Browse by section

    Content of SPECIAL FOCUS: PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF WATERFOWL INFECTIOUS DISEASE in our journal
        Published in last 1 year |  In last 2 years |  In last 3 years |  All
    Please wait a minute...
    For Selected: Toggle Thumbnails
    Promoting the Research on Prevention and Control of Waterfowl Infectious Disease in China
    LIU YueHuan
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2019, 52 (23): 4386-4389.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.23.018
    Abstract222)   HTML7)    PDF (311KB)(91)       Save
    Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    The Effects of Downstream 3513bp of UL56 on Characterization of Duck Enteritis Virus
    MAO YaQing,ZHANG Bing,WANG TuanJie,HOU LiDan,HUANG XiaoJie,LIU Dan,ZHAO JunJie,LI QiHong,WANG LeYuan,LI JunPing,YANG ChengHuai
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2019, 52 (23): 4390-4397.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.23.019
    Abstract326)   HTML12)    PDF (5464KB)(213)       Save

    【Objective】Duck enteritis virus (DEV) taxonomically belongs to family Herpesviridae and infects ducks, geese, and swans, which results in high mortality and decreased egg production in domestic and wild waterfowl. Several DEV whole genomic sequences were published, which contained 158-162 kb. Compared with DEV vaccine strain, the virulent DEV strain for vaccine evaluation had a 3513-bp insertion, resulting to UL56 frameshift mutation. At present, there are few papers about DEV gene function and pathogenic mechanism. To study the effect of the 3513-bp insertion on DEV characterization, a recombinant DEV with the 3513-bp deletion was constructed.【Method】The extracted DEV genomic DNA was used as template to amplify the UL56-u and UL56-d of the upstream and downstream ends of UL56 gene, respectively. The two homologous arm fragments were cloned into pMD18T-Simple vector, and the recombinant plasmid pT-UL56ud was obtained. The recombinant plasmid pT-UL56ud was cut by MluI enzyme, and after electrophoretic recovery and dephosphorylation, the recombinant plasmid pT-UL56-RFP was obtained by inserting RFP expression box into pT-UL56ud. After DEV was inoculated with duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) (MOI=0.1) for 1 to 2 h, the purified plasmid pT-UL56-RFP was transfected according to Lipofectamine 2000 instructions, and then purified by plaque. A 3513-bp deletion mutant, DEVΔ3513-RFP, was generated by targeted homologous recombination, in which red fluorescent protein (RFP) as a reporter replaced the 3 513 bp. The RFP was then removed to generate DEV△3513. A rescue mutant, DEVΔ3513(R), was constructed by reinserting the 3 513 bp into the genome of DEVΔ3513-RFP. The recombinant virus and its parent virus were inoculated in DEF (MOI =0.01), the virus titer was measured and the growth curve was plotted. The recombinant virus and its parent virus were diluted properly and inoculated into monolayers DEF, covered with M199 agarose and cultured 5-7 days. Twenty plaques were selected randomly and the area of plaques was assayed. Six-week old susceptible ducks were inoculated with 10 5.0TCID50 of the 3513-bp deletion mutant, rescue mutant and its parental virus, respectively. After 10 days, all the surviving ducks were euthanized. The liver tissues were taken from all the animals and fixed to 4% poly Formaldehyde Solution; the pathological sections were prepared by routine procedures and stained with HE. The recombinant virus and the Duck Plague Live Vaccine (CVCC AV1222) were injected with 10 3.0TCID50 in muscles for 6 weeks of age susceptible ducks to be tested for immunogenicity. After 14 days, all vaccinated ducks were challenged with 10 3.0MLD of lethal DEV (CVCC AV1221).【Result】The recombinant viruses, DEVΔ3513 and DEVΔ3513(R), and their parental virus possessed similar growth kinetics, and their titer peaked at 72 hours with the peak titer 10 6.2-6.5TCID50/0.1mL. Their average plaques sizes were not significantly different; DEVΔ3513 was avirulent in 6-week ducks; the ducks vaccinated with 10 3TCID50 were protected against subsequent challenge with lethal DEV.【Conclusion】We successfully constructed a DEV mutant with 3 513 bp deletion, and firstly confirmed that the deletion of the 3 513 bp had no effect on virus replication in cells and immunogenicity in ducks. Moreover, the 3 513 bp was associated with DEV virulence.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Construction of a Recombinant Duck Enteritis Virus Expressing Hemagglutinin of H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus
    SUN Ying,ZHANG Bing,LI Ling,HUANG XiaoJie,HOU LiDan,LIU Dan,LI QiHong,LI JunPing,WANG LeYuan,LI HuiJiao,YANG ChengHuai
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2019, 52 (23): 4398-4405.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.23.020
    Abstract305)   HTML8)    PDF (845KB)(208)       Save

    【Background】The H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) pathogenicity and transmissibility have recently showed an increasing trend. Moreover, it donates partial or even whole cassette of internal genes to generate novel reassortants, which is serious threat to poultry industry and public health. Waterfowls are considered as the natural host and reservoirs of AIVs and play an important role in the spread and mutation of AIV. Therefore, successful control of the spread of H9N2 in waterfowls contributes significantly to poultry industry and public health. Duck enteritis virus (DEV) taxonomically belongs to family Herpesviridae and infects ducks, geese, and swans, which results in high mortality and decreased egg production in domestic and wild waterfowl. DEV may be a promising candidate viral vector for aquatic poultry vaccination because it has a large genome and good immunogenicity. 【Objective】 In this study, we constructed a recombinant DEV expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of a H9N2 virus that was inserted into the deleted viral gE gene, and then its characterization to explore the feasibility of the recombinant DEV as a live vectored vaccine was studied.【Method】 The HA gene of H9N2 was cloned to construct the transfer vector pT-gE-HA. Plasmid pT-gE-HA and rDEV-△gE-GFP were co-transfected into CEF cells. After plaque-purification, we obtained a pure recombinant virus which expressed H9N2 AIV HA protein, and named as rDEV-△gE-HA; PCR and sequencing assay were used to identify the recombinant virus. The recombinant virus was passaged in primary CEF 20 times to evaluate the genetic stability of the foreign gene in the recombinant virus. Ducks were inoculated with 10 3EID50 rDEV-△gE-HA, then challenged with lethal DEV. Ducks were vaccinated intramuscularly with 10 3-10 6 TCID50 of rDEV-△gE-HA. At 14, 21, and 28 days post-vaccination (d.p.v.), sera were obtained from all ducks to monitor HI antibody against H9N2 AIV. At 28 d.p.v. all ducks were challenged with 10 8 EID50 H9N2 (A/duck/GD/08) by intravenous injection. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from H9N2 virus challenged ducks to detect viral shedding.【Result】The recombinant expression vector pT-gE-HA was constructed and transfected with rDEV-△gE-GFP in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF). After 3 rounds of plaque-purification, the purified rDEV-△gE-HA was obtained. The results of the PCR and sequencing indicated that the HA expression cassette had already successfully been inserted into the DEV. The HA gene were stably maintained after the recombinant was passaged 20 times in CEF. Ducks inoculated with 10 3 TCID50 of rDEV-△gE-HA were protected against lethal DEV. HI antibody was detected in all vaccinated ducks at 14 d.p.v. and slightly increased at 21 d.p.v.. Challenge with H9N2 at 28 d.p.v., ducks inoculated with 10 3, 10 4 and 10 6TCID50 were completely protected from challenge, as evidenced by the finding that no virus was recovered from collected oropharyngeal swabs, while 80% ducks (4/5) inoculated with 10 5TCID50 were protected.【Conclusion】In this research, we successfully constructed a stable recombinant DEV expressing the HA of H9N2 AIV. The recombinant DEV remained the protective efficacy of the parental virus against lethal DEV parental virus. Moreover, it could induce HI antibody in ducks and protect no less 80% ducks against H9N2 AIV challenge, although the titer of HI antibody was not too high. This study laid a foundation for developing bivalent vaccine controlling DEV and AIV infection.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Virulence, E Gene Sequence and Antigenic Difference of 4 Duck Tembusu Virus Isolations
    YANG ZhiYuan,DUAN HuiJuan,WANG XiaoLei,LIU LiXin,ZHAO JiCheng,PAN Jie,LIU YueHuan,LIN Jian
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2019, 52 (23): 4406-4414.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.23.021
    Abstract344)   HTML9)    PDF (899KB)(256)       Save

    【Objective】The research aimed to compare the virulence of Duck Tembusu Virus (DTMUV), and to analysis its envelope protein gene sequence analysis and antigenic difference. 【Method】Susceptible 10-day-old duck embryos were inoculated with four different DTMUV strains, including DTMUV-HB isolated in 2011, DTMUV-AH isolated in 2014, DTMUV-GX1 isolated in 2012 and DTMUV-GX2 isolated in 2015. The median embryo lethal dose (ELD50) of the four strains was measured with 6-day-old SPF chicken embryos. According to that, forty 180-day-old healthy Peking duck were challenged respectively with four strains which were diluted into 100 ELD50/0.5 mL. The clinical, virological, pathological features of different DTMUV strains infection in ducks were characterized. The viral RNA of eight DTMUV strains were extracted from the allantoic fluid, and then the E gene were amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. Then the similarity analysis of nucleotide and amino acid sequence and phylogenetic analysis were carried out. The HI titers of 4 antisera against 4 DTMUV strains were determined with duck Tembusu virus hemagglutination inhibition test. The neutralization titers of 4 antisera against 4 DTMUV strains were determined by neutralization assay using C6/36 cell lines. We analyzed the antigenic difference of 4 DTMUV strains by R value, which contained cross hemagglutination inhibition test and cell cross neutralization test. 【Result】(1) The median embryo lethal dose (ELD50) were 10 -4.7-10 -5.3/0.1ml. The artificial infection test suggested that, feed intake and egg production of the challenged group decreased significantly on 3 days post inoculation (dpi), and the virus positive isolation rate were more than 85% on 2 dpi. The gross lesions of the reproductive system were mainly deformed and hemorrhaged follicular by necropsying on 8 dpi. (2) The results of sequence analysis showed that nucleotide sequence similarity was 95.7% - 100%, and the similarity of amino acid sequence was 98.2%. Genetic evolutionary analysis illustrated that all the DTMUV isolates in this study gathered into the same clade. (3) The R value showed antigenic difference of cross hemagglutination inhibition test were 0.79-1.12, and that of cell cross neutralization test were 0.79-1.20. 【Conclusion】There were no significant difference in virulence, E gene sequence and antigenicity of four DTMUV strains isolated in this study.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Hemagglutinating Activity of Duck Tembusu Virus
    WANG XiaoLei, LIU YueHuan, DUAN HuiJuan, LIU LiXin, YANG ZhiYuan, ZHAO JiCheng, PAN Jie, LIU RuiHua, ZHAO WenQi, TIAN FangJie, Lü JinBao, LIN Jian
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2019, 52 (23): 4415-4422.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.23.022
    Abstract340)   HTML7)    PDF (617KB)(203)       Save

    【Objective】 The objective of this paper was to study the hemagglutinating activity of duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV). 【Method】The DTMUV was inoculated intracerebrally in the 1-3-day-old sucking mice of BALB/c in different dilution to observe the morbidity. The brains of sucking mice were collected and purified according to the referenced methods. The purified virus fluid was inactivated by suitable inactivator, followed by the inactivated inspection in 6-day-old SPF chicken embryo. The virus fluid was evaluated the hemagglutinating activity with the erythrocyte suspension of chicken, duck, goose, pigeon and swine. The concentration of the erythrocyte suspension used in the hemagglutination test was compared to select the proper concentration. The pH value of the reaction system between 6.0-7.0 and the reaction temperature including 4℃, room temperature and 37℃ were compared. 【Result】 In the 6 day after inoculation , the sucking mice inoculated with 1:10 dilution appeared severe clinical symptoms including twitch, paralysis, and most of them were in agonal stage, while the symptoms of the sucking mice inoculated with 1:50 and 1:100 dilution were slighter. The purified DTMUV fluid was pinkey and clarified. It could be inactivated by formaldehyde but not β-propiolactone that would produce lots of flocks and change the property of the fluid. The DTMUV could hemagglutinate with the erythrocyte suspension of chicken, duck, goose, pigeon and swine, and the agglutination graphics was clear and stable when the concentration of the erythrocyte suspension was 0.33%. The hemagglutinating activity of DTMUV could be showed when the reaction system pH value was 6.0-6.8, while the highest hemagglutination titer appeared during the pH 6.0-6.2. Furthermore, the hemagglutinating activity could be appeared at 4℃, room temperature and 37℃, respectively, although the time required for hemagglutination at 4℃ was much longer. 【Conclusion】The DTMUV proliferated in the sucking mice of BALB/c had a broad spectrum of hemagglutinating activity that could hemagglutinate with the erythrocyte suspension of chicken, duck, goose, pigeon and swine. The hemagglutinating activity was stable and could hemagglutinate with the goose erythrocyte at 4℃, room temperature and 37℃. The suitable reaction conditions were 0.33% concentration of the erythrocyte suspension and pH 6.0-6.2 of the reaction system.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Correlation Research of the Serological Test (HI) and Challenge Test of Duck Tembusu Virus Inactivated Vaccine
    WANG XiaoLei,LIN Jian,YANG ZhiYuan,LIU LiXin,DUAN HuiJuan,CHENG HuiMin,ZHAO JiCheng,PAN Jie,LIU YueHuan
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2019, 52 (23): 4423-4428.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.23.023
    Abstract320)   HTML8)    PDF (394KB)(155)       Save

    【Objective】The objective of this paper was to evaluate the correlation of the serological test (HI) and challenge test of duck Tembusu virus inactivated vaccine.【Method】Three batches of vaccines ( laboratory trial products) were used to immunize the 51-day-old young ducks and 260-day-old laying ducks by intramuscular injection in 0.15, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 mL, respectively. Secondary immunization was proceeded in the same doses and route at 14 day after primary immunization. Ducks were regrouped according to the HI titer and challenged with 0.5 mL (100 DID50) DTMUV at day 28 after secondary immunization. Serum samples were collected at 2 days later for virus isolation and laying ducks were dissected at 8 days later to observe the ovarian lesions. All the results were counted to evaluate the immune potency of vaccines. The correlation of HI titer and immune protection rate was analyzed.【Result】The protection rate of immunized young ducks with HI titer of 1:5 or lower, 1:10, 1:20, 1:40, 1:80, 1:160, 1:320, 1:640 was 50% (20/40), 43.8% (7/16), 74.3% (26/35), 86.7% (26/30), 96.6% (57/59), 92.7% (51/55), 95% (38/40) and 100% (11/11), respectively. The protection rate was 48.2% with HI titer lower than 1:20, while the rate was 74.3% with HI titer of 1:20 and 93.8% with HI titer of 1:40 or greater. In laying ducks, the protection rate of flocks with HI titer of 1:5 or lower, 1:20, 1:40 and 1:80 was 66.7% (12/18), 83.3% (10/12), 95.2% (20/21) and 100% (15/15), respectively. The protected proportion of ducks with HI titer of 1:10, 1:160, 1:320 and 1:640 was 2/3, 7/7, 1/1 and 2/2, respectively. The protection rate was 66.7% with HI titer of 1:10 or below, while the rate was 83.3% with HI titer of 1:20 and 97.8% with HI titer of 1:40 or greater. There were significant positive correlations between the HI titer and the immune protection rate both in young ducks and laying ducks. The Spearman’s correlation coefficient was 0.905 (P<0.01) and 0.932 (P<0.01), respectively. 【Conclusion】There were positive correlations between the HI titer and the immune protection rate of duck Tembusu virus inactivated vaccine (strain HB). The HI detection could be used to evaluate the efficacy of duck Tembusu virus inactivated vaccine (strain HB) instead of challenge test. The HI titer of 1:20 could be defined as the criteria of protection for the duck Tembusu virus inactivated vaccine after immunization.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Prokaryotic Expression and Polyclonal Antibody Preparation of Duck Oligoadenylate Synthase-Like Protein
    BI KeRan,LI Yin,HAN KaiKai,ZHAO DongMin,LIU QingTao,LIU YuZhuo,HUANG XinMei,YANG Jing
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2019, 52 (23): 4429-4436.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.23.024
    Abstract285)   HTML14)    PDF (1571KB)(262)       Save

    【Objective】In previous study, we have obtained the full-length gene of duck oligoadenylate synthase-like protein (duOASL) and confirmed that duOASL could inhibit DTMUV replication. To further investigate the inhibitory effect of duOASL on DTMUV replication, the recombinant protein (pGEX-OASL) with GST tag and polyclonal antibody of duOASL protein was obtained by prokaryotic expression and polyclonal antibody preparation technology. These results would lay a foundation for performing further studies to determine mechanism(s) underlying the antiviral activity duOASL at the molecular level. 【Method】Primers were designed based on the ORF sequence of duOASL gene from healthy Cherry Valley ducks. Total RNA was extracted from the spleen tissues of duckling by using HP Total RNA Kits. The cDNA was synthesized using random primers and M-MLV reverse transcriptase. Full-length of duOASL gene was obtained by synthesising pGEX-OAS-F and pGEX-OAS-R primers by using the cDNA. The PCR results were detected by 1.5% agarose electrophoresis. The sequences of the same size as the target band were purified and cloned to pEASY-T1 vector. The cloned gene ORF was inserted into the expression vector pGEX-4t-1 with GST tag and by BamH I and Xho I digestion. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21 and expressed under the induction with 0.5 mmol·L -1 IPTG for 4 h. The expression of the fusion protein was detected by SDS-PAGE and Western-blotting. Then the polyclonal antibody was obtained from rabbits which had immunized by the purified duOASL recombinant protein. The purity and titer of the polyclonal antibody were determined by SDS-PAGE and ELISA.【Result】The recombinant protein was a soluble protein and the molecular weight was 84 kD. The purity was 0.5 mg·mL -1. The antibody titer of polyclonal antibodies was 1:512 000.【Conclusion】Above results would lay a foundation for further studies of duOASL inhibiting DTMUV replication.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
      First page | Prev page | Next page | Last page Page 1 of 1, 7 records