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    Evaluation of the Vegetables Nutritive Values Based on ‘Three Degree’ Method
    LIU YanJun,LIU Zhe,MENG XiangHong,LU BaiYi
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2019, 52 (18): 3177-3191.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.18.010
    Abstract396)   HTML33)    PDF (450KB)(267)       Save

    【Objective】 As the important components of our daily diet, the vegetables contain various nutrients people need. The objective of this study was to evaluate vegetables by the categories, contents and proportion of nutrients in vegetables to provide scientific guides for people to choose vegetables. 【Method】 38 common vegetables were selected as test materials and divided into ten kinds, including leaf vegetables, stem vegetables, flower vegetables, allium species, solanaceous vegetables, melon vegetables, root vegetables, tuber vegetables, fresh bean vegetables, and wild vegetables, according to China Food Composition 2 nd. 42 essential nutrients were defined as evaluation indexes, including water, protein, fat, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, amino acids and 2 unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic acid (ω-6) and a-linolenic acid (ω-3)) and dietary fiber, which were considered as good for health. And then the contents of the nutrients of the vegetables were listed in terms of China Food Composition 2nd. Three degree ( Degree of Diversity (DD), Degree of Match (DM) and Degree of Balance(DB)) of 42 kinds of nutrients’ in 38 common vegetables were calculated respectively.. Finally, the Deviation Index as the overall nutrient evaluation of the three indexes was culculated, and then an overall nutrient evaluation of the vegetables based on Deviation Index was analyzed. 【Result】 DD indices showed that the common vegetables had the similar kinds of nutrients. DM indices indicated the contents of nutrients of the stem, leaf and flower vegetables were high and the top three vegetables were shepherd’s purse, coriander and spinach. DB indices showed the proportion of nutrients of the flower vegetables and allium vegetables were more suitable for people’s needs and that the top three vegetables were onions (young green), leek and cucumber. Finally, based on ‘Deviation Index’ giving an overall nutrient evaluation ranking for vegetables, it showed that the deviation index of the stem, leaf and flower vegetables were small and that the top three vegetables were shepherd’s purse, coriander and spinach.【Conclusion】 Compared with previous vegetable profiling models, such as index of nutrition quality and nutrient profiling, this method considered the proportion of the nutrients in vegetables so that it ensured the nutrition profiling of vegetables more comprehensive. As the deepening of the scientific research, we coud certify the contribution of the nutrients to people and then multiplied by the corresponding weights so that this nutrient evaluation was more suitable for people’s needs.

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    Advances in Research on Physiological Functions of Vitamin K1 and Its Detection Methods in Agricultural Products
    XU YueQing,WANG DanDan,ZHAO XinNan,YU Li,WANG XiuPin,ZHANG LiangXiao,ZHANG Qi,ZHANG Wen,LI PeiWu
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2019, 52 (18): 3207-3217.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.18.013
    Abstract345)   HTML17)    PDF (502KB)(418)       Save

    Agricultural products are rich in nutrients, which play important roles in maintaining the normal metabolism and physiological functions of human beings. Vitamin K1 is widely found in agricultural products such as green vegetables and oilseeds. As a fat-soluble vitamin, vitamin K1 plays indispensable roles in daily diet and draws more and more attentions. The recent researches showed that vitamin K1 in agricultural products had the physiological functions including not only promoting normal blood coagulation, preventing bleeding disorders in newborn babies, but also inhibiting cancer, preventing vascular calcification, participating in bone metabolism, inhibiting diabetic cataract, and treating acute and chronic hepatitis. Since vitamin K1 is sensitive to oxidation, alkali, strong acid and ultraviolet radiation, it is necessary to conduct pre-treatment methods, including saponification, enzymatic hydrolysis, organic solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extraction and purification and solid-phase extraction method with good effect. With the advantages and disadvantages of different pre-treatment methods, it is necessary to select a suitable pre-treatment method according to real samples. Meanwhile, vitamin K1 was mainly detected by fluorescence spectrophotometry, liquid chromatography, liquid chromatographic mass spectrometry and other methods. An accurate, efficient and rapid detection method is also a hot research topic. This review summarized the pretreatment and detection methods of vitamin K1 in different agricultural products in recent years. Finally, the trends and prospect of vitamin K1 detection methods were proposed as follows (1) developing green solvent to improve extraction efficiency; (2) developing extraction materials to improve extraction selectivity and recovery rate; (3) Establishing simultaneous detection methods of vitamin K1 and other nutrient functional components in agricultural products. This review systematically summarized the research progress of the physiological functions and detection methods of vitamin K1 in agricultural products, and aimed to promote the in-depth study of nutrients in agricultural products and comparisons of advantages and disadvantages of pretreatment and detection methods.

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    Analytical Methods of the Organic Sulfur Compounds in Garlic
    WENG Rui,SHENG XiaoJing,LIU PingXiang,ZHANG JiGuang,QIU Jing,QIAN YongZhong
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2019, 52 (18): 3199-3206.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.18.012
    Abstract453)   HTML21)    PDF (452KB)(214)       Save

    Garlic is a kind of widely planted agricultural product in China, which has plenty of nutritional and healthy functions, such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidation. These functions are mainly attributed to the organic sulfur compounds, including the flavor precursors, thiosulfinates and thioether volatile compounds. The organic sulfur compounds either have its own biological activities, or multiple compounds work together to produce the same physiological effect. However, considering the poor stability and property diversity of the organic sulfur compounds, the analysis of organic sulfur compounds remains a big challenge. Existing reports are mainly on the determination of several compounds or one group of compounds, and there has been no comprehensive analysis of the organic sulfur compounds in garlic yet. Therefore, in the present review, the analysis methods of the main flavor precursors, thiosulfinates and thioether volatile compounds in garlic were separately discussed and summarized, including the sample pretreatment and detection methods.

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    Advances and Perspectives in Research of Volatile Flavor Quality of Agricultural Products
    PANG XueLi,SUN YuQing,KONG FanYu,QIU Jun,ZHANG JiGuang
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2019, 52 (18): 3192-3198.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.18.011
    Abstract352)   HTML16)    PDF (455KB)(426)       Save

    As the development of modern economics and the improvement of the living standard, the consumer demands on food have been turned from quantity to quality. Among many quality factors, volatile flavor quality is one of the most important evaluation indicators of inherent quality of agricultural products, directly determining their acceptability and commercial value. It is of great significance to conduct researches on volatile flavor quality, aiming to develop agricultural products with the high flavor quality. Herein, the current status and development trends of domestic and foreign researches on volatile flavor quality of agricultural products were detailed in this review; the new approaches and techniques used for flavor characteristic identification were expounded emphatically; the latest research progresses in characteristic flavor analysis, biological control techniques for improving flavor quality of agricultural products, application of flavor characteristic analysis in grade classification, production area discrimination, and authentic identification, utilization of intelligent odor detection techniques in flavor quality evaluation, as well as interactions between flavor compounds and matrices, were summarized. Finally, problems in current researches in volatile flavor quality in our country were discussed, and the future trends and focuses in research of volatile flavor quality were prospected. This review would provide guidance and give ideas for future studies on volatile flavor quality evaluation as well as development, utilization and consumption upgrading of high value-added agricultural products.

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    Review on the Application of Metabolomic Approaches to Investigate and Analysis the Nutrition and Quality of Agro-Products
    XU YanYang,YAO GuiXiao,LIU PingXiang,ZHAO Jie,WANG XinLu,SUN JunMao,QIAN YongZhong
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2019, 52 (18): 3163-3176.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.18.009
    Abstract417)   HTML39)    PDF (510KB)(291)       Save

    Scientific evaluation of the nutrition and quality of agricultural products is essential for improving the nutrition level of agro-products. Because of the complex composition of nutrients in agro-products, the existing analytical methods can only analyze the concentration and function of known nutrients but cannot analyze and identify a large number of unknown functional substances. On the basis of high-throughput chemical analyses, metabolomics can qualitatively and quantitatively analyze endogenous and exogenous metabolites of biological samples. Therefore, metabolomics has outstanding advantages in the analysis of small molecular substances with special nutritional functions in agricultural products; it has advantages like providing new methods for the characterization and differential analysis of nutrient components, traceability and authenticity of identification, variation analysis of functional substances during growth and storage, and the effect mechanisms of functional components. It also provides new strategies for structural optimization of dietary requirements. In this paper, the recent advances in metabolomics research, including sample preparation, metabolite analysis, data processing, differential metabolite identification, and metabolic pathway analysis were reviewed. This work summed up the application of metabolomics in the characterization and difference analysis of metabolites, traceability and authenticity identification of origin, metabolite variation in the process of storage, and the evaluation of nutritional functions to provide theoretical bases and practical references for high-quality agricultural development in China. In the field of sample preparation, the activity of metabolism-related enzymes is first terminated by rapidly changing the environmental conditions, such as adding strong acid (alkali) or freezing in liquid nitrogen. Different extraction solvents are selected based on the polarities of the metabolites to obtain a higher extraction rate. In the field of sample analysis methods, technologies, such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, chromatography mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry, have been widely used. Among them, the combination of chromatography and mass spectrometry has become the most commonly used analytical technique in metabolomics. In the field of data processing and analysis, principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis are the most common data analysis techniques. Through enrichment and topological analysis, the metabolic pathway with the highest correlation to differential metabolites can be identified, and the reason of differential metabolites can be explained and analyzed. In the field of evaluation of nutrition and quality of agricultural products, through the comprehensive characterization of primary metabolites and secondary metabolites in agricultural products, unique fingerprints of agricultural products are established and used for differential analysis, whereas through non-specific target analysis and unsupervised analysis methods, differences between groups and relating metabolites can be identified. Via concentration analysis of key components in the growth process of agricultural products, the best harvest periods can be provided. Interaction studies between functional components and metabolism of organisms based on the detection of humoral metabolism and biomarkers can provide valuable information for dietary guidance.

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    Discussion on the Definition and Screening Method of Characteristic Quality Indicators of Edible Agricultural Products
    LIANG Ying,LI Yi,ZHANG LiuJuan,LIU XianJin,LU BaiYi
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2019, 52 (18): 3155-3162.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.18.008
    Abstract310)   HTML21)    PDF (418KB)(507)       Save

    Under the new situation of the development of edible agricultural products closely linked with high quality and nutrition, a series of new words emerged, among which the “characteristic quality indicators of edible agricultural products” occupied a prominent position. The clarification of the characteristic quality indicators of edible agricultural products has a leading significance for the scientific and effective evaluation of the quality of edible agricultural products. This paper discussed the definition of characteristic quality indicators of edible agricultural products, and preliminarily provided some suggestions on the screening methods of characteristic quality indicators of edible agricultural products from the aspects of object determination, consumer investigation, literature investigation, literature information extraction, sampling index verification, specification index, and health index consideration as well as process correction. The purpose of this paper was to attract the attention of relevant functional departments, industrial groups and scientific researchers, to make the definition and screening methods of characteristic quality indicators of edible agricultural products accurate and practical, to promote the establishment of quality evaluation system of edible agricultural products, to evaluate the quality of edible agricultural products scientifically and effectively, and truly to serve the development of edible agricultural products industry.

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    Review and Suggestion for Nutrition Standard of Agricultural Products in China
    ZHU Hong , LIANG KeHong , XU HaiQuan , QIU Ju , GUO YanZhi , HUANG JiaZhang , ZHU DaZhou , SUN JunMao
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2019, 52 (18): 3145-3154.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.18.007
    Abstract318)   HTML16)    PDF (444KB)(405)       Save

    With the steady and sustainable development of Chinese economy, society, and the continuous improvement of residents’ living standards, consumers are increasingly concerned about the nutritional quality of agricultural products and their dietary health. It is imperative to develop nutrition-sensitive agriculture, which is supported by nutrition standard of agricultural products. The objective of this paper was to develop the basic framework of nutrition standard of agricultural product in China by analyzing agricultural products standard system, including grading and specifications, green food, the grain & oil products, selenium-enriched agricultural products, geographical indication agricultural products, and organic foods. More specifically, this paper investigated the relationship of nutrition standards between food and agricultural product, mainly based on health food, pre-packaged food nutrition label. In addition, this paper deliberated the latest international developments in agricultural product nutrition standards, hoping to find more reference and suggestions for developing China’s nutrition standard system. We found that the nutrition standard of agricultural products in China was still on the early stage side, as few standards contain nutrition indicators. On this basis, we concluded that it was inevitable to put forward the proposition for the nutrition standard system of agricultural product in China. The standard system was divided into six aspects: basic standards, analytic methods of nutritional components, evaluation standards of nutritional quality, labeling, product standards and production technical regulations. From the point of view of evaluation standards of nutritional quality, agricultural products were divided into three categories: the bulk agricultural products, distinctive agricultural products and bio-fortified agricultural products.

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