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    Content of SPECIAL FOCUS: MAIZE AND SOYBEAN RESPONSE TO LIGHT AND WATER IN STRIP INTERCROPPING in our journal
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    Developing Maize-Soybean Strip Intercropping for Demand Security of National Food
    YANG WenYu,YANG Feng
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2019, 52 (21): 3748-3750.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.21.003
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    Effects of Row Spacing on Dry Matter Accumulation, Grain Filling and Yield Formation of Different Nodulation Characteristic Soybeans in Intercropping
    PANG Ting,CHEN Ping,YUAN XiaoTing,LEI Lu,DU Qing,FU ZhiDan,ZHANG XiaoNa,ZHOU Ying,REN JianRui,WANG Tian,WANG Jin,YANG WenYu,YONG TaiWen
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2019, 52 (21): 3751-3762.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.21.004
    Abstract274)   HTML23)    PDF (1359KB)(382)       Save

    【Objective】 Intercropping is an important way to increase the efficient utilization of resources and to solve the contradiction between grain supply and demand. Under intercropping system, crop symbiosis is influenced by interspecific interaction intensity between the species. In this study, maize-soybean intercropping system was used to investigate the effects of strength of root interaction between maize and soybean on the dry matter accumulation and yield formation of different nodule characteristic soybeans, so as to analyze variation trend dry matter accumulation and yield formation of soybean. 【Method】 Field experiments were carried out for two consecutive years from 2016 to 2017 with randomized complete block factorial design: factor A was different row spacing between maize and soybean, intercropped soybean followed by different row spacing (A2: 30 cm, A3: 45 cm, A4: 60 cm, A5: 75 cm); factor B was three soybean varieties (Gongxuan 1: Weak nodulation, Guixia 3: Moderate nodulation, Nandou 25: Strong nodulation).【Result】 The row spacing between soybean and maize had a significant effect on the biomass accumulation and distribution of soybean with different nodulation. Under monoculture, dry matter accumulation of soybean was significantly higher than that of intercropping, and reached the highest at R4 (full pod stage). The dry matter accumulation of intercropping soybean reached the highest at R5 stage, and was gradually higher than monoculture. Soybean had a highest amount of biomass accumulation when the row spacing was 45 cm and 60 cm. In intercropping, each variety had the longest grain filling time under A4, and the maximum grain filling rate, 100-seeds weight and yield were achieved under A4. Interestingly, there was no significant difference between monoculture and intercropping yield. Nandou 25 had the strongest grain filling capacity under all row spacing. Under A4, the average yield of Nandou 25 was 5.435% and 6.3% higher than that of Guixia 3 and Gongxuan 1, respectively. 【Conclusion】 Nandou 25 with strong nodulation could adapt to the intercropping environment well, and showed the best performance at 60 cm. It could promote dry matter accumulation and stabilize the yield through increasing grain filling rate and 100-seeds weight in intercropping. Furthermore, it could be useful to achieve the goal of stable and optimal yield in intercropping and monoculture.

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    Effects of Irrigation Time and Ratio on Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Maize Under Monoculture and Intercropping
    PENG Xiao,PU Tian,YANG Feng,YANG WenYu,WANG XiaoChun
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2019, 52 (21): 3763-3772.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.21.005
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    The effects of different irrigation proportion and irrigation time on yield and water use efficiency of monoculture and intercropping maize were studied to provide a basis for the high efficient water management technology for intercropped maize. 【Method】 The experiment was conducted with two factors randomized block by using automatic rain shelter from 2016-2017, the planting mode and irrigation ratio under the irrigation quota of 4 050 m 3·hm -2. Planting mode included monoculture and intercropping. The irrigation ratio included B1(sowing water (25%) + jointing water (25%) + tasseling water (25%) + filling water (25%)), B2(sowing water (25%) + jointing water (25%) + tasseling water (15%) + filling water (35%)), and B3(sowing water (25%) + jointing water (35%) + filling water (40%)). the effects of irrigation time and proportion on soil water content, inter-plant evaporation, water consumption characteristics, yield and water use efficiency of maize in different planting patterns were studied. 【Result】 The results showed that under the same irrigation quota, the soil moisture content for the monoculture maize at the jointing stage was 16.60% higher while it was 23.60% lower from jointing stage to maturity stage than that of intercropped maize. The peak stage of water consumption intensity of monoculture and intercropping was at jointing-tasseling stage, and the maximum daily water consumption intensity reached 7.21 mm·d -1, occupied by 21.62%-31.67% of the whole growth period. However, the water consumption intensity of intercropping after jointing stage was significantly higher than that of monoculture by 3.68%. The yield of monoculture maize reached the highest in B3 treatment, it was 16.49% higher than other monoculture treatments, and the water use efficiency was 11.71% higher. However, for intercropped maize, the kernels per spike and effective spike in B2 treatment was 4.47% and 6.97% higher than other irrigation treatments which lead the average yield increased 22.07%, and WUE increased 19.11%. 【Conclusion】 Under the irrigation quota of 4 050 m 3·hm -2 in this experiment, the monoculture maize get the highest yield when irrigated with 25%, 35% and 40% water at sowing, jointing and filling stages, respectively. For intercropped maize with wide and narrow rows and strips, the yield and water use efficiency get the highest, when the irrigated with 25%, 25%, 15% and 35% water at sowing, jointing, tasseling and filling stages, respectively.

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    Influence of Light Intensity on Stoma and Photosynthetic Characteristics of Soybean Leaves
    CHEN JiYu,FENG LingYang,GAO Jing,SHI JianYi,ZHOU YuChen,TU FaTao,CHEN YuanKai,YANG WenYu,YANG Feng
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2019, 52 (21): 3773-3781.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.21.006
    Abstract564)   HTML42)    PDF (1563KB)(436)       Save

    【Objective】 To reveal the response mechanism of photosynthetic and stomatal characteristics of soybean leaves to shade, it analyzed the stomatal characteristics, photosynthesis and carbohydrate changes of soybean leaves in seedling stage under different light intensity. 【Method】 A pot experiment was conducted to analyze the impact of four light-intensity levels including CK (normal light), LS (light shading, 20% shading), MS (medium shading, 40% shading) and SS (severe shading treatment, 75% shading) on stomata characteristics of upper and lower epidermis, photosynthetic fluorescence parameters, soluble sugar and starch content of two soybean varieties (Nandou-12, weak shade-sensitive and Guixiadou-7, high shade-sensitive).【Result】 Results revealed that the maximum number of stomata on the upper and lower epidermis of soybean leaves was observed with Nandou-12. Among shading treatments, LS and MS treatments significantly increased the number of stomata on the upper (by 26.9% and 18.5%) and lower (by 13.9% and 39.2%) epidermis as compared with CK. And between soybean varieties, the highest rate of photosynthesis was measured under LS treatment, whose average was 14.33 μmol CO2·m -2·s -1. In addition, the highest values of stomatal conductance in Nandou-12 (0.57 mm·m -2·s -1) and Guixiadou-7 (0.30 mm·m -2·s -1) were measured under LS treatment, and the maximum concentration of carbon dioxide under LS and SS treatments with Nandou-12 was significantly higher than that under CK. These results implied that increasing light intensity decreased the actual quantum yield, however, the actual quantum yield of Nandou-12 was significantly higher than that of Guixiadou-7. In contrast, the non-photochemical quenching coefficient of Nandou-12 and Guixiadou-7 was enhanced with a decline in light intensity. Moreover, the starch content of Nandou-12 and Guixiadou-7 was decreased by 59.0%, 77.8%, and 95.8%, and 47.5%, 67.3%, and 87.8%, respectively, under LS, MS, and SS treatments. Whereas, light shading (LS) significantly increased (72.7%) the soluble sugar content of Nandou-12 as compared with the corresponding values of Guixiadou-7.【Conclusion】 Overall, our results confirmed that shading conditions directly affect the stomata and photosynthetic characteristics of soybean leaves. However, by maintaining appropriate shading, the net photosynthetic rate of soybean leaves could be increased by increasing the rate of stomatal opening, which was conducive to increase the accumulation of carbohydrates and thus enhance the shade resistance of soybeans.

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    Effects of Maize Shading on Photosynthetic Characteristics, Vein and Stomatal Characteristics of Soybean
    LI ShengLan,TAN TingTing,FAN YuanFang,YANG WenYu,YANG Feng
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2019, 52 (21): 3782-3793.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.21.007
    Abstract335)   HTML21)    PDF (2276KB)(442)       Save

    【Objective】 The aim of this study was to explore the effects of maize shading on the photosynthetic characteristics, leaf veins and stomatal characteristics of soybean during the symbiosis period under the maize-soybean intercropping system. 【Method】 Two factors were used in a completely randomized pot experiment under natural light, strong shade tolerant Nandou 12 and light shade tolerant Guixia 3, including the T1 (intercropping of 2 rows of maize and 2 rows of soybean), T2 (intercropping of 1 row of maize and 1 row of soybean) and CK (net for soybean) three treatments, respectively, to analyze photosynthetic parameters, veins and the porosity characteristic parameters’ responding under shading. 【Result】 By contrast with the net treatment, the far-red spectral irradiance of soybean canopy increased significantly under the shade of maize, and the light intensity under T1 and T2 treatment decreased by 48.62% and 77.39%, respectively. Photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, leaf vein density and stomatal density of soybean under maize shading were significantly less than those under CK (P<0.05), and the decrease rate increased with the increase of shade (from T1 to T2). Compared with CK, the net photosynthetic rate of Nandou 12 decreased significantly by 41.00% and 44.15% respectively under T1 and T2 treatment, the net photosynthetic rate of Guixia 3 decreased significantly by 44.62% and 47.93%, respectively, while stomatal conductance of Nandou 12 decreased significantly by 29.19% and 39.69%, and that of Guixia 3 decreased significantly by 26.83% and 49.50%, respectively. The vein density and stomatal density of Nandou 12 decreased by 14.99%, 20.01% and stomatal density decreased by 12.79%, 18.27% respectively under T1 and T2 treatment compared with CK; The vein density and stomatal density of Guixia 3 decreased by 10.38%, 27.62% and stomatal density decreased by 15.77%, 22.46% respectively under T1 and T2 treatment compared with CK. The net photosynthetic rate of soybean had significant positive correlation (P<0.05) with stomatal conductance, vein closure, stomatal density as well as vein density, and extremely negative correlation (P<0.01) with vein distance. In addition, there was an extremely significant positive correlation (P<0.01) between vein density and stomatal density. The vein density, vein length, veins closure, and the distance between the veins of Nandou 12 under maize shading were better than those of Guixia 3. In addition, the shade degree under T1 treatment was higher, while transpiration rate and vein closure, photosynthetic, vein and stomatal parameters of strong shade tolerant Nandou12 all change were less than those of Guixai 3, and Nandou had higher photosynthetic rate.【Conclusion】 In the maize-soybean intercropping system, the changes of canopy light environment, leaf vein and stomatal characteristics of soybean could reduce the photosynthetic ability of soybean, but the response of leaf vein and stomatal characteristics of different shade-tolerant soybean varieties to shading was different.

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