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    Survey on Distribution of Mineral Contents in Feedstuffs for Livestock and Poultry in China
    LIAO Xiudong,ZHANG Liyang,LÜ Lin,LUO Xugang
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2019, 52 (11): 1970-1972.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.11.011
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    A Survey on Distribution of Calcium Contents in Feedstuffs for Livestock and Poultry in China
    CHEN ZhiYong, ZHANG LiYang, MA XueLian, WANG LiangZhi, XING GuanZhong, YANG Liu, LIU DongYuan, LIAO XiuDong, LI SuFen, HUANG YanLing, LÜ Lin, LUO XuGang
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2019, 52 (11): 1973-1981.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.11.012
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    【Objective】 The distribution of calcium contents in feed resources for livestock and poultry feed in China was investigated to provide scientific basis for rational use of feed resources and precise formulation of livestock and poultry’s diets.【Method】 Thirty-seven kinds of feedstuffs, a total of 3 862 samples, were collected from 31 provinces (cities, regions) of China according to a unified data collection specification, and the samples were digested by microwave to determine Ca contents by inductively IRIS IntrepidⅡ coupled plasma emission spectrometer.【Result】 Average Ca contents in feedstuffs were as follows: cereal seeds, 457 mg·kg -1 (74.5-832 mg·kg -1), the highest and lowest Ca contents were observed in the barley and corn, respectively, and coefficients of variation ranged from 21.2% to 85.3%; cereal by-products, 1 090 mg·kg -1 (93.4-3 264 mg·kg -1), the highest and lowest Ca contents were observed in the wheat DDGS and broke rice, respectively, and coefficients of variation ranged from 19.5% to 142%; plant-protein feeds, 3 987 mg·kg -1 (1 742-7 909 mg·kg -1), the highest and lowest Ca contents were observed in the rapeseed meal and peanut meal, respectively, and coefficients of variation ranged from 0.92%-34.6%; animal-protein feeds, 14 448 mg·kg -1 (115-50 007 mg·kg -1), the highest and lowest Ca contents were observed in the fish meal and dried blood cells, respectively, and coefficients of variation ranged from 25.0%-239%; straw feeds, 5 969 mg·kg -1 (1 931-13 524 mg·kg -1), the highest and lowest Ca contents were observed in the sweet potato vines and wheat straw, respectively, and coefficients of variation ranged from 27.6% to 39.0%; forge feeds, 6 667 mg·kg -1 (4 157-13 963 mg·kg -1), the highest and lowest Ca contents were observed in the alfalfa and leynus chinensis, respectively, and coefficients of variation ranged from 30.3% to 94.6%; mineral feeds, 30% (19.2%-41.2%), the highest and lowest Ca contents were observed in the shell meal and bone meal, respectively, and coefficients of variation ranged from 2.67% to 24.0%. The distribution regularities of Ca contents in feedstuffs were as follows: mineral feeds>animal-protein feeds>forage feeds>straw feeds>plant-protein feeds>cereal by-products>cereal seeds. A significant difference (P<0.05) was also observed in Ca contents among different feeds in the same category. Regional comparisons on a basis of provinces (regions) were made among Ca contents of corn, wheat and soybean meal, and showed that the Ca contents in corn and soybean meal but not wheat (P>0.05) were greatly affected (P<0.05) by environmental changes in different regions. The average Ca contents of corn in provinces (regions) ranged from 48.1 to 155 mg·kg -1, the highest and lowest Ca contents of corn were observed in Shanxi and Liaoning, respectively, and coefficients of variation ranged from 20.1% to 321%; the average Ca contents of wheat of provinces (regions) ranged from 362 to 590 mg·kg -1, the highest and lowest Ca contents of wheat were observed in the Shanxi and Hubei, respectively, and coefficients of variation ranged from 8.29% to 66.1%; the average Ca contents of soybean meal of provinces (regions) ranged from 3 001 to 4 153 mg·kg -1, the highest and lowest Ca contents of wheat were observed in the Shanxi and Jiangsu, respectively, and coefficients of variation ranged from 1.30%-21.4%.【Conclusion】 The Ca contents in feedstuffs of our country were greatly influenced by types and regions. The results from the current study would be of great significances toward having knowledge of actual Ca contents in the feedstuffs to precisely formulate diets in order to ensure animal health and efficient production.

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    A Survey on Distribution of Copper Contents in Feedstuffs for Livestock and Poultry in China
    WANG LiSai, ZHANG LiYang, SHAO YuXin, MA XueLian, WANG LiangZhi, XING GuanZhong, YANG Liu, LI SuFen, LÜ Lin, LIAO XiuDong, LUO XuGang
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2019, 52 (11): 1982-1992.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.11.013
    Abstract437)   HTML12)    PDF (411KB)(406)       Save

    【Objective】 The purpose of this survey was to study the distribution of copper (Cu) contents in various feed ingredients from different regions, as well as the Cu content in the basal diets of livestock and poultry in China, so as to provide a basis for the reasonable addition of Cu to diets. 【Method】 A total of 3 903 feed samples from 37 feed ingredients which fallen into seven types (cereal feeds, cereal by-products, plant protein feeds, animal protein feeds, pasture feeds, straw feeds and mineral feeds) from 31 regions (provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions). After pretreatment of those samples, microwave digestion was performed with MARS6 high-throughput closed microwave digestion system, and then the Cu contents of feed samples were determined by IRIS Intrepid Ⅱ. The pig liver or soybean powder were used as a reference material to ensure the reliability of the measurement results. 【Result】 The determination of Cu contents in feedstuffs showed that the average Cu content of cereal feeds (including corn, wheat, rice and barley) was 3.95 mg·kg -1 (ranged from 2.50 to 5.34 mg·kg -1); the average Cu content of cereal by-products (including corn gluten meal, corn DDGS, corn germ meal, wheat middling, wheat bran, wheat DDGS, broken rice and rice bran) was 7.16 mg·kg -1 (ranged from 1.62 to 12.13 mg·kg -1); the average Cu content of plant protein feeds (including extruded soybean, soybean meal, rapeseed meal, cottonseed meal, peanut meal, linseed meal and sunflower meal) was 16.37 mg·kg -1 (ranged from 6.45 to 30.40 mg·kg -1); the average Cu content of animal protein feeds (including fish meal, meat meal, hydrolyzed feather meal, dried porcine soluble, plasma protein powder and blood cells protein powder) was 11.14 mg·kg -1 (ranged from 1.90 to 20.04 mg·kg -1); the average Cu content of pasture feeds (including Leymus chinensis, ryegrass, alfalfa and corn silage) was 7.85 mg·kg -1 (ranged from 4.31 to 9.92 mg·kg -1; the average Cu content of straw feeds (including corn straw, wheat straw, rice straw and sweet potato vine) was 7.50 mg·kg -1 (ranged from 3.38 to 13.89 mg·kg -1); the average Cu content of mineral feeds (including limestone, dicalcium phosphate, bone meal and oyster shell meal) was 6.79 mg·kg -1 (ranged from 3.39 to 11.45 mg·kg -1). Results showed that the average Cu contents of these 37 kinds of feeds ranged from 1.62 to 30.40 mg·kg -1 and the Cu contents distribution of different species feeds were as follows: plant protein feeds (16.37 mg·kg -1)>animal protein feeds (11.14 mg·kg -1)>pasture feeds (7.85 mg·kg -1)>straw feeds (7.50 mg·kg -1)>cereal by-products (7.16 mg·kg -1)>mineral feeds (6.79 mg·kg -1)>cereal feeds (3.95 mg·kg -1). It was found that the Cu contents in corn, wheat or soybean meal from some provinces (regions) were significantly different (P<0.05). The highest and lowest Cu contents of corn and soybean meal were observed in Sichuan (2.97 and 15.74 mg·kg -1) and Inner Mongolia (1.66 and 11.72 mg·kg -1), respectively; the highest and lowest Cu contents of wheat were observed in Gansu (5.61 mg·kg -1) and Hebei (4.02 mg·kg -1) provinces, respectively. Calculated Cu contents from 152 feed formulas commonly used in pigs and chickens all over the country ranged from 5.07 to 6.54 mg·kg -1. According to Cu requirements of pigs and chickens from feeding standards of China and NRC of the United States, the Cu contents in the basal diets could provide the Cu nutrition requirements of pigs basically and provide most of the Cu nutrition requirements of chickens. However, the utilization rate of Cu in different feed ingredients had not been considered. 【Conclusion】 The above results showed that the Cu contents in feed ingredients varied greatly in different kinds and regions, and the Cu contents in the basal diets from common formulations of pigs and chickens in our country could provide most of the nutritional requirements for pigs and chickens. Therefore, it was suggested that the Cu contents and its utilization rate of the basal diets from different regions should be considered to formulate the diets accurately, so as to meet the need of efficient production of livestock and poultry and reduce the environmental pollution caused by Cu addition and emission.

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    A Survey on Distribution of Manganese Contents in Feedstuffs for Livestock and Poultry in China
    WANG ChuanLong, ZHANG LiYang, LIU GuoQing, WANG LiSai, YANG Liu, XING GuanZhong, SHAO YuXin, MA XueLian, LI SuFen, WANG LiangZhi, LIU YuanDong, LÜ Lin, LIAO XiuDong, LUO XuGang
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2019, 52 (11): 1993-2001.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.11.014
    Abstract320)   HTML12)    PDF (380KB)(275)       Save

    【Objective】 The purpose of this survey was to study the manganese (Mn) contents in various feed ingredients from different provinces (municipalities, regions) and the basal diets of pigs and chickens in China, so as to provide a scientific basis for the reasonable addition of Mn to the diets. 【Method】 A total of 37 kinds of 3 922 feed samples from 31 provinces, municipalities and regions were digested by microwave, and then the Mn contents were measured by IRIS IntrepidⅡ plasma emission spectrometer. The feed samples fall into seven types: cereals (corn, wheat, rice and barley), cereal by-products (broken rice, wheat middling, wheat bran, rice bran, corn DDGS, wheat DDGS, corn germ meal and corn gluten meal), plant protein ingredients (extruded soybean, soybean meal, rapeseed meal, cottonseed meal, peanut meal, linseed meal and sunflower seed meal), animal protein ingredients (fish meal, meat meal, hydrolyzed feather meal, dried porcine solubles, plasma protein powder and dried blood cells), straw ingredients (corn straw, sweet potato vine, rice straw and wheat straw), pasture ingredients (Leymus chinensis, ryegrass, alfalfa and corn silage) and mineral ingredients (limestone, dicalcium phosphate, oyster shell meal and bone meal). 【Result】 The results showed that the average Mn contents of these 37 kinds of feed ingredients ranged from 0.4 to 1 104.8 mg·kg -1, and the distribution regularities of Mn contents in different species of feed ingredients were as follows: mineral ingredients>straw ingredients>cereal by-productscpasture ingredients>plant protein ingredients>cereals>animal protein ingredients. Among the same kind of feed samples, there were significant differences (P<0.0003) in the Mn contents from all types of feed ingredients. In the cereals, the highest and lowest Mn contents were observed in the rice (77.7 mg·kg -1) and corn (5.7 mg·kg -1), respectively; in the cereal by-products, the highest and lowest Mn contents were observed in the rice bran (166.0 mg·kg -1) and corn gluten meal (4.6 mg·kg -1), respectively; in the plant protein ingredients, the highest and lowest Mn contents were observed in the rapeseed meal (68.0 mg·kg -1) and cottonseed meal (27.0 mg·kg -1), respectively; in the animal protein ingredients, the highest and lowest Mn contents were observed in the fish meal (48.5 mg·kg -1) and dried blood cells (0.4 mg·kg -1), respectively; in the straw ingredients, the highest and lowest Mn contents were observed in the rice straw (458.1 mg·kg -1) and wheat straw (37.8 mg·kg -1), respectively; in the pasture feeds, the highest and lowest Mn contents were observed in the Leymus chinensis (89.1 mg·kg -1) and alfalfa (33.0 mg·kg -1), respectively; in the mineral ingredients, the highest and lowest Mn contents were observed in the dicalcium phosphate (1 104.8 mg·kg -1) and bone meal (16.9 mg·kg -1), respectively. Regional comparisons on a basis of provinces (regions) were made of Mn contents of corn, wheat and soybean meal, showing significant effects (P<0.0004) of regional environments on Mn contents in corn and soybean meal. The highest and lowest Mn contents of corn were observed in Guizhou (7.9 mg·kg -1) and Inner Mongolia (4.2 mg·kg -1), respectively; the highest and lowest Mn contents of soybean meal were observed in Zhejiang province (48.3 mg·kg -1) and Guangdong province (34.4 mg·kg -1), respectively. Calculated Mn contents in basal diets from 142 common formulations of pigs and chickens in our country ranged from 14.4 to 32.1 mg·kg -1. According to Mn requirements of pigs and chickens from feeding standards of China and NRC of the United States, the Mn contents in the basal diets could provide about one-fourth and all the nutritional needs of recommended Mn requirements for pigs and chickens, respectively. 【Conclusion】 The above results showed that the Mn contents in feed ingredients varied greatly in different kinds and regions, and the Mn contents in basal diets from common formulations of pigs and chickens in our country could partly provide the nutritional requirements for chickens and the full needs of pigs. However, the bioavailabilities of Mn in different feed ingredients have not been considered in above evaluation. Therefore, the Mn contents in feed ingredients of different kinds and regions should be considered in the preparation of diets, so as to formulate the diets accurately and ensure efficient production of livestock and poultry and reduce supplemental Mn level and environmental pollution caused by Mn emission.

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    A Survey on Distribution of Zinc Contents in Feedstuffs for Livestock and Poultry in China
    SHAO YuXin, ZHANG LiYang, MA XueLian, WANG LiangZhi, LIU DongYuan, LÜ Lin, LIAO XiuDong, LUO XuGang
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2019, 52 (11): 2002-2010.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.11.015
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    【Objective】 The purpose of this survey was to study the zinc (Zn) contents in various feed ingredients from different provinces and the basal diets of pigs and chickens in China, so as to provide a scientific basis for the reasonable addition of Zn in the livestock and poultry’s diets. 【Method】 A total of 37 kinds of 3 919 feed samples from 31 provinces, municipalities and regions were digested by microwave, and then the Zn contents were measured by IRIS IntrepidⅡplasma emission spectrometer. The feed samples fall into seven types: cereals (corn, wheat, rice and barley), cereal by-products (broken rice, wheat middling, wheat bran, rice bran, corn DDGS, wheat DDGS, corn germ meal and corn gluten meal), plant protein ingredients (extruded soybean, soybean meal, rapeseed meal, cottonseed meal, peanut meal, linseed meal and sunflower seed meal), animal protein ingredients (fish meal, meat meal, hydrolyzed feather meal, dried porcine solubles, plasma protein powder and dried blood cells), straw ingredients (corn straw, sweet potato vine, rice straw and wheat straw), pasture ingredients (Leymus chinensis, ryegrass, alfalfa and corn silage) and mineral ingredients (limestone, dicalcium phosphate, oyster shell meal and bone meal).【Result】 The results showed that the average Zn contents of these 37 kinds of feed ingredients ranged from 5.5 to 268.2 mg·kg -1, and the distribution of Zn contents in different species of feed ingredients was as follows: mineral ingredients (107.8 mg·kg -1)>animal protein ingredients (69.8 mg·kg -1)>plant protein ingredients (54.9 mg·kg -1)>cereal by-products (43.0 mg·kg -1)>pasture ingredients (26.4 mg·kg -1)>cereals (22.7 mg·kg -1)>straw ingredients (18.8 mg·kg -1). Among the same kind of feed samples, there were significant differences (P<0.05) in the Zn contents from other six types of feed ingredients except pasture ingredients. In the mineral ingredients, the highest and lowest Zn contents were observed in the dicalcium phosphate (268.2 mg·kg -1) and limestone (7.3 mg·kg -1), respectively; in the animal protein ingredients, the highest and lowest Zn contents were observed in the hydrolyzed feather meal (120.8 mg·kg -1) and dried blood cells (19.6 mg·kg -1), respectively; in the plant protein ingredients, the highest and lowest Zn contents were observed in the linseed meal (85.2 mg·kg -1) and extruded soybean (38.9 mg·kg -1), respectively; in the cereal by-products, the highest and lowest Zn contents were observed in the wheat bran (86.2 mg·kg -1) and broken rice (12.5 mg·kg -1), respectively; in the cereals, the highest and lowest Zn contents were observed in the wheat (30.4 mg·kg -1) and corn (16.9 mg·kg -1), respectively; in the straw ingredients, the highest and lowest Zn contents were observed in the rice straw (27.6 mg·kg -1) and wheat straw (5.5 mg·kg -1), respectively. Regional comparison of Zn contents on a basis of provinces (regions) were made for Zn contents of corn, wheat and soybean meal, showing a significant effect (P<0.05) of regional environments on Zn contents of the same ingredient. The highest and lowest Zn contents of corn were observed in Guangdong (20.6 mg·kg -1) and Jilin (13.7 mg·kg -1) provinces, respectively; the highest and lowest Zn contents of wheat were observed in Sichuan (41.4 mg·kg -1) and Gansu (22.4 mg·kg -1) provinces, respectively; the highest and lowest Zn contents of soybean meal were observed in Shanxi (51.5 mg·kg -1) and Jiangsu (46.6 mg·kg -1) provinces, respectively. Calculated Zn contents in basal diets from 142 common formulations of pigs and chickens in our country ranged from 21.3 to 31.0 mg·kg -1. According to Zn requirements of pigs and chicks from feeding standards of China and NRC of United States, the Zn contents in the basal diets could provide about one-fourth and one-second of the recommended Zn requirements for pigs and chickens in growing and finishing phase, respectively. 【Conclusion】 Results showed that the Zn contents in feed ingredients varied greatly among different kinds and regions, and the Zn contents in basal diets from common formulations of pigs and chickens could partly meet the nutrient requirements of pigs and chickens. Therefore, the Zn contents in basal diets from different regions should be considered in the preparation of diets, so as to meet the need of efficient production of livestock and poultry and to reduce supplemental Zn level and environmental pollution caused by Zn emission.

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    A Survey on Distribution of Selenium Contents in Feedstuffs for Livestock and Poultry in China
    WANG LiSai,ZHANG LiYang,MA XueLian,WANG LiangZhi,XING GuanZhong,YANG Liu,YU Tao,LÜ Lin,LIAO XiuDong,LI SuFen,LUO XuGang
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2019, 52 (11): 2011-2020.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.11.016
    Abstract444)   HTML14)    PDF (404KB)(239)       Save

    【Objective】 The purpose of this survey was to study the distribution of selenium (Se) contents in various feed ingredients from different regions and the basal diets of pigs and chickens of China, so as to provide a basis for the reasonable addition of Se to the diets.【Method】 A total of 3 785 feed samples from 37 feed ingredients which fallen into seven types (cereal feeds, cereal by-products, plant protein feeds, animal protein feeds, pasture feeds, straw feeds and mineral feeds) from 31 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. After pretreatment, microwave digestion was performed with MARS6 high-throughput closed microwave digestion system, and then feed samples were determined by ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (IC-ICP-MS). The pig liver powder was used as a reference material to ensure the reliability of the measurement results.【Result】 The determination of Se contents in feedstuffs showed that the average Se content of cereal feeds (including corn, wheat, rice and barley) was 0.037 mg·kg -1 (ranged from 0.025 to 0.044 mg·kg -1); cereal by-products (including corn gluten meal, corn DDGS, corn germ meal, wheat middling, wheat bran, wheat DDGS, broken rice and rice bran) was 0.071 mg·kg -1 (ranged from 0.034 to 0.124 mg·kg -1); plant protein feeds (including extruded soybean, soybean meal, rapeseed meal, cottonseed meal, peanut meal, linseed meal and sunflower meal) was 0.209 mg·kg -1 (ranged from 0.097 to 0.502 mg·kg -1); animal protein feeds (including fish meal, meat meal, hydrolyzed feather meal, dried porcine soluble, plasma protein powder and blood cells protein powder) was 1.217 mg·kg -1 (ranged from 0.611 to 2.220 mg·kg -1); pasture feeds (including Leymus chinensis, ryegrass, alfalfa and corn silage) was 0.062 mg·kg -1 (ranged from 0.057 to 0.070 mg·kg -1); straw feeds (including corn straw, wheat straw, rice straw and sweet potato vine) was 0.069 mg·kg -1 (ranged from 0.033 to 0.128 mg·kg -1); mineral feeds (including limestone, dicalcium phosphate, bone meal and oyster shell meal) was 0.352 mg·kg -1 (ranged from 0.085 to 0.544 mg·kg -1). Results showed that the average Se contents of these 37 kinds of feeds ranged from 0.025 to 2.220 mg·kg -1 and the Se contents distribution of different species feeds were as follows: animal protein feeds (1.217 mg·kg -1)> mineral feeds (0.352 mg·kg -1) > plant protein feeds (0.209 mg·kg -1) >cereal by-products (0.071 mg·kg -1) >straw feeds (0.069 mg·kg -1) > pasture feeds (0.062 mg·kg -1) >cereal feeds (0.037 mg·kg -1).The Se contents in corn, wheat or soybean meal from some provinces (regions) were significantly different (P<0.05). The Se contents of corn samples from all the provinces (regions) were deficient (≤0.05 mg·kg -1), and 61.1% provinces (regions) were severely deficient (≤0.02 mg·kg -1). The Se contents of wheat samples from Sichuan province were serious deficient (≤0.02 mg·kg -1). The Se contents of soybean meal samples from Sichuan province and Inner Mongolia were deficient (0.03-0.05 mg·kg -1), and that from Henan province were critical deficient (0.06-0.09 mg·kg -1). Calculated Se contents from 153 feed formulas commonly used in pigs and chickens all over the country ranged from 0.06 to 0.11 mg·kg -1, which could provide about a quarter of the Se requirement for pigs and chickens according to feeding standards of China. 【Conclusion】 The Se contents enrichments of feeds in livestock and poultry are different among different types and regions in China. The Se contents in the basal diet formula could provide about a quarter of the Se requirement for pigs and chickens in China. Therefore, it is suggested that we should formulate the diet accurately according to distribution data of Se contents in feedstuffs from different types and different areas, so as to meet the need of efficient production of livestock and poultry and reduce supplemental Se level.

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