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    Genetic Inheritance and Breeding of Stripe Rust and Powdery Mildew Resistance in Wheat
    LI ShunDa, LAN CaiXia
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2024, 57 (1): 1-3.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2024.01.001
    Abstract286)   HTML62)    PDF (251KB)(219)       Save
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    Current Situation and Strategy of Stripe Rust Resistance Genes Untilization in Winter Wheat Cultivars of Northwestern Oversummering Region for Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in China
    BAI Bin, ZHANG HuaiZhi, DU JiuYuan, ZHANG XiaoYang, HE Rui, WU Ling, ZHANG Zhe, ZHANG YaoHui, CAO ShiQin, LIU ZhiYong
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2024, 57 (1): 4-17.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2024.01.002
    Abstract199)   HTML50)    PDF (649KB)(151)       Save

    【Objective】Eestern and Southern Gansu is one of the epidemic centers of stripe rust and over-summering region for Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) with continuous emergening of new Pst races in Northwestern China. The objective of this study is to analyze the genetic architecture of stripe rust resistance in winter wheat cultivars grown in those regions since 1990s for a better genetic diversity control of the disease, breeding of durable resistant cultivars, sustainable green and healthy ecological agriculture in Southern Gansu. 【Method】The seedling and adult plant stage resistance to the prevailing Pst races CYR33, CYR34, etc. of 117 wheat cultivars (lines) were evaluated at greenhouse in 2021 and field trials in Qingshui of Gansu and Pixian of Sichuan, respectively, during 2019-2020 and 2020-2021 cropping seasons. Molecualr markers for 15 Yr genes were also applied to detect the presence of known stripe rust resistant genes. 【Result】Of the 117 varieties and lines tested, thirty-four (29.1%) were found to perform adult plant stage resistance (APR) in the field, among these, 25.6% and 3.4% of cultivars were released in Southern Gansu, and Eastern Gansu, respectively. Another 25.6% susceptible cultivars from Southern Gansu exhibited slow rusting with disease severity (DS) less than 20%. Eighty-two cultivars (70.1%) were resistant to the race CYR33 of Pst at the seedling stage. Among them, 67 (57.3%) and 15 (12.8%) were planted in Southern and Eastern Gansu, respectively. However, only seven (6.0%) of the total entries were resistant to the dominant race CYR34 at the seedling stage, and all of these were cultivars from Southern Gansu, such as Lantian 131 etc. The stripe rusts resistant cultivars named as Lantian, Zhongliang, and Tianxuan series at both seedling and adult plant stages were mainly released after 2010. Molecular markers screening identified the presence of Yr9 (49.6%), Yr10 (1.7%), Yr17 (12.8%), Yr18 (7.7%), Yr26 (12.8%), Yr28 (20.5%), Yr29 (10.3%), Yr30 (34.2%), Yr41 (2.6%), Yr46 (16.2%), YrZH22 (15.4%) and YrZH84 (27.4%) in some cultivars, preferly as 2-5 genes combinations in 73 (62.4%) cultivars. Pyramiding of YrZH84, YrZH22, and Yr17 with other stripe rust resistance genes could provide better disease resistance than other gene combinations. In addition, high frequency of Yr10, Yr17, Yr18, Yr28, Yr29, Yr30, Yr41, and Yr46 was detected in wheat cultivars grown in the dry highland Pst oversummering region. However, Yr26, Yr30, YrZH22, and YrZH84 were mainly identified in wheat cultivars of the valley Pst overwintering region, indicating significant genetic architecture difference for the stripe rust resistance genes between the cultivars of the oversummering and overwintering regions. Higher genetic diversity of stripe rust resistance genes was found in the cultivars of the oversummering region, compared with that released in the overwintering region. 【Conclusion】Our results revealed the current status of stripe rust resistance genes and their utilization in winter wheat cultivars of Gansu, the northwest oversummering region for Pst of China, in the past 20 years. Diversification of stripe rust resistance genes have been successfully applied in the winter wheat breeding program to develop commercial wheat cultivars and lines for sustainable control of the stripe rust disease. The development of wheat cultivars with stacked stripe rust resistance genes has solved the historical problem of wheat cultivars with narrow genetic background and mono-resistance gene, domonstrating the successful control of wheat stripe rust epidemics using genetic diversity of wheat resistance gene in this region. The present study provides theoretical basis for genetic diversity control of stripe rust disease and set an example for the sustainable green ecological agriculture by breeding wheat cultivars with durable disease resistance.

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    Identification and Evaluation of Stripe Rust Resistance in 153 Wheat Collections
    ZHOU JingWei, YE BoWei, ZHANG PengFei, ZHANG YuQing, HAO Min, YIN YuRuo, YUAN Chan, LI ZhiKang, LI ShunDa, XIA XianChun, HE ZhongHu, ZHANG HongJun, LAN CaiXia
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2024, 57 (1): 18-33.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2024.01.003
    Abstract191)   HTML33)    PDF (1623KB)(122)       Save

    【Objective】Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), significantly reduced wheat production worldwide. Breeding resistant wheat varieties is currently considered to be one of the most economical and effective ways to control this disease. Understanding the resistance level of Chinese and International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) wheat breeding materials and the distribution of known disease resistance genes will greatly helpful for discovering the new resistance resources and improving the utilization efficiency of disease resistance genes. 【Method】In the present study, we phenotyped 153 wheat breeding lines derived from China and CIMMYT at both seedling against prevalent Chinese Pst races CYR33 and CYR34. In 2018-2019, 2019-2020 and 2020-2021, using the Pst races CYR33 and CYR34 to identify the materials at the adult plant stages in Ezhou, Hubei. In addition, we used the gene-based or closely linked molecular markers of known stripe rust resistance genes Yr5, Yr9, Yr10, Yr15, Yr17, Yr18, Yr26, Yr29 and YrSP to genotype the whole set of wheat collections. 【Result】We found 10 lines immune against CYR33 at the seedling stage (IT: 0), including seven Chinese cultivars (Shannong 28, Luomai 163, Shimai 13, Zhongyi 6, Tanmai 98-2, Zhongmai 175, Taishan 21) and three CIMMYT lines (CIM-53, CIM-60 and CIM-71). However, only two cultivars, Tanmai 98-1 and Shannong 102, showed immune to CYR34 at the seedling stage. Based on the three years field tests, we found 64 lines showed highly resistance to stripe rust (final disease severity, FDS≤5%), including seven Chinese cultivars and 57 CIMMYT lines. The molecular marker analysis of known stripe rust resistance genes showed that there were 31, 23, 73, 2, 4, 50 and 2 lines carrying resistance genes Yr9, Yr10, Yr17, Yr18, Yr26, Yr29 and YrSP, respectively. None of any lines had Yr5 and Yr15. Based on the phenotype, only CIM-53 showed immune against two races at both seedling and adult plant stages (IT=0, FDS=0) and it might carry the known stripe rust resistance gene combination of Yr17+Yr29 based on the genotype. 【Conclusion】A total of 153 wheat collections from China and CIMMYT were showed adult plant resistance to the prevalent Pst races. Among these, Chinese wheat varieties mainly carry Yr9, Yr10 and Yr26, while CIMMYT wheat line mainly carry Yr17, Yr18 and Yr29, indicating that near-immunity resistance of CIMMYT wheat lines due to combinations of 1-2 moderate seedling resistance gene and 2-3 adult plant resistance genes resulting in durable resistance. Therefore, it is very urgent to expand the resistance sources and identify new resistance genes for pyramiding more genes biotechnology methods to develop new wheat varieties with durable rusts resistance and good agronomic traits. This plays an important role for controlling stripe rust in China by improving the resistance level of wheat variety overall.

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    Current Status and Strategies for Utilization of Stripe Rust Resistance Genes in Wheat Breeding Program of China
    LIU ZhiYong, ZHANG HuaiZhi, BAI Bin, LI Jun, HUANG Lin, XU ZhiBin, CHEN YongXing, LIU Xu, CAO TingJie, LI MiaoMiao, LU Ping, WU QiuHong, DONG LingLi, HAN YuLin, YIN GuiHong, HU WeiGuo, WANG XiCheng, ZHAO Hong, YAN SuHong, YANG ZhaoSheng, CHANG ZhiJian, WANG Tao, YANG WuYun, LIU DengCai, LI HongJie, DU JiuYuan
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2024, 57 (1): 34-51.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2024.01.004
    Abstract227)   HTML23)    PDF (6853KB)(280)       Save

    Wheat stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) is a devastating disease threaten food security in China and worldwide. Epidemics of wheat stripe rust have been under control through applying resistant cultivars and crop protection approaches. However, due to climate change, innovation of cropping system, improvement of breeding technology, yield level enhancement of wheat cultivars, variation in structure and frequency of virulence genes in Pst populations in the new era, the current status of stripe rust resistance genes in wheat breeding programs need to be evaluated. The results could provide useful information for applying stripe rust resistance genes to develop new wheat cultivars with broad-spectrum and durable rust resistance. After multiple year’s stripe rust resistance survey, genetic analysis, molecular tagging and mining of stripe rust resistance genes in wheat cultivars and advanced breeding lines, the current status of major stripe rust resistance genes utilization was reviewed. We summarized the present situations of major stripe rust resistance gene discovery and germplasm innovation, the most frequently used stripe rust resistance genes, new strategy for pyramiding adult plant partial resistance and all stage resistance, and molecular marker assisted selection for developing wheat cultivars with broad spectrum and durable resistance in China. This review also proposes the major research areas in wheat stripe rust resistance breeding in the new era.

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    Genetic Analysis of Adult Plant Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Common Wheat Arableu#1
    LI ZiMeng, YUAN Chan, ZHANG YuQing, REN Yan, LIU PengPeng, YAN ShanShan, XI MengHan, MU PeiYuan, LAN CaiXia
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2024, 57 (1): 52-64.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2024.01.005
    Abstract119)   HTML10)    PDF (4198KB)(94)       Save

    【Objective】China is a significant wheat producer and consumer in the world. It is very important for our food security to making sure the stable wheat production. Wheat powdery mildew is an important leaf disease to affect the global wheat yield. Breeding resistant wheat varieties is one of the most economically and environmentally effective way to manage this disease. Identification of new adult plant resistant loci is very important for breeders to develop durable powdery mildew-resistant wheat varieties. 【Method】The CIMMYT-derived common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Arableu#1, showed susceptibility to powdery mildew at the seedling stage, but exhibited a high level of resistance to this disease at the adult plant stage in the field. In order to understand the genetic basis of powdery mildew resistance in this line, we made an F5 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population between Arableu#1 and the susceptible line Apav#1 and genotyped by genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) platform. We obtained 4 298 polymorphic molecular markers between the parents and analyze the 142 RILs. Joinmap 4.1 and IciMapping 4.1 were respectively used to construct the linage maps and identify the powdery mildew resistance QTL in this study. 【Result】Four adult plant resistance loci from Arableu#1 were identified on wheat chromosome arms 1BL, 5BL, 6BS and 7BL, while two loci from Apav#1 on chromosomes 2DS and 4BL, which can explain the powdery mildew disease severity variation from 3.1% to 28.5%. The MFDS of RIL reached the lowest level when it carried all six detected resistance loci, while RILs combing QPm.hzau-1BL, QPm.hzau-4BL, QPm.hzau-5BL, and QPm.hzau-7BL also showed lower disease severity over multiple environments. 【Conclusion】KASP markers KASP-5B-1 and KASP-7B-2 for QPm.hzau-5BL and QPm.hzau-7BL, respectively, were developed in the present study. The two loci showed varying degrees of resistance to powdery mildew when present individually or in combination based on the genotype and phenotype of 570 wheat germplasm collections. Additionally, the frequency of these two loci in Chinese wheat materials is lower compared to CIMMYT's wheat germplasm. A line combining 6 QTLs was found and it showed near-immune resistance to powdery mildew in the field. This material will be an important germplasm resource for breeders to develop powdery mildew-resistant wheat varieties.

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