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    Influence of Farmers’ Farm Production Diversity on Their Own Dietary Diversity and Nutritional Health
    HUANG ZeYing,SUN JunMao,GUO YanZhi,WANG XiuLi,MA YunQian
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2019, 52 (18): 3108-3121.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.18.004
    Abstract411)   HTML27)    PDF (488KB)(331)       Save

    【Objective】One of the basic national conditions in China is ‘smallholders in the large country’. The proportion of smallholders is high, and the degree of self-production and self-marketing costs is also high. The coordinated development of smallholders’ food production, consumption and nutrition is the health guarantee of rural revitalization strategy. Farmers’ dietary diversity (types of food eaten per day) and the correlation between farmers' farm production diversity (types of food produced on a daily basis) and their dietary diversity and nutritional health (BMI) were analyzed for providing the theoretical basis for farmers' good eating habits formation and rural human capital construction.【Method】395 farmers' questionnaires were collected from 10 villages in Jiangsu province, 10 villages in Henan province and 6 villages in Sichuan province based on random sampling and stratified sampling. Descriptive analysis was carried out on the types of food produced by farmers in three provinces, which involved the sources and quantities of all kinds of food intake, and the nutritional status of daily intake of food which produced by farmers. According to the economic theory of food consumption and individual health utility, multiple linear regression model was used to analyze the influence of farmers' agricultural production diversity on their dietary diversity, and Probit model was used to explore the influence of farmers' agricultural production diversity on their nutritional health without the endogeneity.【Result】The respondents' farm production diversity was not high and 3.37 food types were produced on average, but the inter-provincial gap was small and the intake of food such as aquatic products, fruits, milk and dairy products, livestock and poultry were mainly from the purchase. Farmers also had a low degree of dietary diversity with an average daily intake of 3.34 types of food, but the inter-provincial gap was large. The amount of home-grown food consumed was lower than national recommendation. In total daily intake per capita, livestock and poultry meat intake was too much, while milk and dairy products, aquatic products intake were insufficient. Farmers had nutritional imbalance from daily intake of food produced by themselves. Home-grown food provided plenty of energy, but low intakes of protein, fat, calcium, magnesium, potassium and vitamin A. Nearly 60 percent of farmers had normal BMI but the inter-provincial gap was large. Farmers' farm production diversity had a significant positive correlation with their dietary diversity and nutritional health at the statistical level of 10%. In addition, factors such as farmers' age, education level, total net family income, nutrition knowledge cognition and market access had significant influence on dietary diversity while the factors, such as farmers' gender, age, education level and food nutrition education, had significant influence on individual nutrition health.【Conclusion】As in other developing countries, farmers' farm production diversity in China promotes their dietary diversity and nutritional health. However, along with agriculture commercialization degree and farmers’ non-agricultural income enhancement, the trend of farmers' food purchase to meet the dietary diversity is irreversible and it is not feasible to improve farmers' farm production diversity under the practical condition of limited water and soil resources. Therefore, to encourage the establishment of standardized agricultural products market in rural areas and strengthen the publicity and education of food nutrition to improve farmers' nutrition knowledge may be a feasible way to ensure dietary diversity and nutritional health.

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    Addressing the Losses and Waste of Chinese Rice Supply Chain: Sources, Drivers and Mitigation Strategies
    LU ShiJun,LIU XiaoJie,XUE Li,TANG ZhenChuang,LIU Gang,CHENG GuangYan
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2019, 52 (18): 3134-3144.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.18.006
    Abstract508)   HTML16)    PDF (1291KB)(693)       Save

    【Objective】 The aim of the study was to quantitatively estimate the rice losses and waste along the total supply chain in China, to analyze the main causes of loss and waste, and then to put forward the mitigation strategies to inform policy-making on ensuring food security and developing the nutrition-sensitive agriculture.【Method】 This study conducted questionnaires and qualitative interviews in major industrial chain areas (four provinces and eight counties) at each stage of the total supply chain (including agricultural production, post-harvest handling and storage, processing, distribution, and consumption).【Result】 The total loss and waste rate of rice along the whole supply chain was 13.64%. The standardized loss and waste rate at the agricultural production stage, post-harvest handling, storage, processing, distribution, and consumption stages were 2.84%, 1.85%, 1.21%, 1.73%, 0.79% and 5.22%, respectively. When the total loss rate and waste rate of rice was reduced by 1%, it can meet the demand of rice for 1.455 million and 904,000 people per year, respectively. 【Conclusion】 The losses and waste of rice along the entire food supply chain in China is still at a relatively high level, and it is urgent to take effective measures to reduce the losses and waste to improve the level of food supply.

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    New Vision and Policy Recommendations for Nutrition-Oriented Food Security in China
    CHEN Kevin,BI JieYing,NIE FengYing,FANG XiangMing,FAN ShengGen
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2019, 52 (18): 3097-3107.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.18.003
    Abstract558)   HTML35)    PDF (463KB)(317)       Save

    After four-decade significant economic growth and development, China sets a series of goals aiming at sustainable medium to high speed economic growth,reasonable equity, and better market oriented economy. In this pursue, agriculture will take a crucial role. Under the Health China 2030, National Nutrition Plan (2017-2030) and Rural Vitalization Strategy, more attention has been paid on nutrition both in policy and research field, meanwhile the linkage between agriculture and nutrition is enhancing, but the integration of Agriculture-Food Security-Nutrition system is not yet completed. During the economic transformation, agriculture and food industry will play a key role, especially when considering the nutrition and health status will impact the national physical fitness and therefore influence the economic transformation approach. It may also impact whether China can move out of the Middle Income Trap to some extent. In the new development era, China needs a new food security development strategy to improve the national nutrition status and sets of policies to strengthen the integration of agriculture and nutrition. This paper reviewed the major challenges about China’s food security and put forward a new vision based on international experiences, which aimed at providing recommendations for designing China’s food security strategy. The key food security challenges include natural and environmental pressure, such as insufficiency and degradation of land resources, shortage and pollution of water resources, climate change and extreme disaster, fiscal pressure caused by increasing agriculture subsidy, Triple Burden of malnutrition, food safety issues and food loss and waste. It requires institutional and technical innovations for the transformation of agriculture development which means that more value added, nutritious and healthy food should be produced, the productivity and efficiency of water, land and energy should be improved, and environmentally friendly social inclusive development should be considered. All of those call for a transformation of China’s food security strategy. This paper put forwards a new vision for China’s food security: China should set nutrition-oriented food security strategy with nutrition indicators as key targeted goals, aim to eliminate hunger and undernutrition by 2025 while effectively reducing overweight/ obesity and food safety risks. Therefore policy innovations are recommended including: Improve nutrition governance, Market motivated and nutrition oriented agriculture support system, Promote Nutrition-based Food Production, Establish efficient, safe, and inclusive food value chains, Policy innovation for sustainable nutritious diet and nutrition education, and Evidence based research to support policy making.

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    Research and Revelation on International Policy and Planning of Nutrition-Sensitive Agriculture
    SUN JunMao,LU ShiJun,JIANG XiaoBo,WU Ming,HUANG JiaZhang
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2019, 52 (18): 3089-3096.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.18.002
    Abstract277)   HTML13)    PDF (558KB)(427)       Save

    Taking the Outline of the Healthy China 2030 Plan, the National Nutrition Plan (2017- 2030) and other important domestic policy plans as the background, the importance of carrying out Nutrition-Sensitive Agriculture (NSA) research and practice in China was analyzed. From the two dimensions of international organizations and relevant countries, the content and characteristics of NSA policy planning and programs were sorted out and analyzed, combining with the existing NSA policies and practices in China, the policy suggestions for the development of NSA in China were proposed. The analysis showed that the international organizations represented by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) have fully reflected the globality and systematicness in NSA policy and planning. Relevant countries represented by the European Union (EU) have also taken regional and global coordination as the main direction of NSA development. The development of NSA in China started late, and in the context of globalization, the formulation of China's NSA policies and plans should comply with international standards and fully consider the exertion of regional and even global influence. A highly unified understanding from different levels, from country to society and theory to practice, needs to be formed, and a holistic approach to design, implementation and evaluation is required to develop NSA in China.

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    The Concept and Development of Nutrition-Sensitive Agriculture and Its Enlightenments to China
    LU ShiJun,HUANG JiaZhang,WU Ming,SHEN DongJing,SUN JunMao
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2019, 52 (18): 3083-3088.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.18.001
    Abstract618)   HTML60)    PDF (841KB)(450)       Save

    In order to solve the many nutritional problems facing the world and explore the relationship between nutrition, health and agricultural development, since 2013, the concept system of NSA has gradually developed and improved, and its policy measures have played an important role in promoting the NSA strategy globally. The concept generation stage was around 2013, and the concept development stage was from 2014 to 2018.The definition and target of NSA were mainly food supply oriented and food system oriented. In 2017, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) put forward that NSA was an approach that sought to ensure the production of a variety of affordable, nutritious, culturally appropriate and safe foods in adequate quantity and quality to meet the dietary requirements of populations in a sustainable manner. NSA used nutrition and health issues as its ultimate goal orientation and measurement. In order to achieve this goal, attention had to be paid to the entire food system. At the same time, the development of NSA in China had to consider many problems facing China's agricultural development. First, the main contradiction of China's agricultural development has changed from the quantity insufficient in the past to structural deficiency. Second, the benchmark data of nutritional quality of agricultural products was not clear, and the laws and regulations in agricultural product quality were of lack. Reconstructing the agricultural industry chain and food nutrition value chain with nutrition orientation could bring out enlightenments to solve many problems facing agricultural development in China: First, we should take food nutrition as the orientation and increase the supply of medium and high-end agricultural products to meet the new needs of consumers. Second, the nutritional quality should be taken as test standard of high quality, the national benchmark database of nutritional composition of agricultural products should be established, and relevant laws and the revision and formulation of the new food and nutrition development program should be improved.

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    Promoting the Development of Nutritionally-Guided Agriculture in Research and Development of Selenium-Enriched Agri-Products in China
    TANG ChaoHua , ZHAO QingYu , ZHANG Kai , LI Shuang , QIN YuChang , ZHANG JunMin
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2019, 52 (18): 3122-3133.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.18.005
    Abstract328)   HTML25)    PDF (514KB)(508)       Save

    Nutrition is the guarantee of health. The global burden of disease study in 2016 showed that the disease burden caused by dietary factors accounted for 15.9%, which has become an important risk factor affecting the health of people. In recent years, the nutritional and health status of Chinese residents has been improved significantly, but still faces the coexistence of malnutrition and supernutrition, and the frequent occurrence of nutrition-related diseases. Nutrition and health have become the mainstream demands of food consumption in China. The basic goal of agricultural production is to meet the needs of residents' food consumption. As the biggest supply side of food consumption, the main contradiction in China's agriculture at the present stage has changed from numeric to structural. How to satisfy the people's desire for high-quality food and meet the needs of nutrition and health has become the first issue for agriculture structural reform and modernization. Therefore, promoting the production of nutritious and high-quality agricultural products is an important way to realize the reform of agriculture supply side and to meet the needs of healthy food consumption. Selenium, a key antioxidant component of organisms, its intake is insufficient in Chinese people according to the latest National Nutrition and Health Monitoring Program. Thus, the development of selenium-enriched agricultural products is important for health. In this article, we reviewed the basic information of selenium nutrition concerning the Chinese population, the dose-dependent function of selenium, and the development of selenium-enriched agricultural foods, and also provided some suggestions for selenium-enriched industry development, which might promote the development of nutritionally-guided agriculture. As one of the most important components of nutritional and healthy food development, the application of scientific concepts of consumption, the building of whole-chain production, monitoring and product standard establishment for selenium-enriched agricultural foods are critical for nutritionally-guided agriculture, which will meet the public demand for nutrition and health and also lead to a better life.

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