean yield. We studied the effect of soybean photosynthesis and lodging resistance in seeding stage under different shade degrees in the maize/soybean relay strip intercropping system, then provided a theoretical basis for the establishment of a reasonable community population structure. 【Method】 The non-shade tolerance and non-lodging resistant Nan032-4 and the strong shade tolerance and strong lodging resistance Nandou 12 were taken as experimental materials in 2014 and 2015. We designed three light conditions in the outdoor pod experiment, the natural light (W0), one layer of black sun-shade net (W1), and two layers of black sun-shade net (W2) with light transmittances of 100%, 32% and 11% respectively. Photosynthetic characteristics such as soybean photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, intercellular CO2 concentration,SPAD values, leaf area and biomass accumulation of each organ and lodging characters, including plant height, each internode length, each internode diameter, stem snapping resistance, lodging resistance index were measured and analyzed. 【Result】 The results showed that as the shade increased, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, leaf area and SPAD values, the dry matter accumulation of each organ and root/shoot ratio of the two soybean varieties were all reduced significantly. As shade increased, seedling lodging became serious, with the stem snapping resistance and lodging resistance index also reduced significantly. However, the shade avoidance responses on different shade degrees were significantly different between these two different shade tolerant varieties. Compared with W0, photosynthetic rates of the shade tolerant cultivar Nandou12 and the non-shade tolerance Nan032-4 under W1 and W2 were decreased by 35.6%, 99.6% and by 40.9%, 83.6% respectively. Compared with Nandou12, Nan032-4 was influenced more seriously. The dry matter accumulation of Nandou12 under W0 and W1was higher than Nan032-4, but under W2 there was no significance between the two varieties (P<0.05), this indicated that the photosynthetic rate of soybean remained at a higher level under moderate shade and the photosynthetic product of the shade tolerant cultivar was higher than the non-shade tolerance cultivar. The lodging rate over 2014 and 2015 of Nan032-4 under W1 and W2 was higher than that of Nandou12 by 55.9% and 2.57%. Under the treatment W1, Nan032-4 showed moderate lodging and Nandou12 showed mild lodging; Nan032-4 while Nandou12 showed serious lodging under the treatment W2. Under the same shade level, the snapping resistance of Nandou12 (39.8%) was higher than Nan 032-4 (38.4%), but the snapping resistance of Nandou12 under W1 and W2 for 2014 and 2015 was higher than that of Nan032-4 by 27.3% and 26.6%. Under the same shade level, stem snapping resistance and lodging resistance index of the shade-tolerant cultivar Nandou12 were much higher than that of Nan032-4 (P<0.05).【Conclusion】With increasing shade level, photosynthetic accumulation of soybean was reduced and lodging was more serious. The two materials showed the shade sensitive under the excessive shade. But under moderate shade, the strong shade tolerant cultivar maintained its high photosynthetic and lodging resistance. In a word, under the maize/soybean relay strip intercropping system, we should appropriately reduce the shading stress on soybean in production, then finally realize soybean potential of shade tolerance and lodging resistance.
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    Cited: Baidu(3)
    Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization Managements with Residues Incorporation on Crops Yield and Nutrients Uptake Under Different Paddy-Upland Rotation Systems
    ZHANG Wei-le, DAI Zhi-gang, REN Tao, ZHOU Xian-zhu, WANG Zhong-liang, LI Xiao-kun, CONG Ri-huan
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2016, 49 (7): 1254-1266.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2016.07.004
    Abstract581)   HTML9)    PDF (916KB)(1135)       Save
    【Objective】The effects of nitrogen (N) fertilization management on crop yield, total N accumulation and partial factor productivity were studied under the condition of returning residues in different paddy-upland rotations. 【Method】Field experiments were conducted in 14 counties (e.g., Xiaonan, Songzi, Yingcheng) of Hubei Province under rice-oilseed rape and rice-wheat rotation systems in the period of 2013-2014. Five treatments were followed as: 1) Conventional N fertilization in 3  times, 2) conventional N fertilization in 3 times with residues incorporation, 3) high N fertilization rate in 3 times with residues incorporation, 4) N fertilization in 2 times, and 5) N fertilization in 2 times with residues incorporation. Crop yields (rice, rapeseed and wheat), total N accumulation and partial factor productivity were analyzed among the treatments.【Result】 Crop yield, aboveground biomass and total N accumulation were not affected by high N application rate under residue incorporation in the rice-oilseed rape rotation but were significantly increased in the rice-wheat rotation. Compared with conventional N fertilization in 3 times for the rice-wheat cropping rotation, high N fertilization rate in 3 times with residues incorporation rice and wheat yield increments were 0.632 and 0.564 t·hm-2 on average, with the increasing rates of 6.85% and 10.67%, respectively. Aboveground biomass increments were 1.50 and 1.07 t·hm-2 on average, with increasing rates of 8.11% and 9.06%, respectively. Total N accumulation increments were 11.54 and 23.57 kg·hm-2 on average, with increasing rates of 7.88% and 21.28%, respectively. Total N accumulation of rice and wheat increment was 35.11 kg·hm-2, with increasing rate of 13.65%. N application at 2 times with residues incorporation would satisfy crop yield and total N accumulation compared with conventional N fertilization at 3 times. Specifically for the rice-wheat rotations, rice and wheat yield increments were 0.439 and 0.385 t·hm-2 on average, with increasing rates of 5.12% and 7.63%, respectively. Total N accumulation increments were 11.09 and 21.06 kg·hm-2 on average, with increasing rates of 8.26% and 20.82%, respectively. Total N accumulation increment was 32.14 kg·hm-2 for the rice-wheat cropping rotation, with increasing rate of 13.66%. For N efficiency, regular application rate of N obtained high partial factor productivity of applied N (PFPN, averaged values of PFPN were 52.03 to 59.29 kg·kg-1 for rice, 10.62 to 11.12 kg·kg-1 for oilseed rape, and 33.63 to 36.20 kg·kg-1 for wheat), partial factor productivity of applied N (PFPN) with residues incorporation was better than that without residues incorporation for equal nitrogen rates, especially when we moved N fertilizer forward with residues returning. For rice-oilseed rape rotation system, Compared with conventional N fertilization at 3 times and N fertilization in 2 times, conventional N fertilization in 3 times with residues incorporation and N fertilization in 2 times with residues incorporation the PFPN of rice increments were 2.45 and 4.07 kg·kg-1 on average, with increasing rates of 4.36% and 7.37%, respectively. Oilseed rape increments were 0.36 and 0.49 kg·kg-1 on average, with increasing rates of 3.38% and 4.62%, respectively. For rice-wheat rotation system, rice increments were 3.88 and 1.64 kg·kg-1 on average, with increasing rates of 7.46% and 3.10%, respectively. Wheat increments were 1.60 and 1.93 kg·kg-1 on average, with increasing rates of 4.75% and 5.65%, respectively. Compared with conventional N fertilization at 3 times, the PFPN values of rice and oilseed rape would increase 5.68% and 4.00% under N Fertilization at 2 times with residues incorporation, respectively. For the rice-wheat rotation system, N application at 2 times with residues incorporation would increase the PFPN values by 5.12% and 7.63% for rice and wheat, respectively.【Conclusion】With residues returning, moving fertilizer-nitrogen forward would achieve high and stable crop yield and enhance N efficiency under different paddy-upland rotations.
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    Cited: Baidu(8)
    Effects of Plant Growth Regulators S3307 and DTA-6 on Physiological Metabolism and GmAC Gene Expression in Soybean
    SUN Fu-dong, FENG Nai-jie, ZHENG Dian-feng, CUI Hong-qiu, LIU Chun-juan, HE Tian-ming, ZHAO Jing-jing
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2016, 49 (7): 1267-1276.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2016.07.005
    Abstract529)   HTML3)    PDF (439KB)(525)       Save
    【Objective】 Pods are important source organs for temporary reserve photosynthate in soybean grain growth progress. It is a key factor of pods abscission to restrict soybean production. In order to investigate the internal mechanism of chemical control technology to improve soybean yield, this study used two plant growth regulators to discover the different effects on physiological metabolism in pods and the expression of abscission cellulose enzyme gene (GmAC) in the abscission zone. This study will provide a theoretical basis for high-yield, high-quality and high-efficiency in soybean production.【Method】Field experiments were conducted with soybean Kangxian 6. We sprayed growth promoter regulator 2-N,N-diethylamino ethyl caproate (DTA-6) 60 mg·L-1 and the retardant regulator uniconazole (S3307) 50 mg·L-1 or water during R1 growth stage in 2012 and 2013. The pods of each treatment were used to examine pod physiological indicators including soluble sugar, sucrose, starch, MDA, POD and AC on 35, 42, 49 and 56 days after spraying in each treatment. Abscission zone tissues between stem and soybean pods were cut on the 5th day after treatment, to determinate the expression of cellulose enzyme gene (GmAC) using applied RT-PCR method. 【Result】(1) Compared with the control, DTA-6 and S3307 treatments had significantly lower soluble sugar, except on 35 d after spraying where the DTA-6 treatment sugar content was higher. The content of sucrose in pods decreased after spraying DTA-6 and S3307 from the 35 d to the 49 d, and increased on the 56 d after spraying. Starch increased in most of treatment-spray time conditions except in the S3307 treatment on the 42 d after spraying. (2) The content of MDA decreased after 35, 49 and 56 d after spraying. The activity of POD increased after 35 d, 42 d and 56 d after spraying. The activity of AC decreased on the 35 d, 49 d and 56 d after spraying S3307 and decreased from 42 d to 49 d after spraying DTA-6. (3) The relative expression of GmAC in abscission zone after spraying DTA-6 was down-regulated, but the relative expression after spraying of S3307 was up-regulated. (4) DTA-6 and S3307 treatments effectively improved yield properties such as the number of pods per plant, grains per pod and one-hundred grain weight, compared with control. The yield improved by 6.2% and 1.4% in 2012, and 4.8% and 5.3% in 2013. 【Conclusion】Our observations suggest that DTA-6 and S3307 increased transportation and accumulation of assimilate in pods, enhanced the antioxidant enzyme, reduced membrane lipid peroxidation products, decreased the key enzyme activity of abscission pods, benefited the pods, and ultimately improved the production of soybean. The relative expression of GmAC was down-regulated in the treatment with DTA-6, and DTA-6 treatment was better.
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    Effects of Exogenous 6-BA and Nitrogen Fertilizers with Varied Rates on Function and Fluorescence Characteristics of Wheat Leaves Post Anthesis
    LUO Yong-li, YANG Dong-qing, YIN Yan-ping, CUI Zheng-yong, LI Yan-xia, CHEN Jin, ZHENG Meng-jing, WANG Yu-zhu, PANG Dang-wei, LI Yong, WANG Zhen-lin
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2016, 49 (6): 1060-1083.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2016.06.004
    Abstract661)   HTML11)    PDF (539KB)(932)       Save
    【Objective】The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the effects of exogenous cytokinin (6-BA) and nitrogen application with varied rates on photosynthetic characteristics of wheat post anthesis and provide a theoretical basis for enhancing photosynthetic productivity of wheat. 【Method】The experiment was conducted using a stay-green cultivar (Wennong 6) and a non-stay-green cultivar (Jimai 20) with three nitrogen rates, namely, N0(0), N1(240 kg·hm-2) and N2(360 kg·hm-2). Exogenous 6-benzyladenine (6-BA) (25 mg·L-1) and lovastatin (300 mg·L-1) were sprayed on the leaves at a rate of 100 mL·m-2 for 3 days after anthesis (DAA). Then chlorophyll content, MDA content and antioxidant enzyme activity were determined using flag leaf samples. The content of four kinds of endogenous hormones was determined using high performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC). The chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics parameters of flag leaves induced by different treatments were determined using pulse modulation type fluorometer. 【Result】Spraying exogenous 6-BA significantly enhanced the max photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), actual photochemical efficiency (ΦPSII), photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR) and photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) of flag leaves of two wheat cultivars at different growth stages post anthesis. The chlorophyll fluorescent parameters were significantly decreased by spraying lovastatin. It was found that under N0 treatment, spraying exogenous 6-BA increased ΦPSII of flag leaves of Jimai 20 by 12.08%, 6-BA combined with N1 treatment and N2 treatment increased ΦPSII by 14.21% and 9.43%, respectively. ΦPSII of flag leaves of Wennong 6 was increased by 12.44%, 14.84% and 11.58%, respectively, in above three treatments. In addition, in N0 treatment, spraying exogenous 6-BA enhanced photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR) of flag leaves in Jimai 20 by 16.57%, 6-BA combined with N1 treatment and N2 treatment enhanced ETR by 25.81% and 18.83%, respectively. ETR of flag leaves of Wennong 6 was increased by 13.88%, 23.58% and 22.80%, respectively in above three treatments. Other indicators of flag leaves in both wheat cultivars showed the following rule that in 6-BA combined with N1 treatment, fluorescence parameters of flag leaves were increased more than 6-BA combined with N0 treatment or 6-BA combined with N2 treatment. Meanwhile, the cultivar, nitrogen fertilizer, single hormone effect, hormone combined with nitrogen fertilizer affected ΦPSII, ETR and qP significantly. In addition, Fv/Fm was affected significantly by cultivar, hormone but not affected by combined application of nitrogen fertilizer and hormone significantly. Besides, in N0 treatment, foliar application of the inhibitor of cytokinin lovastatin reduced ETR of flag leaves of Jimai 20 by 22.71%, lovastatin combined with N1 treatment and N2 treatment decreased ETR by 12.06% and 11.92%, respectively. Other fluorescence parameters including Fv/Fm, ΦPSII and qP of the two cultivars showed a downward trend. Increasing nitrogen application rate could slow down the decrease of fluorescence parameters of both wheat cultivars caused by the reduction of the synthesis of cytokinin. Exogenous 6-BA had significant effects on the content of endogenous hormones in two cultivars of wheat. Spraying exogenous 6-BA significantly increased the zeatin riboside (ZR) content and the auxin (IAA) content of flag leaves post anthesis in both cultivars. The gibberellins (GA3) content was significantly increased at 21-28 DAA. On the contrary, abscisic acid (ABA) was significantly decreased after spraying exogenous 6-BA. After spraying exogenous lovastatin, changes of endogenous hormones contents were on the contrary with the above results. With the increase of nitrogen application rate, the ZR and IAA content was enhanced at 21-28 DAA. The overall trend of the ABA content was decreased with the increase of nitrogen rate. In N1 treatment, the GA3 content was higher than that under the other two nitrogen rates at 7-14 DAA. Meanwhile, the ZR content was significantly affected by the cultivar, nitrogen fertilizer, single hormone effect, combined application of nitrogen fertilizer and hormone. In addition, in 6-BA combined with N1 treatment, chlorophyll content and antioxidant enzyme system activity of flag leaves were increased more than 6-BA combined with N0 treatment or 6-BA combined with N2 treatment. Combined application of nitrogen fertilizer and hormone had significant effects on chlorophyll content and antioxidant enzyme system activity. Lovastatin combined with N0 treatment reduced chlorophyll content and antioxidant enzymes activity more than that lovastatin combined with N1 and N2 treatments. This shows that increasing nitrogen fertilizer application could mitigate the senescence of the photosynthetic structure. Spraying 6-BA significantly affected the grain weight and yield (P<0.01), and had no significant effect on the spike number and grain number, and combined application of nitrogen fertilizer and exogenous 6-BA significantly affected the number of spike, grain number per spike, 1000-grain weight and yield. 【Conclusion】Obvious combined effects between nitrogen fertilizer and cytokinin exists, under 6-BA combined with appropriate nitrogen rate, the photosynthetic performance of wheat was improved higher than 6-BA combined with no N application or 6-BA combined with N2. The improvement of photosynthetic performance significantly improved grain yield.
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    Effects of Rainfall Harvesting Planting on Temporal and Spatial Changing of Soil Water and Temperature, and Yield of Spring Maize (Zea mays L.) in Semi-Arid Areas
    LI Yu-ling, ZHANG Peng, ZHANG Yan, JIA Qian-min, LIU Dong-hua, DONG Zhao-yun, JIA Zhi-kuan, HAN Qing-fang, REN Xiao-long
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2016, 49 (6): 1084-1096.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2016.06.005
    Abstract463)   HTML3)    PDF (1455KB)(552)       Save
    【Objective】To provide a theoretical evidence for high yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of maize, the experiment was conducted to test soil moisture transportation and distribution, soil temperature, yield and WUE of dryland spring maize for determining the effects of rainfall harvesting under different planting methods.【Method】Four different plastic film mulching planting treatments were used in arid areas of Pengyang country in Ningxia in 2013-2014: double ridges and furrows both mulched with plastic film and planting in furrows (D), flat planting of narrow film mulching (F), plastic film mulching on ridge and planting in film-side (R1) and plastic film mulching on ridge and planting in narrow furrow (R2). A conventional flat field without mulching was used as the control (CK). Soil water and temperature, WUE, and yield at different growth stages of spring maize were analyzed in this study. The experiment was designed by random blocks and repeated three times. The plastic film width of R1 and F treatments were both 60 cm, furrow width of R1 was 10 cm and ridge width was 50 cm, the big-ridge width of D was 70 cm and ridges height was 15 cm, the other small one width and height were 50 cm and 10 cm. Planting density of different treatments were 75 000 plants/hm2. The amount of based fertilizer applied before sowing was N 102 kg·hm-2and P2O5 90 kg·hm-2 , and topdressing was N 153 kg·hm-2. 【Result】 The results showed that the status of soil water and temperature had improved significantly in all the four plastic film mulching planting treatments compared with CK. In maize seedling period (0-30 d), the soil water storage at depths of 0-200 cm soil layer with D, F, R1 and R2 increased by 10%, 8.9%, 10.9% and 14.4%, respectively, compared with CK. At maize mid-late stage (90-120 d), affected by rainfall precipitation and different planting treatments, the maize water consumption was different. In addition, soil water storage in 0-200 cm soil profile showed differences: the soil water storage in the plastic film mulching planting treatments were significantly lower compared with CK in 2013 (precipitation was 309.4 mm in July and August), there was no significant difference between treatments, however, the soil water storage in R1 and R2 treatments were significantly higher than other plastic film mulching planting treatments. However, in the 2 years experiment, the soil water storage in 0-40 cm soil profile of R1 was significantly higher than other treatments, with an average of increasing of 5%; The soil temperature at the depth of 0-25cm soil layer increased by 3.5, 2.3, 0.9 and 1.1℃ in D, F, R1 and R2 treatments compared with CK. Total dry matter accumulation of maize during the whole growth period showed a "S" curve type, during the first two months, the dry matter accumulation was small, each treatment accounted for only 4.3%-15.4% of the whole growth period, with the order from high to low: D>R2>F>R1>CK. About 74.5% of the dry matter accumulation was formed in the next two months (flare opening to filling period ), the dry matter accumulations were 30.93 and 3.241 kg·hm-2·d-1 in the treatments of D, R2. WUE and maize yield of D, F, R2 increased by 13.4%, 21.2%, 13.3% and 18.0%, 11.2%, 20.3% compared with CK in 2013 (when annual rainfall was 594.1 mm). However, the WUE and maize yield in D, R1, R2 treatments increased by 31.1%, 33.8%, 35.1% and 42.5%, 39.9%, 40.8% in 2014 (when annual rainfall was 341.9 mm). There were no significant differences among D, R1, and R2 treatments. The yield and WUE of plastic film mulching planting treatments increased significantly in a less precipitation year, and among all of which, the effect in the treatment of R2 was obvious. 【Conclusion】 The plastic film mulched ridge and sowing furrow planting changed the shallow soil water condition significantly, improved soil temperature, increased dry matter accumulation in semi-arid areas of southern Ningxia. Furrow and ridge mulching planting treatments gave obvious advantages in the less precipitation years. the WUE and maize yield of D and R1 were the best. This study enriched the plastic film mulching plating treatments in the semi-arid areas of southern Ningxia, and provided a basis for the sustainable developing treatments which could improve the yield and stabilize the yield in the semi-arid areas.
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    Effects of Phosphorus on Winter Wheat Population Characteristics, Canopy Intercepted Photosynthetically Active Radiation and Yield Under Certain Nitrogen-Potassium Rates
    YUE Jun-qin, ZHANG De-qi, LI Xiang-dong, WANG Han-fang, SHAO Yun-hui, FANG Bao-ting, Lü Feng-rong, MA Fu-ju, QIN Feng, YANG Cheng
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2016, 49 (5): 840-851.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2016.05.004
    Abstract471)   HTML9)    PDF (475KB)(671)       Save
    【Objective】The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of phosphate (P) fertilizer on winter wheat population development, canopy intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (IPAR) and yield under certain nitrogen and potassic (NK) fertilizer levels and to study the relationship between IPAR and leaf area index (LAI) and provide a theoretical foundation for P fertilizer application.【Method】 Zhengmai7698 was used in this study. Four NK fertilizer combinations were designed: Low nitrogen and low potassium (N1K1, N 225 kg·hm-2+K2O 150 kg·hm-2), low nitrogen and high potassium (N1K2, N 225 kg·hm-2+K2O 225 kg·hm-2), high nitrogen and low potassium (N2K1, N 300 kg·hm-2+K2O 150 kg·hm-2), high nitrogen and high potassium (N2K2, N 300 kg·hm-2+K2O 225 kg·hm-2). Five P fertilizer application levels were used under each NK fertilizer combinations: P0 (P2O5 0 kg·hm-2), P1 (P2O5 150 kg·hm-2), P2 (P2O5 225 kg·hm-2), P3 (P2O5 300 kg·hm-2) and P4 (P2O5 375 kg·hm-2). The dynamics of wheat population, LAI, dry matter accumulation after flowering, IPAR and wheat grain yield were measured and analyzed using Data Processing System (DPS) software.【Result】(1)Under the four NK fertilizer combinations, total tillers per stem, dry matter accumulation after flowering and LAI increased with the P (P2O5) fertilizer rate changed from 0 kg·hm-2 to 225 kg·hm-2, peaked at 225 kg·hm-2, and decreased thereafter. (2) The response of IPAR to different P fertilizer under certain NK fertilizer combination showed the order as P2>P1>P3>P4>P0. The highest IPAR was found in N1K1 among all the NK fertilizer combinations. (3) IPAR was positively related to LAI under the four NK fertilizer combinations. The fitting index between IPAR and LAI were 0.8492, 0.8363, 0.7321, 0.8081 under N1K1, N1K2, N2K1, and N2K2 combinations. Correlation analysis showed that there existed a quadratic polynomical relation between yield and LAI. The fitting index was 0.7145. (4)Wheat grain yield benefited from P fertilizer (P2O5) application when its rate increased from 0 to 225 kg·hm-2. N1K1 had the highest grain yield. Compared to all other P fertilizer rates, P2 (P2O5 225 kg·hm-2) demonstrated the highest grain yield and rate of grain increase.【Conclusion】 N1K1P2 (N 225 kg·hm-2+ K2O 150 kg·hm-2 + P2O5 225 kg·hm-2) was the best NPK combination, which resulted the best canopy structure, optimal LAI, highest dry matter accumulation after flowering, enhanced IPAR and the highest grain yield.
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    Cited: Baidu(5)
    Regulations of Reduced Chemical Nitrogen, Potassium Fertilizer Application and Organic Manure Substitution on Potato Water- Fertilizer Utilization and Biomass Assimilation Under Whole Field Plastics Mulching and Ridge-Furrow Planting System on Semi-Arid Area
    ZHANG Xu-cheng, YU Xian-feng, WANG Hong-li, HOU Hui-zhi, FANG Yan-jie, MA Yi-fan
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2016, 49 (5): 852-864.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2016.05.005
    Abstract693)   HTML5)    PDF (675KB)(832)       Save
    【Objective】Chemical nitrogen fertilizer reduction, potassium fertilizer application and organic manure substitution are useful methods to increase crop resource use efficiency, enhance agro-environment, improve quality of agricultural products and decrease the disease risk in China. The understanding on the effects of reduced chemical nitrogen fertilizer dressing, organic manure substitution and potassium fertilizer application on potato dry matter assimilation and water utilization, are helpful to apply the efficient managing strategy of water and nutrient resource.【Method】A 4-year field experiment was carried out from 2011 to 2014 with three treatments: (1) traditional chemical fertilizer application (PM), (2) chemical nitrogen fertilizer reduced by 25% and dressing at flowering stage, and potassium fertilizer application (PMN), and (3) chemical nitrogen fertilizer reduced by 50% and organic manure substitution, and potassium fertilizer application (PMO). The soil moisture, potato biomass and yield had been investigated, crop water consumption, potato growth rate, water use efficiency (WUE) and partial factor productivity from applied fertilizer (PFP) were calculated to understand the effects of different nutrient management methods on potato dry matter assimilation and water-nutrient use efficiency, as well as its regulations on potato water use process on semiarid rain-fed area.【Result】The potato water consumption decreased by 17.4, 28.7, 26.8, 34.2 mm in pre-flowering stage, but increased by 31.1, 34.7, 36.7, 49.2 mm in post-flowering stage in PMN treatment, compared with PM. PMO increased the potato water consumption by 17.8, 24.3, 11.2, 10.3 mm than PM in post-flowering stage, but had no significant effect in the pre-flowering stage. Compared with PM, PMN increased potato above- and under- ground biomass, as well as the growth rate after early blooming, caused 2 595.1 kg·hm-2 tuber yield increment from 2012 to 2013 averagely; the water use efficiency (WUE) increased by 14.4% and 6.3% in 2013 and 2014, the significant difference observed in these years. PMO significantly increased potato above- and under- ground biomass, and the growth rate, resulted in 2 945 kg·hm-2 tuber yield increment in 4 experimental years on average. Its WUE was significantly higher than PM from 2012 to 2014. PMN and PMO increased potato fertilizer partial factor productivity from applied fertilizer (PFPT), chemical fertilizer partial factor productivity from applied fertilizer (PFPC), nitrogen partial factor productivity from applied fertilizer (PFPTN) and chemical nitrogen partial factor productivity from applied fertilizer (PFPCN) as compared with PM. It was indicated that PMN and PMO increased nutrient and water use efficiency synergistically, both realized the objective to regulate water utilization by fertilizer application, and improve nutrient utilization by water management. In 2011 (dry year), PMN and PMO regulated the water consumption between pre- and post- flowering stage, increased above- and under- ground biomass, growth rate and PFP, but the potato tuber yield and WUE didn’t increase significantly.【Conclusion】Both PMN and PMO regulated potato water consumption between pre- and post- flowering stage significantly, and increased potato biomass and growth rate, resulted in increased tuber yield, WUE and PFP. However, PMO showed more significant effects than PMN on the increment of tuber yield, PFP and WUE, so it was the more efficient nutrition management model for higher resource use efficiency and yield under whole field plastics mulching and ridge-furrow planting system on semi-arid areas.
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    Effect of Source-Sink Manipulation on Translocation of Carbohydrate and Nitrogen, Phosphors, Potassium in Vegetative Organs of Conventional Japonica Rice After Anthesis
    XU Bei-bei, YOU Cui-cui, DING Yan-feng, WANG Shao-hua
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2016, 49 (4): 643-656.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2016.04.004
    Abstract488)   HTML6)    PDF (559KB)(609)       Save
    【Objective】This study investigated how source-sink relationship manipulation could affect dry matter, non-structural carbohydrate, nitrogen (N), phosphorus(P) and potassium(K) nutrient translocation of rice after anthesis and clarify the SPP/LAPC that promotes nutrient efficient recycling in rice.【Method】Two japonica rice cultivars, Huaidao 5 and Ningjing 3 were field grown in 2013 and 2014. Leaf-cutting and spikelet-thinning treatments were made on single stems with 6 leaves and consistent flowering process to regulate source-sink relationship at heading stage, define the ratio of spikelets per panicle and leaf area per culm as SPP/LAPC, dry matter, non-structural carbohydrate(NSC), nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium translocation rate (including leaf and stem-sheath) of two cultivars were measured in heading to harvesting period, so as to study the relationship between dry matter/NSC and nutrient translocation, and the relationship between SPP/LAPC and nutrient translocation of leaf and stem-sheath, respectively.【Result】Compared to the control(L0S0), leaf-cutting treatment significantly decreased filled-grain percentage and 1000-grain weight as SPP/LAPC increased significantly, Huaidao5 reduced 8.6%-10.5% and 19.0%-8.0%, respectively, Ningjing3 reduced 9.7%-20.4% and 5.7%-12.6%, respectively; whereas spikelet-thinning treatment significantly increased filled-grain percentage and 1000-grain weight as SPP/LAPC decreased significantly, Huaidao5 average increased 3.4%-6.7% and 1.2%-18.7% by an average, Ningjing3 increased 2.0%-4.3% and 6.9%-17.3% by an average. Percentage of ripened grains and 1000-ripened grain weight showed no significant difference between different spikelet-thinning treatments of the same variety, but differed in years. The 2014 rice season weather was more beneficial to grain filling, filled-grain rate, 1000-grain weight and their increasing range when compared with 2013. Leaf-cutting treatment increased dry matter, NSC and nutrient translocation rate of leaf and stem-sheath from heading to maturity, there were no significant difference between variety and year; whereas performance of indexes mentioned above in spikelets thinning treatments were just on the contrary, different varieties and different years showed no substantive differences, either. There were fundamental differences between leaves and stem-sheath in translocation of dry matter and NSC, transport rate of dry matter and NSC in leaves declined as spikelet thinning proportion increased, while matters mentioned above detained in stem-sheath on apparent. There was a curvilinear correlation(y=(a+bx)/x) between SPP/LAPC at heading stage(x) and dry matter, NSC and nutrient transport rate in leaves and stem-sheath after anthesis (y) with further analysis. Nutrient transport rate of leaves and stem-sheath increased significantly with the increase of SPP/LAPC. While the SPP/LAPC increased around 1.5, transport rate of dry matter, NSC and nutrient approximated to maximum, there were no obvious differences between Huaidao5 and Ningjing3.【Conclusion】A relatively high SPP/LAPC was beneficial to translocation of dry matter, NSC and nutrient in vegetative organs in rice after anthesis, there was a close curvilinear correlation between SPP/LAPC and matters mentioned above in vegetative organs in rice after anthesis, translocation rate reached a maximum when SPP/LAPC was 1.5. The critical SPP/LAPC around 1.5 can be used as the basis for variety breeding and cultivation regulation in mineral nutrients’ efficient reutilization of conventional japonica rice.
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    Effects of Plant Growth Regulators S3307 and DTA-6 on Carbohydrate Content and Yield in Soybean
    LIU Chun-juan, FENG Nai-jie, ZHENG Dian-feng, GONG Xiang-wei, SUN Fu-dong, SHI Ying, CUI Hong-qiu, ZHANG Pan-pan, ZHAO Jing-jing
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2016, 49 (4): 657-666.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2016.04.005
    Abstract656)   HTML1)    PDF (416KB)(721)       Save
    【Objective】The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of plant growth regulators on carbohydrate content, sucrose metabolizing enzyme activities and yield of soybean in the source-sink theory aiming to provide scientific basis for PGRs on agricultural production.【Method】Foliar spray field experiments were conducted successively in 2013 and 2014 in the main soybean producing zone, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University. The experiment was in the early flowering by foliar spray one time. Taking Hefeng50 and Kefeng16 soybean varieties as the main research materials. Two chemical regulators, 2-N,N-diethylamino ethylcaproate (DTA-6, 60 mg·L-1) and uniconazole (S3307, 50 mg·L-1) were tested with water as the control. The first sampling was carried out after sprayed 30 d, and then leaf samples were collected once every five days. The contents of sucrose, starch or fructose in leaves and seeds, and invertase activity,SPS or SS activity in leaves were measured. The grain yield of soybean were investigated.【Result】At the early seed filling stage(30-35 days since spraying of DTA-6 and S3307), the sucrose,fructose and starch contents of leaves showed the downtrends, and that of seeds showed increasing trends, which showed that more carbohydrates were applied to seeds growth and development. At the middle seed filling stage(35-45 days since spraying of DTA-6 and S3307), the sucrose, fructose and starch contents of leaves always showed increasing trends by S3307 .The sucrose and fructose contents were all higher than the control, which was based to provide sufficient materials for the grain filling. At the late seed filling stage(after the 50th day since the spraying by DTA-6 and S3307), the sucrose contents of leaves reached the maximum by DTA-6 and S3307, and reached significant levels to CK. The starch content of leaves sprayed with S3307 were higher than CK, and the fructose contents of leaves sprayed with DTA-6 were higher than CK. The sucrose contents of seeds were significantly increased by both S3307 and DTA-6 treatments. The fructose contents of two varieties seeds were increased by S3307, but that of Hefeng50 seed was decreased by DTA-6. The starch content of Hefeng50 seed but that were of Kefeng16 seed were increased by both S3307 and DTA-6 treatments, which showed that PGRs were different effect for soybean varieties. With sucrose contents were increased, SPS and SS activities were improved by S3307 and DTA-6. In most times, foliar spray of S3307 and DTA-6 could significantly decrease invertase activity of leaves to regulate carbohydrate metabolism in different varieties. Thereby, sucrose was neutral for carbohydrate metabolism. Balance of carbohydrate metabolism in source and sink by S3307 and DTA-6 to significantly increase yield. To controls(H-CK and K-CK),the yield of PGRs (H-S, H-D and K-S, K-D) treatments were significantly increased by 20.07%, 14.57% and 10.54%, 10.95%. By the correlation analysis, The sucrose contents of the leaves were positively correlated with SPS, SS activities and starch contents of leaves and the sucrose, fructose and starch contents of seeds (0.893**, 0.888** and 0.981** or 0.918**, 0.832 and 0.810), or were negatively correlated with activities and invertase activities and fructose contents of leaves (-0.872 and -0.862).【Conclusion】The activity of SS and SPS which are of great importance in sucrose synthesis were increased and the activity of invertase was decreased by PGRs, the source-sink physiological metabolism of carbohydrates was regulated to increase yield by S3307 were higher than DTA-6.
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    Function and Composition Stability of a Composite Microbial System GF-20 with Efficient Corn Stalk Decomposition Under Low Temperature
    Qingge-er, GAO Ju-lin, YU Xiao-fang, HU Shu-ping, WANG Zhi-gang, WANG Zhen, Naoganchaolu BORJIGIN
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2016, 49 (3): 443-454.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2016.03.004
    Abstract489)      PDF (911KB)(513)       Save
    【Objective】 In order to improve the culturing methodology of corn stalk decomposing microbes and promote its utilization, the present study evaluated the impact of different culturing conditions on the community composition of a composite microbial system GF-20 and on its decomposing activity of corn stalk.【Method】 Composite microbial system GF-20 was continuously sub-cultured to the 45th generation under 10℃ and to 15th generation under different temperatures and pH conditions to obtain different microbial communities (F, T, P). Then the dynamics of fermenting pH, corn stalk decomposing ratio and cellulose enzyme activities were determined, so as to estimate the corn stalk decomposing activity of the composite microbial system. Furthermore, the community composition stability was analyzed by PCR-DGGE technique combined with a principal component analysis. 【Result】 The results showed that the pH value tended to be neutral over the fermentation time, and the straw degradation rate ranged in 27.59%-32.53%, in which no difference was shown among the successive 40-generation sub-cultured communities except F40 and F5, neither among the sub-cultured communities under temperature of 4-30℃ and under pH of 6.0-9.0. Cellulose enzyme activity of high generation was higher than that of low generation, and the enzyme production of the microbial community could be promoted under temperature of 4-10℃ and pH of 6.0-9.0, cellulase activity ranged in 1.34-1.84 IU·mL-1. Cellulase activity of composite microbes showed good stability under lower temperature and in a wide pH range, enzymatic reaction temperature within 15-30℃ and pH within 4.0-9.0 could keep more than 80% of enzyme activity. Furthermore, DGGE bands of F5-F45, T4-T30 and P6-P9 showed no significant differences indicated that the strains composition maintained good stability. However, under acidic (pH=4, 5) or alkaline (pH=10) subculture conditions, the corn stalk degradation rate and cellulase activity significantly decreased, and community composition also changed remarkably, thereby affected the property and functional stability. According to PCR-DGGE profiles, a total of 18 strains were detected, the key strains of which were Bacillus licheniformis, Azonexus hydrophilusd, Azospira oryzae, Arobacter cloacae, Cellvibrio mixtus subsp. Mixtus, Bacillus tequilensis, Clostridium populeti and Clostridium xylanolyticum, respectively. 【Conclusion】Composite microbial community GF-20 sub-cultured under different conditions (temperature 4-30℃, pH 6.0-9.0) kept efficient corn stalk decomposing activity and stable community composition structure, a good application prospect should be anticipated.
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    Compensation Effect of Different Soybean Varieties in Potato/Soybean Intercropping Systems
    CHEN Guang-rong, YANG Wen-yu, ZHANG Guo-hong, WANG Li-ming, YANG Ru-ping, YONG Tai-wen, LIU Wei-guo
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2016, 49 (3): 455-467.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2016.03.005
    Abstract466)      PDF (34126KB)(2238)       Save
    ObjectiveTo explore the mechanism of a high yield and an optimum spatial-temporal configuration management in potato-soybean intercropping system. MethodThis study takes a potato-soybean intercropping system with wildly-used and an apparent yield advantage in Northwest irrigation districts as the research object, a field experiment was conducted in two consecutive seasons (2012-2013), the potato-soybean intercropping trials using three soybean varieties including Zhonghuang 30 (early-maturing variety), Jidou 17 (mid maturing variety ) and Qihuang 34 (late maturing variety ) with the sole cropping potato as the control were carried out to determine the dynamic changes of growth stages of soybean, leaf area index, accumulation of dry matter, photosynthetic characteristics, yield components and yieldin order to optimize the reasonable group configuration.ResultIn comparison with the sole cropping, intercropping system led to a delayed reproductive growth stage of soybean but did not change the whole growth period, the duration from planting to flowering was extended, but the duration from flowering to maturing was shortened. The co-growth stage of different soybean varieties was not affected by intercropping, but the reproductive co-growth stage (from flowering to maturing) was remarkable (P0.05, late maturing variety was 12 days, middle-maturing variety was 36 days, early-maturing variety was 42 days).There was a lower increase under intercropping than under sole cropping, the LAI of the late-maturing variety was lower than the mid-maturing and early maturing varieties, significantly (P0.05) during earlier growing stage but higher after the potato had been harvested. There was a significant difference in dry matter accumulation between intercropping and sole cropping during the earlier growing stage, dry matter accumulation of inter-soybean relative to the sole soybean was decreased by 55.73% at 60 days after soybean sowing. The Pn varied considerably by different potato-soybean intercropping systems, and lower than the sole soybean, which the late-maturing variety was higher than the mid-maturing and early maturing varieties significantly (P0.05).When the potato had been harvested (100 days after soybean sowing), the dry matter accumulation and Pn of soybean in all intercropping systems increased, especially mid-maturing and late-maturing varieties, which became much closer to the sole cropping. Compared with sole cropping, the pods per plant, seeds per plant, and seeds per pod of early-maturing soybean in the intercropping system decreased by 24.15%, 22.14% and 18.92%, respectively (P0.05). However, effective pods per plant, seeds per plant, and seeds per pod of the late-maturing soybean decreased by 5.66%, 7.64% and 2.11%, respectively. Finally, the yield of the mid-maturing and late-maturing varieties in intercropping systems are higher than the early-maturing, which increased by 79.85% and 145.08%, with the land equivalent ratio (LER) of 1.77 and 1.83, respectively. ConclusionMid-maturing and late-maturing varieties were a suitable plant type configuration, the whole growth period was longer, the duration from planting to flowering was extended, but the duration from flowering to maturing was shortened, which could improve the leaf area index, photosynthetic efficiency for compensatory growth when the potato had been harvested, showing the stronger intercropping superiority.
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    Cited: Baidu(5)
    Effect of Potato and Beans Intercropping with Whole Field Plastics Mulching and Ridge-Furrow Planting on Soil Thermal-Moisture Status and Crop Yield on Semi-Arid Area
    ZHANG Xu-cheng, WANG Hong-li, YU Xian-feng, HOU Hui-zhi, FANG Yan-jie, MA Yi-fan
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2016, 49 (3): 468-481.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2016.03.006
    Abstract384)      PDF (759KB)(671)       Save
    【Objective】Intercropping is one of the main technologies to solve the potato continuous cropping obstacles, and increase crop productivity. However, it is very important to consider the local soil water capacity before developing a potato intercropping system in the semiarid area.【Method】A 4-year field experiment was carried out from 2011 to 2014 with four treatments: (1) mono-potato (PM), (2) potato and faba bean intercropping (PF), (3) potato and soybean intercropping (PS), and (4) potato and haricot bean intercropping (PH). The soil temperature, soil water content and crop yield had been investigated; the crop water consumption, economic returns and water economic yield were calculated, to understand the effects of different intercropping models on crop productivity and soil moisture. In addition, soil water sustainability was appraised under intercropping system on semiarid area. 【Result】The intercropping relieved the heat stress from June to July, the soil temperature in 0-25 cm profile of PF, PS and PH decreased by 0.8-3.6, 0.4-2.8 and 0.8-1.8 from 2012 to 2014 respectively, as compared with PM, this may advantage to the potato growth. The soil water content decreased, especially, the deeper soil water depleted in intercropping treatments as compared with mono-potato treatment, the depth of soil water depletion reached to 200 cm in the intercropping treatment, compared with PM, the soil water depletion of PF increased by 41.6-131.7 mm in potato pre-flowering period, and decreased by 48.6 mm and 34.3 mm in dry year (2011) and normal year (2012) in post-flowering period respectively. Although the soil water depletion of PH treatment increased in pre-flowering period, but not decreased in post-flowering period significantly, as compared with PM. The variation of soil water depletion in pre- and post-flowering period in PS was between PF and PH. The economic returns and water economic yield of PH was highest, increased by 29.8%-51.4% and 19.8%-24.0% than PM, respectively. The soil water storage in 0-200 cm profile increased more than 100 mm through the 4 experimental years, indicated that there were no adverse effect on soil water sustainability in potato and beans intercropping, when the whole field plastics mulching and ridge-furrow planting technology used in semiarid area. 【Conclusion】Potato and haricot bean intercropping decreased the soil temperature in the hot season (i.e. June and July), increased potato water consumption in post-flowering period, resulted in significant increment of incomes, and had no risk on the annual soil water balance, which could be widely applied in the rain-fed semi-arid area of northwest Loess Plateau.
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    Effects of Exogenous Nitric Oxide on Photosynthesis of Maize Seedlings Under Drought Stress
    SHAO Rui-xin, LI Lei-lei, ZHENG Hui-fang, XIN Long-fei, SU Xiao-yu, RAN Wu-ling, YANG Qing-hua
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2016, 49 (2): 251-259.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2016.02.006
    Abstract537)   HTML5)    PDF (1565KB)(1043)       Save
    【Objective】To evaluate the effects of exogenous nitric oxide on the photosynthesis of maize (Zea mays L.) under drought stress. 【Method】The hydroponic experiment was conducted in a growth chamber with the Zhuyu 309 as the material. After being pretreated with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) for three days, these materials were simulated drought stress with 20% PEG-6000 for another three days. The changes of maize seedling’s growth, gas exchange, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, chloroplast ultrastructure and expression of D1 protein were investigated; 【Result】The photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), PSII maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), PSII potential activity (Fv/Fo) were decreased by 68.4%, 87.2%, 15.8%, 31.3%,respectively under drought stress; The parameters of relative variable fluorescence intensity at J-step (Vj) and dissipated energy flux per reaction center (DIo/RC) increased by 20.9% and 21.2%. The ultrastructure of chloroplast in the leaf was destroyed and the structure of stacked grana was disintegrated. Moreover, the osmiophilic grains increased and the chloroplast was slowly divorced from the cell wall due to the drought. The content of D1 protein decreased significantly with Western-blotting analysis. However, with the treatment of SNP and then drought stress, the Pn, Gs, Fv/Fm, Fv/Fo were increased by 56.6 %, 202.5 %, 15.8 %, 30.7 % and the Vj decreased by 22.7% and 25.4% compared with the drought stress. The thylakoid lamellae arranged regularly and the grana were clear; and the relative amounts of D1 protein increased by 94.7%. The above changes were related to the increased NO content after SNP pretreatment under drought condition.【Conclusion】These results suggested that NO is involved in regulating the D1 protein expression and stabilizing the structure and function of PSII reaction centers to improve photosynthesis and growth of maize seedlings, which improved the adaptability of maize seedlings to drought stress. 
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    Cited: Baidu(4)
    Maturity Group Classification and Planting Regionalization of Soybean Varieties in the Inner Mongolia
    HU Xing-guo, SONG Wen-wen, WEI Yun-shan, SUN Bin-cheng, LI Qiang, CHAI Shen, SUN Ru-jian, SHAO Yu-bin, REN Ke, DING Su-rong, WU Cun-xiang, WU Ting-ting, ZHANG Wan-hai, HAN Tian-fu
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2016, 49 (2): 260-271.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2016.02.007
    Abstract508)   HTML4)    PDF (1354KB)(810)       Save
    【Objective】The Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region is one of the areas with the most abundant soybean ecological types in China. Understanding the diversity and distribution of the soybean varieties according to their maturity groups (MGs) in the region is not only of great importance for rational distribution and exchange of the germplasm, but also providing a model for soybean varietal maturity group classification and planting regionalization of the country. 【Method】To classify soybean varieties from the region into different maturity groups, 21 standard varieties which represent MG000, MG00, MG0, MGⅠ, MGⅡ and MGⅢ of soybean were introduced from North America as references in this study. In the field tests, 120 local varieties collected from the major soybean producing areas were planted in Zhalantun, Chifeng, Hohhot, Hangjin Rear Banner and Ejin Banner together with the MG reference varieties. Fifteen plants with the similar growing tendency were observed, and the dates of VE (emergence), R1 (beginning bloom), R7 (beginning maturity) and R8 (full maturity) were recorded. The method of "Classifying MG by Individual Years" was used for maturity group classification of the varieties. Geographical distribution and the north boundary of the representative varieties in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region were surveyed. 【Result】Varieties from the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region were classified into 7 MGs of MG0000, MG000, MG00, MG0, MGⅠ, MGⅡ and MGⅢ. Three varieties matured earlier than MG000 were classified into MG0000, and 6, 20, 43, 35, 8, and 5 varieties were respectively classified into MG000, MG00, MG0, MGⅠ, MGⅡ and MGⅢ. The MG0000 varieties were mainly distributed in the northeast foothill area of Daxinganling Mountains and northeast section of Hulunbuir Plateau. The MG000 varieties were distributed in the east foothill area of Daxinganling Mountains. The MG000 varieties were distributed in west section of Hulunbuir plateau and the south and north alpine areas of Yinshan Mountains. The MG00 varieties were distributed in cool area of Yinshan Mountains and east and south section of Daxinganling Mountains. The MG0 varieties were distributed in Hulunbuir and Xingan League traditional agricultural regions in the Nen River valley at the eastern Daxinganling Mountains, Tongliao city, the mountainous area of north Chifeng and the warm areas of the Yinshan Mountains outer hill. The MGⅠvarieties were distributed in the cool-warm area of southeast section of Daxinganling Mountains, Chifeng hilly mountains and south foothill area of the Yinshan Mountains. The MG Ⅱ varieties were distributed in mild area of the south section of Daxinganling Mountains, Tumochuan Plain at south foothill area of Yinshan Mountains and Liangwai region of the Hetao Plain. The MG Ⅲ varieties were distributed in West Liaohe Plain warm area, Daqing Mountain gully slope area,Hetao Plain irrigated area and Alxa Plateau oasis area. According to the MGs and planting area of the test varieties and referring to the agricultural regionalization and meteorological data, soybean planting regionalization of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region was proposed, and soybean MG geographical distribution map in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region was drafted. In addition, the variety introducing scheme in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and eco-regional adjustment plan for the uniform tests were proposed. 【Conclusion】Soybean varieties in Inner Mongolia were distributed widely in geological regions and diverse in MGs and ecological types. The MG classification could optimize the distribution, strengthen the exchange of soybean germplasm within and out of the region, highlight the targets of soybean breeding and extension, and accelerate the broad utilization of the varieties.
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    Cited: Baidu(1)
    Relationship of NSC with the Formation of Branches and Spikelets and the Yield Traits of Indica Hybrid Rice in Different Planting Methods
    TIAN Qing-lan, LIU Bo, ZHONG Xiao-yuan, ZHAO Min, SUN Hong, REN Wan-jun
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2016, 49 (1): 35-53.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2016.01.004
    Abstract608)   HTML7)    PDF (891KB)(762)       Save
    【Objective】The objective of this experiment was to explore the effects of planting methods on the accumulation and distribution of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) and the differentiation and retrogress of branches and spikelets, and to make clear the relationship of NSC in the panicle differentiation stage with differentiation and retrogress of branches and spikelets and the relationship of the accumulation of NSC after heading with yield and its form factors. 【Method】On the basis of the early two years experiments, using a split plot field experiment research was done on the accumulation and distribution of NSC before and after heading, and the regulation and differences of the differentiation and retrogress of branches and spikelets on different parts of panicle which under three planting methods included mechanized direct-seeding (MD), mechanized transplanting (MT), and artificial transplanting (HT) of two combinations of indica hybrid rice. 【Result】(1) The stem-sheath had an obvious advantage to the young panicle about the competition of NSC in the panicle differentiation stage. MT garnered more NSC in heading, and transported more NSC to grain with a higher efficiency in the grain filling stage, making it gain more distribution of NSC in maturity. (2) The main differences among these planting methods were in the survived and retrograded percentage of secondary branches and the differentiated third branches. MT had more numbers of the survived and differentiated secondary branches and the survived and differentiated secondary spikelets so that it had more hole branches and spikelets. The retrograde of secondary branches and primary spikelets were respectively concentrated on the lower part and the upper part of panicle. Numbers of secondary branches and secondary spikelets were lower part>middle part>upper part. Numbers of survived secondary spikelets in different parts of panicle of MT were higher than HT and MD. (3) The higher accumulation of NSC in 12 d, 4 d and 0 d before heading were not beneficial to the differentiation and retrogression of branches and spikelets, but the accumulation of young panicle had a significant or extremely significant positive correlation of most characteristics of spikelets in 16 d to 8 d before heading, so this stage was the key stage of forming big panicle. The distribution of NSC after heading was mainly through the effect of the distribution of NSC in leaves and panicle on yield. There was a close contact between the yield and characteristics of the branches and spikelets. Thousand grain weight and effective panicles per unit area had a significant or extremely significant negative correlation of the characteristics of branches and spikelets, numbers of grains per panicle, and the setting percentage and yield had a significant or extremely significant positive correlation with the characteristics of the branches and spikelets. (4) Fyou498 had a higher exportation rate of the NSC of stem-sheath and a higher contribution rate of the NSC of stem-sheath to panicle than Yixiangyou2115, and most characters of branches and spikelets of Fyou498 were significantly or extremely significantly higher than Yixiangyou2115. The number of grains per panicle and the setting percentage of Fyou498 were extremely significantly higher than Yixiangyou2115, so its yield was higher. 【Conclusion】There were large differences of the accumulation and distribution of NSC and the characters of branches and spikelets among different planting methods, and also the varieties. MT cooperates big panicle varieties has a higher yield potential.
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    Cited: Baidu(6)
    Proteomics Analysis of Grain Position Effects During Early Developmental Stages of Maize
    YU Tao, LI Geng, LIU Peng, DONG Shu-ting, ZHANG Ji-wang, ZHAO Bin, BAI Han
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2016, 49 (1): 54-68.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2016.01.005
    Abstract528)   HTML3)    PDF (3859KB)(968)       Save
    【Objective】In order to understand the molecular mechanism of maize grain position effects, the function of differential expression proteins between upper and middle grains during the early developmental stages of maize were studied by using an approach of plant proteomics.【Method】Denghai661(DH661) with significant grain position effects was used as experimental material and planted at 90 000 plants/hm2 in a field. Upper and middle grains were harvested after flowering artificial saturation pollination at 0, 3, 6, and 12 d. The total proteins were extracted by the trichloroacetate (TCA)-acetone precipitation method, and the protein profiles were set up by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The upper grain gel was compared to middle grain gel as a reference at 0, 3, 6, 12 d, respectively. The differential expression proteins between the upper and middle grains were analyzed with Image master 2D 7.0. The functions of these differentially expressed proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF) analysis and NCBI database searching.【Result】After high density planting, grain ears were detected at more than 1000 clear spots at early developmental stages. After a comparative proteomics analysis and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry (MS), 66 protein spots were found significantly differentially expressed between upper and middle grains during the early developmental stages, of which 52 protein spots were successfully matched in the NCBI database and the identification rate was about 78.8%. These proteins were involved in grain respiration and energy metabolism (10 spots, 19%), stress and defense (9 spots, 17%), protein metabolism (9 spots, 17%), nitrogen metabolism (6 sports, 11%), cell differentiation and proliferation (5 spots, 10%), transcription and translation (5 spots, 10%), secondary metabolism (3 spots, 6%), and other function categories. Analyzing related proteins expression differences in abundance, compared with the middle grains, most of proteins expressed abundance in the upper grains involved in cell differentiation and proliferation, respiration and energy metabolism were significantly lower at one or more of the time periods, indicating that the upper grains’ ability of endosperm cell proliferation and respiratory energy metabolism significantly reduced. Meanwhile, the upper grains’ proteins involved in stress and defense of a variety of antioxidant enzyme system, glyoxalase I, and four molecular chaperone proteins involved in protein metabolism were at a low level expression at the early development, indicating that the upper grains have weaker defense capability and less stable protein structure to stress conditions. In addition, compared with the middle grains, the upper grains alanine aminotransferase, and S-adenosine methionine synthetase 1 involved in nitrogen metabolism were down regulated within 6 to 12 days after pollination, indicating that the upper grains had a weak nitrogen assimilation ability and influence the subsequent amino acid synthesis and protein metabolism process.【Conclusion】Compared with the middle grains, the upper grains’ proteins involved in cell differentiation and proliferation are at low levels of expression and have weaker respiratory and energy metabolism vitality, resulting in the upper grains having lower sink sizes and sink activities. Additionally, when responding to oxidative stress and other stress conditions, because of the low level of expression of antioxidant enzymes and the molecular chaperone proteins, the regulatory capacity of upper grains is less than the middle grains. Differentially expression of alanine aminotransferase and SAMS also may be an important cause of grain position effects.
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    Cited: Baidu(3)
    Functional Traits of Maize Stems as Supporting Organs and Their Plasticity
    YANG Jin-zhong, LIANG Shu-min, LI Na-na, LIU Yong-hua, HAO Jian-ping
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2016, 49 (1): 69-79.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2016.01.006
    Abstract602)   HTML4)    PDF (427KB)(594)       Save
    【Objective】Plant stems function as supporting organs among many other functions, however, information on their load-bearing capacity has seldom been reported. The objectivs of this study were to: (1) define some stem functional traits; (2) examine effects of abiotic and biotic factors on these traits; (3) feature plasticities of these traits; and (4) explore their potential implications. 【Method】Three stem functional traits, namely, linear mass density (MD), ratio of load to self-weight (RLSW), and ratio of load to linear density (RLMD), were proposed and examined in 6 field experiments with maize (Zea Mays) as a model plant. MD = internode weight / its length, RLSW = internode mass load / its weight, RLMD = internode mass load / MD, where the mass load of an internode is the sum of the weights of all organs and tissues above the internode. The plasticity of a trait was represented as plasticity coefficients, which were computed after the manner of variation coefficients, and where variance components were estimated from the component models of expected mean squares for the experiment’s data. The 6 field experiments were conducted in Taigu, Shanxi. The treatments of these experiments are as follows: (1) the combinations of 5 sites by 2 cultivars; (2) the combinations of 11 sampling timings by 2 cultivars; (3) the combinations of 4 plant densities by 3 sampling timings; (4) 4 plant densities from 2.4 to 6.0 plants per square meter; (5) the combinations of 3 nitrogen fertilizer rates by 2 fertilization timings; and (6) high plant density without fertilization versus low plant density with fertilization. All 3 traits were subject to ANOVA, and means were separated by means of Least Significant Difference. The profile of MD along node ranks was fitted with a negative logarithm equation. 【Result】MDs of internodes varied from 0.052 to 0.72 g DW·cm-1 and followed a straight line equation of a negative logarithm of node ranks. RLSWs of internodes ranged from 7 to 51, and RLMDs of internodes from 122 to 260 cm. If including load of ear weights, these ratios for the first node below the ear jumped to 246 and 3225 cm at their maximum values, respectively. These 3 stem functional traits showed statistically significant differences among genotypes and geographical sites. In the late duration of the kernel filling stage, MDs generally went down. MDs decreased with plant density, but RLSWs remained stable within a large range of plant densities. Higher nitrogen fertilizer rates increased MDs, but did not affect RLMDs, compared with lower ones. The plasticity of stem functional traits ranked as: MD>RLSW>RLMD, and the biomass investments for supporting were modulated by the optimization strategy. 【Conclusion】These findings showed that the stem functional traits proposed were able to feature the load-bearing of stems, and could delineate the biomass investments in the stem structure of plants and the investment efficiency, and may improve the understanding of biomass partitioning within whole plants.
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    Optimizing of Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Switchgrass Cultivars
    LIU Yan-rong, CEN Hui-fang, YAN Jian-ping, ZHANG Wan-jun
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2016, 49 (1): 80-89.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2016.01.007
    Abstract434)   HTML2)    PDF (2639KB)(580)       Save
     【Objective】 To establish a high-efficiency plant regeneration and transformation procedure of switchgrass.【Method】mature seeds of three different switchgrass (Panicumvirgatum L.) varieties were used as explants for callus induction. After six weeks of callus induction, the phenotype of the callus was observed under a dissecting microscope, we discarded the out-layer sponge-like, watery callus and selected the core-like, highly compact callus that lies in the middle of callus clump for further subculture, after the sub-culture was in the dark for three weeks, calluses grew fast, compact and grainy like were selected for further culture, calluses generated from one seed as a cell line and were kept together. This type of callus was highly regenerable, and was characterized as Type Ⅱ callus of monocot plant. After two rounds of selection, enough type Ⅱ callus could be obtained for plant regeneration and transformation. To optimize the procedure of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, transformation efficiencies under three different Agrobacterium-infection procedures were evaluated. They are vacuum-drying treatment (VD): That was in a 50 mL centrifuge tube, the calluses that merged in Agrobacterium suspension were given a vacuum treatment (-0.8 Mpa) for 10 min, then slight agitated in a incubator-shaker at 80 r/mim, 28 for 20 min. Then drainage the bacteria and dry on a sterilized filter paper tower, the calluses were transfer onto two layers of filter paper soaked with 500 mL sterile water in a petri dish for co-cultivation. Cold combined with vacuum-drying treatment (CVD): calluses were given a cold treatment on ice in a solution of 3% maltose and 300 μmol·L-1 of glutamine (Gln) for 20 min before conducted as VD process. A slightly different procedure was used instead of sterile water MP liquid medium was used for cocultication. Osmotic treatment combined with the cold and vacuum-drying treatment (PVD): 6% maltose was used in CVD process. The transgenic transformation efficiencies were evaluated by GUS staining assay and PCR tests.【Result】A regeneration efficiency of over 95% was reached for the type Ⅱ callus selected from the lowland switchgrass cultivar “Alamo” and “Performer”; 50% was reached for upland cultivar “Blackwell”. The transformation rate of switchgrass cultivar “Alamo” reached to 72% under CVD procedure, significantly higher than that was obtained under the procedure VD (53%) and PVD (44%). Under CVD procedure, transformation efficiency of lowland cultivars “Performer” reached to 96.7%; for the upland cultivar “Blackwell”, the transformation efficiency reached to 5.6%. This was the first time of obtaining the transgenic plant of the upland cultivar “Blackwell”.【Conclusion】Highly regenerative type Ⅱ calluses can be obtained from different ecotypes of switchgrass with a stereo-microscope. Agrobacterium- mediated transformation efficiency could be significantly improved under a CVD procedure for infection. This was the first report on how to select the type Ⅱ callus derived from mature seeds of switchgrass. A high-efficiency plant regeneration and transformation procedure that was suitable to lowland and upland switchgrass cultivars was developed, which made a foundation for switchgrass genetic improvement and functional gene research. The method presented here is also helpful in establishing a plant regeneration and transformation system for other recalcitrant monocot.
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    Discussion on the Theory and Methods for Determining the Target Yield in Rice Production
    ZOU Ying-bin, XIA Bing, JIANG Peng, XIE Xiao-bing, HUANG Min
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2015, 48 (20): 4021-4032.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2015.20.004
    Abstract970)   HTML63)    PDF (625KB)(26390)       Save
    【Objective】The aim of this study was to discuss the theory and methods for determining the target yield in rice production. 【Methods】The discussion and analysis were based on the results of field experiments conducted in five locations (Chengmai of Hainan Province, Huaiji of Guangdong Province, Binyang of Guangxi Province, Changsha of Hunan Province, and Xingyi of Guizhou Province) in South China with different N application rates (zero N application; moderate N rate: 161—176 kg·hm-2; high N rate: 225 kg·hm-2) and varieties (hybrid varieties Liangyoupeijiu and Y-liangyou 2 and inbred varieties Huanghuazhan and Yixiangyouzhan ) in 2012 and 2013, and the reports of relevant literature in China and abroad.【Results】The field experiments showed that the yield performance of even the same rice variety exhibited significant or extremely significant differences among the five locations. Under N application conditions (moderate and high N rates), Xingyi had the highest average yield (Liangyoupeijiu: 13.20-13.54 t·hm-2, Y-liangyou 1: 13.50-13.78 t·hm-2, Huanghuazhan: 11.26-11.42 t·hm-2, Yuxiangyouzhan: 11.32-11.45 t·hm-2), followed by Changsha, Chengmai, Binyang, and Huaiji had the lowest average yield (Liangyoupeijiu: 6.66-6.71 t·hm-2, Y-liangyou 1: 6.96-7.20 t·hm-2, Huanghuazhan: 6.96-7.11 t·hm-2, Yuxiangyouzhan: 7.35-6.86 t·hm-2). Similarly, the highest average soil-based yield (yield of no N application treatment) was recorded in Xingyi (10.52 t·hm-2), followed by that in Changsha, Chengmai and Binyang, and the lowest average soil-based yield was recorded in Huaiji (4.53 t·hm-2). The rice yield under fertilized conditions (namely fertilized yield) (YF) depended extremely significantly on the soil-based yield (YS). The regression equations under moderate and high N rates were YF=0.814YS+3.337 (R2=0.824) and YF﹦0.864YS+3.094 (R2=0.839), respectively. The contributions of the soil-based yield (the percentage of the soil-based yield in the fertilized yield) ranged from 64.8% to 85.5% on the average of five locations and from 72.7% to 79.3% on the average of four varieties. The analysis of the data (n=315) collected from previous studies also indicated that there was a significant positive linear relationship between the soil-based yield and the fertilized yield (YF=1.031YS+2.421, R2=0.523), and the average contribution of the soil-based yield was 67.7%. In addition, the results showed that yield increased by fertilization was tightly negatively related with soil-based yield contribution; grain yield was significantly quadratically related to plant N uptake and N application rate.【Conclusions】Target yield should be varied from site to site. Soil-based yield comprehensively reflects the paddy soil fertility and the climate productivity, and therefore can be used as the basis to determine the target yield in rice production. The target yield for high yielding cultivation of rice can be determined by the regression equation based on the soil-based yield. Improving soil fertility is an important approach for achieving the target yield.
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    Cited: Baidu(5)
    Remote Sensing Estimation of Winter Wheat Theoretical Yield on Regional Scale Using Partial Least Squares Regression Algorithm Based on HJ-1A/1B Images
    TAN Chang-wei, LUO Ming, YANG Xin, MA Chang, YAN Xiang, ZHOU Jian, DU Ying, WANG Ya-nan
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2015, 48 (20): 4033-4041.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2015.20.005
    Abstract391)   HTML4)    PDF (1616KB)(605)       Save
    【Objective】 It is a key research and application field in agricultural remote sensing to estimate crop yield through remote sensing technology, and provide timely and reliable yield information for regional field production. Accurate estimation of crop yield has important significance to ensure national food security, to constitute the social development planning, to guide and regulate the macro adjustment of planting structure, and to improve the management skills of agricultural enterprises and farmers. In order to further improve the accuracy of estimating winter wheat yields by remote sensing, and display application effect of domestic imaging products in agricultural production, this study constructs theoretical yield estimation model based on the domestic remote sensing image through screening sensitive remote sensing variables of estimating theory yield of winter wheat, so as to achieve theory yield estimation of regional winter wheat by remote sensing and provide a reference to timely understand yield tendency of winter wheat at the different ecological regions. 【Method】 The research used 2010-4-26, 2011-4-28, 2012-4-28 and 2013-5-2 HJ-1A/1B images at winter wheat anthesis stage as remote sensing data and extracted 13 remote sensing variables. In Jiangsu Province, the 5 counties of Taixing, Jiangyan, Yizheng, Xinghua and Dafeng were selected as the experimental sampling area, and representative samples were selected samples in the experimental sampling area, and were measured indoor. A total of 335 measured samples of winter wheat theoretical yield were divided into modeling datasets and testing datasets according to the ratio of 3﹕2. Based on the minimum value of predictive residual error sum of square (PRESS), the number of required principal component model was determined. The yield estimation model was assessed through determination coefficient (R2), root mean square error (RMSE) and determination coefficient (R2). This research was undertaken to make a systematic analysis on the quantitative relationships of satellite remote sensing variables to winter wheat theoretical yield. Depending on the partial least squares regression (PLS), the multivariable remote sensing estimation models and the space level distribution maps of winter wheat theoretical yield were constructed and verified through modeling and testing datasets, and the estimation effect of the PLS model was compared to linear regression (LR) and principal components analysis (PCA) algorithm models, respectively. 【Result】 The results of this research indicated that the majority of remote sensing variables were significantly related to theoretical yield, and there were significant multiple relationships among the majority of remote sensing variables. For the theoretical yield model based on PLS, the number of the best principal components was 4. Structure intensive pigment index, Normalized difference vegetation index, Green normalized difference vegetation index and Plant senescence reflectance index were identified as the sensitive remote sensing variables for estimating winter wheat theoretical yield. Through testing the theoretical yield model based on PLS algorithm with modeling and testing datasets, for the theoretical yield model, the R2 were 0.79 and 0.76, respectively, the RMSE were 720.45 kg·hm-2 and 928.05 kg·hm-2, respectively, the RE were 11.45% and 13.92%, respectively. The PLS models with selected sensitive variables performed better to estimate winter wheat theoretical yield. PLS algorithm models to estimate winter wheat theoretical yield obtained the higher accuracy by above 25% and above 27% than the LR algorithm models, by above 15% and above 16% than the PCA algorithm models, respectively. The results of applying the PLS model were correspondent with the actual distribution of winter wheat theoretical yield on regional scale and had strong application ability. 【Conclusion】It was concluded that PLS algorithm could provide an effective way to improve the accuracy of estimating winter wheat theoretical yield on regional scale based on aerospace remote sensing, and contribute to large-scale application and promotion of the research results.
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    The Identification of High-Stable Yield Maize Varieties Using the Henan-Hainan Ecological Difference in Three Growing Season
    HUANG Lian-fu, DONG Peng-fei, LI Hong-ping, LI Chao-hai
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2015, 48 (20): 4042-4055.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2015.20.006
    Abstract446)   HTML1)    PDF (903KB)(477)       Save
    【Objective】In order to speed up the screening identification of a high-stable yield and eurytopicity maize hybrid.【Method】This experiment was conducted for three production seasons, using 11 maize varieties (combinations) under 6 kinds of evaluation environments of two ecological regions in Zhengzhou of Henan Province (Henan) and Sanya of Hainan Province (Hainan) during 2011-2012. Through comparisons with the evaluation results of these corn varieties (combinations) in 2011 in nine cities of Henan Province, we analyzed the difference between the two ecological environment conditions to examine the correlation and stability of yield and main agronomic characteristics between them.【Result】These results indicated that the ecological environments were appreciably different between Henan and Hainan, compared with Henan, lighting hours of phases Ⅰ and Ⅱ of Hainan increased by 2.69% and 11.17%, respectively. The average temperature increase was -0.39% and 11.02%, while the rainfall decreased by 15.49% and 8.15% respectively of the maize growth period. The sources of energy in Henan gave priority to shortwave radiation, with phases Ⅰ and Ⅱ in Hainan mainly being longwave radiation. The growth period of phases Ⅰ and Ⅱ in Hainan was shortened by 5.7 days and 7.02 days respectively more than in Henan, yet the main maize agronomic characters in the two places had certain correlations. It could be effective to use the natural environmental conditions of Hainan to identify the growth period duration, plant height, ear diameter, bare tip length, ear rows, numbers of tassel branch, ear-leaf length, and basal third eustipes length of varieties, it is more effective to select in phase Ⅱ of Hainan except the kernel rate. It was appropriate to identify the ear position height, spike length, grain numbers per spike, grain numbers per ear, thousand seed weight, yield, the number of internodes, the ear leaf width, and the base of the third quarter stem diameter. It was appropriate to identify the bacterial wilt and corn rust in Hainan, and leaf spot diseases and maize rough dwarf disease in Henan, with the consistent identification performance for those diseases in both Henan and Hainan. The suitable density in Henan and the arid barren treatment in phase Ⅱ of Hainan were the best among the 6 kinds of evaluation environments, with a strong discriminability and a good representativeness. The normal management of phases Ⅰ and Ⅱ in Hainan came second, while the high density in Henan and the arid barren treatment in phase of Hainan were suitable for the elimination of poor stability varieties. The results showed that the yield differences between different varieties were large under various environmental conditions. It was impossible to exactly evaluate the comprehensive performance of varieties using just one kind of ecological environment.【Conclusion】Partial characteristics of maize varieties (combinations) could be validly selected in Hainan, however, it was more effective to appraise high-stable yield maize varieties (combinations) in all directions using multiple environmental conditions of three quarters of the two locations in one year of Henan and Hainan.
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    Cited: Baidu(1)
    Effects of Mulching on Grain Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Dryland Wheat in Different Rainfall Years
    GAO Yan-mei, SUN Min, GAO Zhi-qiang, CUI Kai, ZHAO Hong-mei, YANG Zhen-ping, HAO Xing-yu
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2015, 48 (18): 3589-3599.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2015.18.003
    Abstract504)   HTML1)    PDF (415KB)(787)       Save
    【Objective】 In order to find out the effects of mulching in a fallow period on water storage and high production and to investigate the effects of mulching in a growth period on water-saving and yield promotion, find a new technique of dryland water retention through mulching in a fallow period and growth period in different rainfall years. 【Method】 The experiment was carried out from 2011 to 2014 years in Wenxi, Shanxi province, and utilized the split-plot design with mulching methods in a fallow period as the main plots and sowing patterns in a growth period(FM and DS)as subplots, to study the effects of mulching on soil water storage at the depth of 0-300 cm , wheat yield components, water use efficiency, water-saving, and yield promotion.【Result】Compared with no mulching treatment, mulching in a fallow period improved the soil water storage at the depth of 0-300 cm at the sowing stage. It was increased 40-41 mm in a humid year, 55-58 mm in a normal year, and 70 mm in a dry year, and more water was stored in deep layers in a dry year. Mulching in a fallow period increased water storage efficiency in a fallow period by more than 20% in different rainfall years, and its effects of water-saving lasted from the sowing stage to the booting stage, and the FM in the growth period had better effects. Compared with no mulching treatment, mulching in a fallow period increased wheat spike number, yield, and water use efficiency significantly, yield was improved more than 20%, while water use efficiency was improved more than 15%. With mulching in a fallow period and FM in a growth period, wheat grain number per spike and 1000-grain weight increased significantly. The result also showed that with mulching treatment in a fallow period, soil water in sowing period increased 1 mm can improved the yield by 21-27 kg·hm-2 in a humid year, 16-18 kg·hm-2 in a normal year and 13-24 kg·hm-2 in a dry year, and at the condition of mulching in fallow period, FM in a growth period had better effects on yield improving. FM in a growth period could improve the effects of water-saving and yield promotion, the water saved in a per kilo gram of grain was improved more than 10%, and the yield increased more than 11% when consuming 1 mm soil moisture. 【Conclusion】Mulching in a fallow period of dryland wheat was beneficial for water storage and rainfall conservation during a fallow period, and it had a better effect in a dry year. Mulching in a fallow period can improve soil water storage before anthesis and increase yield mainly by increasing spike number, and FM in growth period had a better effect. Mulching in a fallow period was conducive to improve soil water storage and yield. When the soil moisture in the sowing period was sufficient, mulching in the growth period was beneficial for improving water-saving and yield. When the soil moisture was insufficient, mulching in the growth period would result in wasting water and decreasing yield.
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    Cited: Baidu(7)
    Evaluation of the Effect of Co-Inoculant of Paenibacillus mucilaginosus and Bradyrhizobium japonicum in Application
    MA Ming-chao, LIU Li, JIANG Xin, GUAN Da-wei, LI Jun
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2015, 48 (18): 3600-3611.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2015.18.004
    Abstract409)   HTML9)    PDF (488KB)(953)       Save
    【Objective】Paenibacillus mucilaginosus and Bradyrhizobium japonicum are widely used as microbial fertilizers in agricultural application due to their beneficial properties, such as phosphorus-solubilization, potassium-release, growth-promotion, and symbiotic nitrogen fixation, respectively. They have all attracted considerable attention of researchers on their application effects and mechanisms when they were used as a single inoculation. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effects of both species on soybean and reveal the mechanisms in order to provide certain theoretical supports for new multiple species inoculants of microbial fertilizers. 【Method】A field experiment with five different fertilizing measures was carried out in Taian, Shandong Province, including T1 (the control), T2 (inoculant of P. mucilaginosus 3016), T3 (inoculant of B. japonicum 5136), T4 (co-inoculant of P. mucilaginosus 3016 and B. japonicum 5136) and T5 (the regular fertilizer dose). Four replicates for each treatment were designed. The effects on soybean growth, soil fertility and soil microbiological characteristics were analyzed.【Result】The results showed that inoculant of P. mucilaginosus 3016 and/or B. japonicum 5136 could improve seeds weight per plant, crop yield and harvest index, and T4 treatment was the highest and better than T1 with a rate of 12.8%, 9.3% and 41.0%, respectively. Co-inoculant could keep the N, P, K content in seeds, stems and leaves of soybean with the highest level, especially K of seeds, N and P of stems and leaves, which were increased by 5.7%, 9.3% and 38.5%, respectively. Co-inoculant could increase the soybean yield and quality. In terms of soil fertility, bio-fertilizer and chemical fertilizer could improve the content of total N, available P, available K and organic matter in soil to some extent, and bio-fertilizer was better at persistence and less effect on soil pH. In this field experiment, the soil fertility in T4 treatment was the best, with an increase rate of 6.5%, 43.7%, 8.5% and 15.5% for total N, available P, available K and organic matter than that in T1 treatment. Co-inoculant could improve soil fertility. Meanwhile, co-inoculation could change soil from “fungus type” to “bacteria type”, by increasing the quantity of bacteria and actinomycete, and inhibiting fungi, which lead to a healthy soil structure. The results of Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) showed that pH and available K played a key role in the shifts of microbial community.【Conclusion】Co-inoculant of P. mucilaginosus 3016 and B. japonicum 5136 not only increased the soybean quality and crop yield, but also improved soil microbiome and soil fertility. That may be an optimal fertilizing measure with good application prospects and popularized value.
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    Innovation and Practice of High-Yield Rice Cultivation Technology in China
    ZHU De-feng, ZHANG Yu-ping, CHEN Hui-zhe, XIANG Jing, ZHANG Yi-kai
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2015, 48 (17): 3404-3414.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2015.17.008
    Abstract1074)   HTML33)    PDF (389KB)(1239)       Save
    Rice is a staple grain crop in China and also the highest yielding one in grain crops. Using Chinese agricultural statistical data and the literature, this paper analyzed the successful experience of innovation and practice, problems and development trend in high-yield cultivation technology in rice, the characteristics of four periods of rice production in China, the contribution of supporting cultivation technology for variety to yield increase, and high-yield cultivation techniques developed in different periods. The characteristics of rice cultivation technology in world are briefly expounded. Supporting cultivation technology for dwarf varieties, hybrid rice, and super rice in the evolution of rice variety and rice industry development was reviewed. The current problems of high yielding cultivation of rice was analyzed. The development of high-yield rice cultivation technology was also discussed. Innovation of supporting cultivation technology based on the growth characteristics of new variety, rice cropping system, rice production models, and ecological environment exploits yield potential of variety and realizes the increase of yield and profit, promotes the development of the rice industry, and improves the environment and raises the efficiency of resource utilization.
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    Cited: Baidu(21)
    Advances in Research of Digital Plant: 3D Digitization of Plant Morphological Structure
    ZHAO Chun-jiang, LU Sheng-lian, GUO Xin-yu, DU Jian-jun, WEN Wei-liang, MIAO Teng
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2015, 48 (17): 3415-3428.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2015.17.009
    Abstract539)   HTML10)    PDF (3138KB)(1589)       Save
    Digital plant focuses on research of the theories, technologies, and methods of efficient perception and cognition to the multi-dimensional information in plant life, agricultural production, and ecological system. The critical, basic, common theories, and technical problems in digital agriculture, including the 3D digitization of plants and its environment, high-throughput information acquisition, context awareness, information fusion, structural-functional simulation, digital design, and accurate management decision, can be studied in depth through the interdisciplinary cooperation. The study of 3D digitization to plant structure is one of the most important topics in the area of digital plant. Recently many in-depth studies on the 3D digitization of plant structure had been reported by considering the real requirements from parameter measurement of plant structure, analysis of morphological structure, 3D reconstruction, structural-functional modeling and realistic rendering of 3D plant models. These studies were done not only from tissue, organ, plant to colony scale, but also from aboveground to underground. In organ scale, with the advance of MRI, CT, microscopic imaging techniques and the corresponding products, using these advanced instruments to measure internal structure data of plant has become possible and popular in more and more researchers. And this also provides an effective method for measuring and analyzing the microcosmic morphological structure of plant. To the 3D digitization of root system, the observation and measurement of plant root are very difficult for root always grows deep in soil. Although XCT, MRI and X-ray imaging techniques have been more and more widely used in recent years for detecting the morphological structure of root, these techniques can often only be used to measure a small part of a whole root. So the accurate, nondestructive and fast measurement of root structure is still a challenge. At colony scale, real measured data-based 3D reconstruction has become a main method for the three-dimensional reconstruction of plant colony. Currently, some researchers are trying to extract the morphological parameters of plant colony directly from 3D point cloud then realize the 3D reconstruction. While at the research of realistic rendering of 3D plant model, how to accurately measure the optical properties of various plant organs and to establish a corresponding mathematical model is the focus in this area. However, although some solutions had been reported, these proposed methods are still not satisfactory when considering the convenience and general applicability, and more in-depth studies are expected to be done. Lastly, the further study of digital plant was also discussed based on the analysis of the related technical progress.
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    Cited: Baidu(5)
    Application Research on Big Data Promote Agricultural Modernization
    XU Shi-wei, WANG Dong-jie, LI Zhe-min
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2015, 48 (17): 3429-3438.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2015.17.010
    Abstract556)   HTML6)    PDF (976KB)(2139)       Save
    Chinese agriculture is facing increasing challenges: the constraints of resources and the environment is increasingly tightening, the price difference between domestic and international markets is enlarging, and the growth in agriculture output and farmers' income is becoming hard to achiere. So, Chinese agriculture has a urgent need of transformation and upgrading, optimizing the structure and improving the quality and efficiency. Big data, as a strategic resource such as material and energy, which plays an important role in the production factors coupling, collaboration, and other aspects of agricultural systems, is becoming an important driving power of agricultural modernization development. At present, big data technology has made progress in agricultural information acquisition, analysis, processing, services, and application in the precise production decision, food security, mining consumer’s demand, guide trade and market. Facing the difficulties of agriculture transformation and upgrading, both of technology innovation and organization innovation need to be formed. On the one hand, developing a data cross fusion, laying solid foundation of modern agricultural benchmark data, breaking an agricultural intelligent model analysis processing system and development and promoting the continuous innovation in data service; On the other hand, setting up data consciousness, strengthening legislation, and improving the governance structure on top of the data, in particular, to deal with data security and data sharing.
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    Cited: Baidu(16)
    Effects of Climate Warming on Growth Process and Yield of Summer Maize in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain in Last 20 Years
    LU Wei-ting, YU Huan, CAO Sheng-nan, CHEN Chang-qing
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2015, 48 (16): 3132-3245.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2015.16.004
    Abstract553)   HTML9)    PDF (1005KB)(685)       Save
    【Objective】The impacts of climate warming on growth process and yield of summer maize in recent 20 years in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain (HHH) of China, for the purpose of providing a theoretical basis for food security.【Method】Six provinces and regions (Hebei, Henan, Shandong, Anhui and Jiangsu provinces and Beijing-Tianjin region) in HHH Plain were selected as the area for conducting research. Making use of the meteorological observation data and the long-term observation data of summer maize in recent 20 years in HHH Plain, the relationships between climatic factors (temperature and precipitation) and growth process and historical production data during growing season were systematically studied by correlation and nonlinear multiple regression analysis and other statistical methods.【Result】In recent twenty years, an upward trend was found out in the temperature during the growth season of summer maize in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain. The precipitation in northern regions, Beijing-Tianjin region, Hebei and Shandong provinces, was reduced, while it was increased in Henan, Anhui and Jiangsu provinces. Compared to 1990s, the growth process of summer maize in HHH Plain was significantly changed since 2000. The whole growth stages were prolonged with vegetative period shortened by 2 and 1 d in Hebei and Shandong provinces, prolonged by 1 d in Henan province and reproductive stage prolonged by 4 and 2 d in Hebei and Shandong provinces, Henan province remained the same. Different correlations were found between each growth duration and temperature factors. Analysis of the relationship between two linear regression equations showed that the state-approved varieties had a same change in the growth period with the experiment station varieties. This indicated that varieties were one of the factors which affected the growth period of summer maize. By adopting linear partial regression test method the importance of varieties and climatic factors on summer maize growth period was analyzed and the results showed that the climatic factors were the main factors causing the changes of summer maize growth period. In addition to Jiangsu province, the summer maize yield in HHH plain is given priority to production. Nonlinear analysis showed that when the temperature rose, the summer maize yield in Hebei and Henan provinces rose. But the yield of maize in southeast provinces showed reduction in HHH Plain. Precipitation had a positive effect on the yield in the rarely rainy north region and a negative effect on the yield in the moist south region. Besides, when GDD10 rose, the yield in Hebei and Henan provinces increased, but the yield reduced in Shandong, Anhui and Jiangsu provinces. The whole HHH Plain yield reduced when GDD30 rose, obviously in Shandong province.【Conclusion】The above evidences indicate that summer maize production is affected by climate warming in HHH Plain. Summer maize is gradually adapting to climate warming. Varieties improvement and sowing date adjustment to adapt to climate warming can improve the yield of summer maize.
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    Cited: Baidu(4)
    The Utilization of Phytate Organic Phosphorus in P-Efficient Wild Barley Genotypes at Jointing Stage
    CAI Qiu-yan, ZHANG Xi-zhou, LI Ting-xuan, CHEN Guang-deng, WU De-yong
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2015, 48 (16): 3146-3155.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2015.16.005
    Abstract448)   HTML2)    PDF (373KB)(722)       Save
    【Objective】The objective of this study is to explore the ability to uptake phytate-Po in P-efficient wild barley genotypes, analyze the variance in plant growth, P absorption and characteristics in rhizosphere soil, and to provide a theoretical basis for revealing the mechanism of Po utilization on P-efficient genotypes wild barley under low available P stress.【Method】P-efficient genotypes (IS-22-30 and IS-22-25) and the P-inefficient genotypes (IS-07-07) were identified by screening the genetic stocks of wild barley. They were grown in low P soil supplied Na-phytate in a pot experiment. The experiment consisted of three different Po fertilizer application treatments, including no Po (CK), 15 mg·kg-1 (Po15) and 30 mg·kg-1 (Po30) in soil. The biomass production, P accumulation, acid phosphatase and phytase activities at root and rhizosphere, and organic phosphorus fractions in rhizosphere of different P efficiencies wild barley at jointing stage under different phytate-Po levels were measured. 【Result】The biomass production and P accumulation of different P efficiencies wild barley were significantly increased, while root/shoot ratio had a decreasing tendency by supplying phytate-Po. The biomass, P accumulation and root/shoot ratio of P-efficient genotypes were higher than those of P-inefficient genotype. In addition, the rate of increase in biomass and P accumulation of P-efficient genotypes was higher than that of P-inefficient genotype by supplying phytate-Po. Acid phosphatase and phytase activities in root were promoted in wild barley with decreasing of phytate-Po concentration. Acid phosphatase and phytase activities in root of P-efficient genotypes were observably higher by 1.15-1.24 times and 1.18-1.34 times than those of P-inefficient genotype, respectively. Acid phosphatase and phytase activities in the rhizosphere soil were higher than that of non-rhizosphere soils, and the enzyme activities increased significantly with the increasing concentration of phytate-Po. Furthermore, the enzyme activities in the rhizosphere soil of P-efficient genotypes were 1.23-1.33 times and 1.15-1.30 times than those of P-inefficient genotype under all Po levels. The concentration of organic phosphorus fractions in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of wild barley were increased by supplying Po. The labile organic phosphorus and moderate labile organic phosphorus of P-efficient genotypes were observably lower than those of P-inefficient genotype. However, for moderate resistant organic phosphorus and resistant organic phosphorus, there was no significant difference among different P efficiencies genotypes. The results showed that the concentrations of organic phosphorus fractions in rhizosphere soils were higher than those of non-rhizosphere soils due to the depletion of organic phosphorus. The waning of labile organic phosphorus and moderate labile organic phosphorus in rhizosphere soils of P-efficient genotypes was found, and the amounts of deficiency were 0.64-1.12 mg·kg-1 and 13.8-33.9 mg·kg-1, respectively.【Conclusion】The biological availability of labile organic phosphorus and moderate labile organic phosphorus in rhizosphere soils of P-efficient wild barley genotypes was enhanced by more acid phosphatase and phytase for root or microorganism in rhizosphere microecology secreting. Thereby, P-efficient wild barley genotypes had superior ability to uptake and utilize Po, and could adapt to the soil environment in lack of available P.
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    Effect of Nitrogen Application Rate on Agronomic, Photosynthetic Characteristics and Yield of Spring Foxtail Millet
    ZHANG Ai-ying, GUO Er-hu, WANG Jun, FAN Hui-ping, LI Yu-hui, WANG Li-xia, WANG Xiu-qing, CHENG Li-ping
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2015, 48 (15): 2939-2951.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2015.15.004
    Abstract662)   HTML4)    PDF (1138KB)(901)       Save
    【Objective】The aim of the study is to determine the optimal amount of nitrogen application and to investigate the correlation between photosynthetic characteristics and yield of spring foxtail millet varieties through analyzing the performance of agronomic traits, photosynthetic characteristics and yield under different nitrogen levels.【Method】The experiment was carried out in a field-split plot design with three replicates with varieties as main plot and nitrogen fertilizer as secondary plot. Cultivars Changnong 35 and Jingu 21 were selected as the experimental materials, and the area of each plot was 15.0 m2(5 m×3 m) and the seedling density was 3×105 plants/hm2. The designed 6 levels of nitrogen were 0 kg·hm-2 (N1), 45 kg·hm-2 (N2), 90 kg·hm-2 (N3), 135 kg·hm-2 (N4), 180 kg·hm-2 (N5) and 225 kg·hm-2 (N6), respectively. Forty percent of the nitrogen was applied as base fertilizer, and 60% applied at jointing stage to booting stage. After plants heading, the SPAD (Soil and Plant Analyzer Development, SPAD) value of the top-three leaves was measured through SPAD-502 (Konica Minolta), and the Ci (intercellular CO2 concentration, Ci), Pn (net photosynthesis rate, Pn) and E (transpiration rates, E) of the top-three leaves were measured using CIRAS-2 (PPSYSTEMS). 【Result】As the nitrogen levels increased, plant height, stem diameter and panicle length of spring foxtail millet exhibited a rising trend, and weight per panicle, grains weight per panicle and SPAD, E and Pn values of the flag leaf and the top-three leaves increased first and then decreased, however, 1000-grain weight had no significant difference in various nitrogen treatments. All of the above traits excepting 1000-grain weight reached to or tended to the highest value, meanwhile the yield tended to be stable at N level of 90 kg·hm-2 for spring foxtail millet, which suggested that the N level of 90 kg·hm-2 may be as the optimal amount of nitrogen application for spring foxtail millet. Furthermore, a regression equation between yield and various N levels was established and the maximum theoretical yield of spring millet was calculated. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the maximum theoretical yield and the observed one at N level of 90 kg·hm-2 (PChangnong 35 = 0.5571, PJingu 21= 0.6632). Therefore, the N level of 90 kg·hm-2 was confirmed as the optimal amount of nitrogen application for spring foxtail millet. The correlation analysis showed that the correlation coefficients between E, Pn of the flag leaf and yield and E, Pn of the top-three leaves and yield were 0.87, 0.86, 0.82, 0.83, respectively, and all reached a significant level.【Conclusion】 The optimal amount of nitrogen application was 90 kg·hm-2 in South Central Shanxi ecological region and soil conditions, and E and Pn of the flag leaf and the top-three leaves were significantly positively correlated with the yield of spring foxtail millet.
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    Cited: Baidu(3)
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