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    Content of SOIL & FERTILIZER・WATER-SAVING IRRIGATION・AGROECOLOGY & ENVIRONMENT in our journal
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    Relationship Between Grain Nitrogen Content and Yield Formation, Uptake and Partitioning of NPK of High-Yielding Wheat Cultivars in Drylands
    XU JunFeng, ZHANG XueMei, YANG Jun, GUO ZiKang, HUANG Cui, DING YuLan, HUANG Ning, SUN RuiQing, TIAN Hui, WANG ZhaoHui, SHI Mei
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2023, 56 (24): 4880-4894.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2023.24.007
    Abstract211)   HTML27)    PDF (2378KB)(183)       Save

    【Objective】The aim of this study was to understand the variations of grain nitrogen (N) content and its relationships with yield formation as well as uptake, transfer and partitioning of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK) within high-yielding wheat cultivars, which was of great significance for screening and breeding superior wheat cultivars with high yield and grain N content, and for nutrient management in green production of wheat with high yield and high quality in drylands.【Method】Field experiments were carried out, and 14 high-yielding wheat cultivars of similar yields and different grain N content were cultivated on the typical dryland area of the Loess Plateau from 2017 to 2022. Differences in grain N contents of high-yielding wheat cultivars and its relation to yields, yield components as well as N, P and K content in different organs were analyzed. Meanwhile, biomass accumulation and yield formation as well as uptake, transfer and partitioning of NPK in response to fertilization were investigated.【Result】Significant positive correlation was found between the grain N content and 1000-grain weight of wheat cultivars, and for each 1.0 g increase of the 1000-grain weight, the grain N content increased by 0.3 g·kg-1. The grain N content showed significant differences in the tested wheat cultivars, with the mean of high-N group being 24.9 g·kg-1, and 16% higher than that of the low-N group (21.5 g·kg-1), respectively, while the average yields were not significantly different from each other of the two groups. The yield, biomass and spike number of high-N group exhibited higher response to N and P fertilizer application. The grain P content and straw K content of the high-N group were higher than the low-N group under different fertilization conditions, and the increases of N, P and K uptake in grain and shoot were larger than that of low-N group after N and P application. The abilities of N transfer from glumes to grains in the high-N group was greater than that in the low-N group, but the capacities of K transfer from straws to grains and glumes was lower than that in low-N cultivars. The abilities of K transfer from straws to other organs decreased significantly after N application. Application of N, P and K was conducive to increase the partitioning of K from shoots to straws of the high-N group.【Conclusion】The high-yielding wheat cultivars exhibited significant differences in the grain N content. The 1000-grain weight and grain P content of high-N cultivars were higher, its straw K content was also higher, but its capacities of K transfer from straws to grains and glumes was lower. The N, P and K uptake of the high-N group in grains and shoots increased extremely after N and P application. Therefore, to screen and breed superior wheat cultivars with high grain N content on the basis of high yield, the attention should be paid to select the cultivars with high grain 1000-grain weight as well as the strong transferring and partitioning abilities of P to grains and K to straws. The efforts should be also made to cooperate the supply of P, K and N in wheat production, with the purpose to increase the grain N content.

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    Characteristics of Oilseed Rape Cultivar with Different Oil Content in Nutrient Dynamitic Accumulation Rates and Utilization Efficiency
    HU WenShi, LI YinShui, ZHAO ManLi, ZHANG ShanShan, GU ChiMing, DAI Jing, LI XiaoYong, YANG Lu, QIN Lu, LIAO Xing
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2023, 56 (24): 4895-4905.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2023.24.008
    Abstract110)   HTML13)    PDF (569KB)(87)       Save

    【Objective】To clarify the requirements of oilseed rape cultivars characterized by high-oil content for nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) nutrients, the dynamic nutrient accumulation rates of cultivars with different oil content were compared, so as to provide a theoretical basis on precise nutrient management for realizing high oil yield potential. 【Method】The field and pot experiments were carried out during 2019-2021 oilseed rape growth seasons to monitor the dynamic changes in biomass, NPK content and accumulation rates of oilseed rapes cultivars with high oil content (Zhongyouza 19, Z19) and conventional oil content control cultivars (Huayouza 12, H12, and Huayouza 62, H62). And then the differences in nutrient utilization efficiency were analyzed.【Result】The results of two-year experiments showed that the seed yield of Z19 was obviously lower than that of H62 by 8.5%-20.4%, but there was little difference in seed yield between Z19 and H12. However, the oil content of Z19 was significantly higher than those of H12 and H62 (10.1%-26.7%). By monitoring the dynamic biomass and nutrient content in the field and pot traits during the 2020/2021 growth seasons, it was claimed that the biomass of Z19 was lower than that of H62, which was higher than that of H12 at podding and mature stage with different degrees, while there was minor difference in biomass between Z19 and H12 before podding stage. The N content of Z19 was significantly lower than H12 and H62 during growth in pot experiment and after flowering stage in field experiment. And K content of Z19 was higher than H12 and H62 during growth. However, there was no consistent changes in P content between field and pot experiments among three cultivars. Consequently, the N accumulation rates of Z19 were lower than that of H62 by 19.2%-29.0% and lower than that of H12 by 9.8%-13.1% in pot experiment. The K accumulation rate of Z19 was higher than H12 by 7.4%-39.2% except for the flowering stage. Moreover, the P accumulation rate of Z19 was between those of H62 and H12, which was remarkably higher than that of H12 in the field and significantly lower than that of H62 in the pot. The N utilization efficiency and oil production efficiency of Z19 were significantly higher than those of H12 and H62. Moreover, the K utilization efficiency of Z19 was lower than that of H12 and H62, but the K oil production efficiency of Z19 was close to that of H12 and H62. There was minor difference in P utilization efficiency among 3 cultivars, but the P oil production efficiency of Z19 was significantly higher than that of H12. 15N labeling indicated that there was no obviously difference in N fertilizer use efficiency among three cultivars until flowering stage, after which N fertilizer use efficiency of Z19 was significantly lower than that of H12 and H62.【Conclusion】In summary, high-oil content cultivar, Z19, had a higher demand for K and a lower demand for N with a higher N utilization efficiency. In agricultural production, K fertilizer could be supplemented for high-oil content cultivar, and less N fertilizer could be applied in comparison to the conventional oilseed rape cultivars.

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