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    Effect of One-off Application of Poly Urea-Formaldehyde Fertilizer Under Reduced N Rate on Double Cropping Rice
    QiaoYi HUANG, Mu ZHANG, Xu HUANG, ShuanHu TANG, FaBao ZHANG, YuWan PANG, Qiong YI, Ping LI, HongTing FU
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2018, 51 (20): 3996-4006.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2018.20.017
    Abstract293)   HTML10)    PDF (399KB)(129)       Save

    【Objective】 This experiment was carried out to study the effect of one-off application of poly urea- formaldehyde fertilizer with reduced N rate on double rice and to explore the possibility of one-off application of poly urea- formaldehyde fertilizer on double rice, thus providing a theoretical basis for simple and easy, synergistic and less nitrogen fertilizer practice, so as to increase fertilizer efficiency, and reduce the non-point source pollution.【Method】The conventional rice variety “Jingxiang Simiao” was used in a field experiment. One year field experiment, including early rice and late rice, was conducted. Under the conventional total N input of 180 kg·hm-2, the one-off application of poly urea-formaldehyde fertilizer with reduced 0, 23%, 38% and 47% N rate (UF1, UF2, UF3 and UF4, respectively), conventional fertilization (CF, 50% of base fertilizer, 20% of turning green fertilizer and 30% of elongation fertilizer), and no nitrogen fertilizer (CK) were designed. All the experimental fields were fertilized with P2O5 55 kg·hm-2 and K2O 130 kg·hm-2, which were supplied by calcium superphosphate and potassium chloride. Research mainly focused on the influence of one-off application with reduced N rate on the yield, biomass, NPK contents of the above-ground portion, nitrogen use efficiency of rice, and the inorganic nitrogen content in soil. 【Result】(1) There were no significant differences in the grain yields of early and late rice among CF, UF1, and UF2 treatments. The grain yield of early rice under UF3 treatments reduced significantly by 7.52% comparing with CF treatment (P<0.05). The grain yield of early and late rice under UF4 treatment all decreased significantly by 9.84% and 9.75%, respectively, comparing with CF treatment (P<0.05). (2) Comparing with CF treatment, the effective panicles per hill for early rice and late rice in treatment UF4 were 0.80 and 0.39 less, while the decrease during early rice had reached significant level (P<0.05). UF1, UF2 and UF3 treatments had the similar effective panicles, filled grains per panicle, filled grain rate, and 1000-grain weight of early rice and late rice with CF treatment. (3) The contents and accumulations of N, P and K in the straw and grain of the early and late rice under UF1 and UF2 treatments were not significantly different from the CF treatment. While the content and accumulation of N in the straw of late rice under UF3 treatment were lower by 30.73% and 23.60% respectively than CF treatment (P<0.05). And the UF4 had the lowest N content, N accumulation of early rice and late rice, which were 22.82% and 26.82% less, respectively, than CF treatment (P<0.05). (4) Comparing with CF treatment, UF2, UF3 and UF4 treatments had increased partial factor productivity of N fertilizer by 24.37%, 49.24% and 70.89%, respectively (P<0.05). But no significant differences in the agronomic efficiency of N fertilizer, N recovery efficiency, and physiological efficiency of N fertilizer among all fertilization treatments were observed. (5) No significant differences in the available inorganic N content in soil after rice harvest between UF and CF treatments were detected, but the total N content in the soil was slightly higher than that under CF treatment. Therefore, poly urea-formaldehyde fertilizer could be used as the special slow release fertilizer in the one-off fertilization technology for early and late rice.【Conclusion】UF2 treatment, the one-off application of poly urea-formaldehyde fertilizer with reduced 23% N rate had obtained relatively high grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency in early and late rice seasons, and the cost of which was equal to CF. It was concluded that this fertilizer application method could be served as the an effective way to simplified fertilization and reduce N application in early and late rice cultivation.

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    Effects of the Controlled Release Fertilizer on Nitrate Accumulation and Migration in the Soil of Wheat-Maize Rotation System
    Ning SHI, Yan LI, YingPeng ZHANG, JiaFa LUO, ZiWen ZHONG, Ming SUN, ZhaoHui LIU, YongPing JING, LuJi BO
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2018, 51 (20): 3920-3927.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2018.20.010
    Abstract292)   HTML11)    PDF (406KB)(374)       Save

    【Objective】 This study explored the effects of urea coated by resin on the crop yield, nitrogen (N) recovery efficiency, N apparent loss, nitrate accumulation and migration of winter wheat and summer maize, which could provide theoretical support for further development of one-off fertilization technique. 【Method】 Field experiments in winter wheat-summer maize were set up with four different treatments, described as below : (1) No N fertilizer (CK), (2) Optimal fertilization by split application of urea (OPT, 50% of base fertilizer, 50% of turning green fertilizer of wheat and jointing fertilizer of maize, (3) single basal application of resin coated urea (CRF, 80% N rate of OPT). The OPT and CRF in wheat were fertilized with N 180 kg·hm-2 and 144 kg·hm-2, respectively, which in maize were 210 kg·hm-2 and 168 kg·hm-2, respectively. All the experimental fields were fertilized with P2O5 90 kg·hm-2, K2O 60 kg·hm-2 in wheat, and P2O5 60 kg·hm-2, K2O 60 kg·hm-2 in maize, which were supplied by calcium superphosphate and potassium chloride. The 0-100 cm soil samples were collected at 20 cm increments during the period of returning green stage, jointing stage, booting stage and after harvest for the winter wheat; and seeding stage, jointing stage, filling stage and harvest stage for the summer maize. Shoot and grain samples of crops were collected at harvest stage to analyze nutrients. 【Result】 Compared with OPT, the yield of CRF reached 7.87 t·hm-2, the total N absorption of aboveground was 209 kg·hm-2, and the maize yield and N uptake were 7.57 t·hm-2 and 142 kg·hm-2, respectively. It not only ensured the yield and total N uptake in wheat and maize, but also decreased the apparent N loss in soil in the wheat and maize rotation system. The 40-60 cm soil layer was the main location that nitrate accumulation. The application of CRF could effectively reduce the accumulation of nitrate in 0-100 cm soil layer, and slowing down the rate of nitrate migrate to the deep soil. 【Conclusion】 In the winter wheat-summer maize system, CRF with less N input could reduce the nitrate accumulation and migration in the soil without reducing yield and N uptake. Application of CRF could reduce the environmental risk from the apparent N loss in the soil.

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    The Effects of One-off Fertilization of Summer Maize in Huang-Huai-Hai Region
    Yan YANG, DeShui TAN, LiHua JIANG, JianHua GUO, KeGang SUN, Yu XU, Jing SHI, Mei WANG, ZhaoHui LIU
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2018, 51 (20): 3909-3919.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2018.20.009
    Abstract308)   HTML8)    PDF (399KB)(317)       Save

    【Objective】In order to provide a theoretical basis for the selection of simplified production techniques, to realize the fertilizer reduction and increasing efficiency, saving cost and increasing income in Huang-Huai-Hai region, the effects of one-off fertilization on the yield, nitrogen use efficiency and economic effects of summer maize were studied.【Method】The field experiments of one-off application of controlled release nitrogen fertilizer on maize was carried out in 8 test points selecting from Hebei, Henan and Shandong province from 2015 to 2016, the economic effects of one-off fertilization on summer maize in Huang-Huai-Hai region were studied to verify the feasibility of the nitrogen reduction of one-off fertilization. the one-off fertilization treatments of CRFA (the amount of nitrogen input in controlled release nitrogen fertilizer was equivalent to OPT treatment), CRFA80%N, CRFB80%N and CRFC80%N (with the amount of nitrogen input in controlled release nitrogen fertilizer was 20% reduction) were set to compare with the multiple application of common nitrogen fertilizer (FP treatment and OPT treatment).【Result】(1) Compared with FP treatment, the one-off fertilization had no significant effect on plant height, ear characters, and the average value of 2 years’ yield of summer maize in Huang-Huai-Hai region, even though the N agronomic efficiency (NAE) and N recovery efficiency (NER) had been increased; However, partial factor productivity from applied N (PFPN) of one-off reduced fertilization were significantly improved more than 33.85%. In addition, there were 8.15, 50.65, 50.65 and 50.65 kg N·hm-2 saving of the CRFA, CRFA80%N, CRFB80%N and CRFC80%N treatment in one maize season, respectively. one-off fertilization increased net income more than 927.40 yuan·hm-2. (2) In addition to the CRFA treatment, the NO3--N contents of the remaining treatments of one-off fertilization were significantly lower than FP, and 0-90 cm soil NO3--N content of the treatments of one-off reduced fertilization (CRFA80 % N, CRFB80% N, CRFC80% N) were significantly lower than OPT (P<0.05). 【Conclusion】 one-off fertilization realized the simplified fertilization of summer maize in Huang-Huai-Hai region, increased the nitrogen use efficiency, which could realize the fertilizer reduction and ensuring stable yield at the same time. It was recommended that the fertilization mode of controlled released nitrogen with reducing 20% should be applied to the summer maize production in Huang-Huai-Hai region.

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    The Impacts of CH4 and N2O Net Emission Under One-Off Fertilization of Rape-Paddy Replanting System
    Chi XU, HaiKuan XIE, WuHan DING, Zhen DAI, Jing ZHANG, LiGang WANG, Hu LI
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2018, 51 (20): 3972-3984.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2018.20.015
    Abstract293)   HTML13)    PDF (533KB)(264)       Save

    【Objective】The objective of this paper was to explore the impacts of one-off fertilization on CH4 and N2O emissions and its impacting factors in rape-paddy replanting system to calculate global warming potential, and to understand the contribution of one-off fertilization to the greenhouse gas emission, so as to provide scientific basis and technical reference for greenhouse gas emission reduction.【Method】Based on the typical rape-paddy replanting system in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the experiments were set up in the (30.36N, 112.08E) rape-paddy replanting test field in Taihu port farm of Jingzhou from October 2015 to September 2016 with 5 treatments, including Control treatment (CK), Farmers' Practice treatment (FP), Optimal fertilizer treatment (OPT), Urea fertilizer treatment (UA) and Controlled release fertilizer treatment (CRF), with 3 replicates. In the whole growth period, the static chamber gas chromatography method was used for determination of CH4 and N2O emission flux. Before and after planting, the physicochemical properties of soil and yield of the crop were measured.【Result】(1) The emissions of N2O and CH4 had obvious seasonal dynamics of high in paddy season and low in rape season. The fluxes of N2O varied -4.08-35.51 μg N·m-2·h-1 and varied -16.52-193.30 μg N·m-2·h-1 in the paddy season. The average annual emission flux varied 3.66-23.70 μg N·m-2·h-1; the fluxes of CH4 varied -0.08-0.05 mg C·m-2·h-1 in rape season. The fluxes of CH4 in rice season varied -0.54-4.81 mg C·m-2·h-1. The annual average flux varied 0.42-0.66 mg C·m-2·h-1. (2) The amounts of N2O emissions from high to low were FP, CRF, OPT, UA, and CK, respectively, and the value of them was 1.31, 1.19, 1.04, 0.82 and 0.37 kg N·hm-2, respectively. The emission factors were a range in 0.14%-0.25%, all values were lower than 1%, which were IPCC Recommended. Compared with OPT treatment with the same amount of nitrogen input, the two one-off fertilization UA and CRF treatments could effectively reduce CH4 emissions by 29.0% and 29.9%, respectively, at the same time UA treatment can reduce the 21.2% N2O emissions, but CRF treatment increased 14.8% N2O emissions. (3) Under the same amount of nitrogen application, one-off fertilization CRF significantly increased the yield of rape by 10.6%, while the effect on paddy yield was not significant. The characteristics of the GHGI showed low in rape season, high in rice season, but there was no significant difference in treatments between rape and rice season. The minimum GHGI of CRF and UA in rape season was 0.038 kgCO2-eq·kg-1, OPT was maximum with 0.057 kgCO2-eq·kg-1, the minimum of UA in rice season UA was 0.07 kgCO2-eq·kg-1, and FP was maximum with 0.13 kgCO2-eq·kg-1. (4) The Global Warming Potential of the two gases were integrated with the GWP (100 year scale), under the same nitrogen application amount, one-off fertilization UA and CRF were better than OPT significantly reduced the GWP 28.0% and 18.2% (P<0.05), and the one-off fertilization of urea was more effectively reduce the effect of greenhouse gas.【Conclusion】For the typical farmland in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, one-off fertilization of common urea or control-release urea could reduce greenhouse gas emissions while maintained crop yield, but it still needs to be verified by long-term experiments.

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    The Nutrient Supply Characteristics of Co-Application of Slow-Release Urea and Common Urea in Double-Cropping Rice
    Mu ZHANG, ShuanHu TANG, QiaoYi HUANG, YuWan PANG, Qiong YI, Xu HUANG, Ping LI, HongTing FU
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2018, 51 (20): 3985-3995.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2018.20.016
    Abstract319)   HTML9)    PDF (476KB)(258)       Save

    【Objective】Slow release urea, as a new type of fertilizer for both single basal and decreasing fertilization, is the guarantee of high crop yield due to its nutrient release characteristics corresponding to crop nutrient requirements. This study explored the effect of co-application of slow-release urea and common urea on nutrient absorption in whole growth period of rice which could provide theoretical support and technical guidance for new fertilizer development. 【Method】Field experiments in early and late rice were set up with six different treatments described as below: No N fertilization (CK), 100% slow-release urea (100%SRU), 75% of slow-release urea and 25% of common urea (75%SRU+25%CU), 50% of slow-release urea and 50% of common urea (50%SRU+50%CU), 25% of slow-release urea and 75% of common urea (25%SRU+75%CU), 100% of common urea (100% CU). The nitrogen treatments were fertilized with 150 kg N·hm-2, and all the experimental fields were fertilized with 55 kg P2O5·hm-2 and 130 kg K2O·hm-2, which were supplied by calcium superphosphate and potassium chloride. Rice plant samples of early rice were collected to analyze N, P and K concentrations during growth period. Leaves of different positions and grains of early rice were collected during filling stage to analyze N, P and K concentrations, and SPAD values were also measured at the same stage. The yield and yield components were also recorded after the early and late rice harvest. 【Result】Results showed that the highest yields of the early and late rice were both occurred under the 75%SRU+25%CU treatment, and there were no significant differences between 100% SRU, 50%SRU+50%CU and 25%SRU+75%CU treatments in early and late rice, and all better than 100%CU treatment in some extent. Compared with the 100%CU treatment, the advantages of combined application of the slow-release urea treatments were that the rice had higher effective panicles and number of grains per ear, especially in early rice. Throughout the growth period, the dry matter weight and N accumulation of shoot in 100% SRU treatment were significantly higher than those of the other treatments, and were decreased with the increase of the proportion of the common urea. The concentration of N in shoot treated with 100% SRU was also significantly higher than those of the other treatments, and was also decreased with the increase of the proportion of the common urea. During the grain filling stage, the N contents of flag leaf, penultimate and third leaves, and grain, and SPAD values of flag leaf were all significantly increased by the application of 100%SRU, and were all decreased with the increase of the proportion of common urea. 【Conclusion】The 100% of SRU treatment provided excess nitrogen and made the rice appeared different degree of greedy situation, and then decreased grain yield. 75%SRU+25%CU has been proved adequate for single basal fertilization in rice production. Due to all of the slow-release urea addition treatments had the better yield than 100%CU treatment in this experiment, because of its cost, the proportion of the slow-release urea could be reduced in some degree.

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    Studying the Fate and Recovery Efficiency of Controlled Release Urea in Paddy Soil Using 15N Tracer Technique
    PengFei LI, XiaoKun LI, WenFeng HOU, Tao REN, RiHuan CONG, ChangWen DU, LieHuo XING, ShaoHua WANG, JianWei LU
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2018, 51 (20): 3961-3971.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2018.20.014
    Abstract385)   HTML18)    PDF (430KB)(337)       Save

    【Objective】The purpose of this paper was to compare the characteristics of nitrogen (N) transformation in soil-plant system between controlled release urea and conventional urea under optimum nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium rates, and to explore the utilization potential of controlled release urea-N and its effect on reducing N loss, and to study quantitatively on the fate and recovery efficiency of controlled release urea in paddy soil, thus providing basis for the efficient application of controlled release fertilizer. 【Method】A field microplot experiment was employed with three N fertilizer treatments (no N applied, CK; 15N labelled conventional powder urea, U; 15N labelled controlled release urea, CRU) to study fertilizer N uptake, distribution and translocation in rice, fertilizer N fate and recovery efficiency in paddy soil. 【Result】Dry matter and 15N accumulation of stem and sheath by rice plants increased gradually along with the progress of rice growth, and reached the maximum at anthesis. Compared with U treatment, the dry matter of stem by rice plants in CRU treatment at anthesis increased by 13.8%, that of sheath was not significantly changed, and 15N accumulation of stem and sheath by rice plants in CRU treatment increased by 62.5% and 25.5%, respectively, then decreased due to the continuous transfer of dry matter and 15N of vegetative organs to grain. With the senescence of the leaves falling off, the dry matter and 15N accumulation of leaves decreased gradually from the heading stage, reaching the minimum at maturity. Dry matter and 15N accumulation of panicles increased from the booting stage, reaching the maximum at maturity. At maturity, compared with U treatment, the dry matter and 15N accumulation of stem, sheath, panicles, and aboveground by rice plants in CRU treatment increased by 17.3%, 13.2%, 3.5%, 3.7% and 25.0%, 20.0%, 15.8%, 13.3%, respectively, while those of leaves decreased by 14.6% and 15.2%, respectively. From anthesis to maturity, the dry matter and 15N translocation, translocation efficiency and contribution efficiency to grain in CRU treatment were 286.78 g·m-2, 32.3%, 30.8% and 2.69 g·m-2, 67.2%, 83.8%, respectively, slightly increased compared to U treatment, but not statistically significant. However, the nutrient supply from filling to maturity was abundant in CRU treatment, which promoted the grain filling rate of rice, and promoted the dry matter accumulation in grains, the assimilation of nitrogen, and the rapid transfer of nutrients from vegetative organs to grains. Compared with U, grain yield and N uptake of rice plants increased slightly, but there was no statistically significant difference; CRU treatment increased 15N accumulation by 13.3%, improved 15N use efficiency by 3.2 percentage points, increased N derived from 15N fertilizer by 2.9 percentage points, increased soil 15N residual rate by 0.9 percentage points, improved total 15N recovery efficiency by 4.0 percentage points, and reduced 15N loss by 4.0 percentage points. Regardless of application of controlled release urea or conventional urea, soil N was the main source of N for growth and development of rice, and the N from soil was more than 70% during rice growth period. The residual amount of fertilizer nitrogen in soil decreased significantly with the increase of soil depth. After harvest, fertilizer 15N mainly remained in the 0-20 cm soil layer, accounting for 78% of the total residue. The second was 20-40 cm and 40-60 cm soil layer, and the fertilizer 15N residue in the two soil layers was similar, accounting for about 19% of the total residue. Below 60 cm soil layer, there was still a trace amount of fertilizer 15N residue, accounting for less than 4% of the total residue. 【Conclusion】 Controlled release urea could improve dry matter and N accumulation, and increase the dry matter and N translocation after anthesis (especially from filling to maturity), and reduce the loss of fertilizer nitrogen while maintaining grain yield and improving fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency.

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    Yield and Nitrogen Adsorption of Single-Cropping Rice as Influenced by One-off Fertilization of Slow-Released Nitrogen Fertilizer
    Qiang WANG, LiNa JIANG, JianQing PAN, JianQiang LI, JunWei MA, Jing YE, Ping ZOU
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2018, 51 (20): 3951-3960.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2018.20.013
    Abstract373)   HTML10)    PDF (467KB)(232)       Save

    【Objective】 The aim of this study was to investigate the stable-yield effect and mechanism of one-off fertilization of slow-released nitrogen fertilizer (SRF) in the single-season rice, and to screen the suitable types of SRF in the single-rice system. 【Method】 To determine the differences in rice yield, dynamic changes in soil N supply and N uptake by rice during the rice-growing season between one-off fertilization of slow-released fertilizers (stabilized fertilizer, NIU; resin coated urea, RCU; and polyurethane coated urea, PCU; 225 kg·hm-2) and split application of urea (Urea, 270 kg·hm-2), we carried out 11 field plot trials in a single-crop rice system at the Lincheng and Taihu Xincheng of Changxin county and Jiangtang of Jinhua county, in the Zhejiang Province from 2013 to 2016. 【Result】 (1) The results showed that the rice yield in N0 treatment was 83.9% of that in Urea treatment. The mean N use efficiency (NUE) in the Urea treatment was 19.2%-20.1% at the three sites. No significant difference was found in average rice yield between the one-off fertilization of SRFs and Urea. (2) There were no significant differences in the N concentration in rice plant and N uptake by rice among the RCU, PCU and Urea treatments at Lincheng and Taihu Xincheng, while the N concentration in rice plant was significantly lower in the NIU treatment than in the Urea treatment. All the N concentrations in grain were significantly lower in the three SRFs treatments than that in the Urea treatment at Jinhua. (3) The rice yield was significantly higher in the RCU treatment than in both PCU and NIU treatment. The coefficient of variation of rice yield was relatively low in the RCU treatment. In the late stage of rice growing, the soil ammonium-N and N uptake intensity was significantly higher in the RCU treatment than that in the Urea treatment, respectively. Application of SRFs increased the N use efficiency by 2.8%-9.0%, compared to the Urea treatment. 【Conclusion】 Based on the basic soil fertility and conventional N application rate, one-off fertilization of RCU, PCU or NIU, reducing N rate by 16.7%, could maintain the grain yield of rice. Thus, one-off fertilization of slow release fertilizer was an alternative N management in single-rice system.

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    Effect of Reduced Controlled-Release Nitrogen Fertilizer Application on Yield, Nitrogen Absorption and Transportation of Spring Maize
    CaiXia YIN, Qian LI, LiLi KONG, YuBo QIN, Meng WANG, Lei YU, ChunGuang LIU, LiChun WANG, YunPeng HOU
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2018, 51 (20): 3941-3950.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2018.20.012
    Abstract292)   HTML10)    PDF (460KB)(259)       Save

    【Objective】The field experiment was conducted to research the formation of dry matter, nutrient requirement and distribution characteristics of spring maize when the rate of controlled-release nitrogen fertilizer (CRU) was lower than that of farmers conventional fertilization, to cope with the unreasonable nitrogen fertilizer application and the decrease of the nitrogen utilization efficiency of spring maize in Jilin province. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of CRU on yield, nitrogen absorption and transportation, and to provide scientific references to the reasonable CRU application of spring maize in Jilin province. 【Method】The field experiment was carried out in Liufangzi village, Gongzhuling city, Jilin province from 2013 to 2014. The maize variety was Xianyu335 in this experiment. It consisted of five fertilization treatments, including no nitrogen fertilizer (CK), farmer conventional fertilization (FP), recommended fertilization (OPT, the N fertilizer rate was less than that of FP by 25%), the N fertilizer rate was the same as OPT (CRU1), and the N fertilizer rate was less than that of FP by 40% (CRU2). The two-year study systematically analyzed the maize plant biomass, nitrogen accumulation at different growth stages and distribution characteristics at mature stage, and studied the effects of maize yield, nitrogen utilization efficiency and nitrogen transportation efficiency under different nitrogen fertilization treatments. 【Result】There were significant differences between yield and its components of different nitrogen treatments, and the interaction between years and treatments was extremely significant difference. Maize yield increased slightly with decreasing of nitrogen application rate. The higher yield of CRU1 treatment was significantly higher than that of FP treatment by 4.5% in the average two years, but the yield was no significant difference between CRU1 and OPT treatments. Reduced CRU application increased nitrogen physiological efficiency (NPE), agricultural efficiency (NAE), partial factor productivity (NPFP) and utilization efficiency (NUE) than them of FP treatment. The NPE, NAE, NPFP and NUE of CRU1 treatment were higher than that of FP treatment by 28.5%, 4.9 kg·kg-1, 18.1 kg·kg-1 and 18.4%, respectively. The dry matter accumulation amount appeared fast-slow-fast dynamic changes with the development of the maize growth stages, and the annual change trend was consistent basically under these treatments. The dry matter accumulation of maize shoot under CRU1 treatment was higher than that of FP treatment by 7.7%. Reduced CRU application did not affect the nitrogen accumulation and distribution at maize later growth stage, but could improve plant nitrogen absorption and utilization ability, and promoted the nutrition transportation efficiency after flowering stage. The nitrogen accumulation of CRU1 treatment was higher than that of FP treatment by 5.0% of maize. The contribution rate to grain of CRU1 treatment was the highest than the other treatments by 62.1% in the average two years, which was higher than that under FP treatment by 13.3%. 【Conclusion】Controlled-release nitrogen fertilizer decreased nitrogen fertilizer by 25% (180 kg·hm-2). It did not only increase maize yield, but also improved nitrogen transportation efficiency, therefore resulting in higher nitrogen fertilizer utilization efficiency. There were no significant difference between CRU treatment and OPT treatment on maize yield, nutrition accumulation and transportation, and nitrogen utilization efficiency, but which of CRU and OPT was significantly higher than FP treatment, respectively.

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    Effects of Different Slow/Controlled Release Nitrogen Fertilizers on Spring Maize Nitrogen Uptake and Utilization, Soil Inorganic Nitrogen and Nitrogen Balance
    YunPeng HOU, Qian LI, LiLi KONG, YuBo QIN, Meng WANG, Lei YU, LiChun WANG, CaiXia YIN
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2018, 51 (20): 3928-3940.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2018.20.011
    Abstract302)   HTML12)    PDF (465KB)(247)       Save

    【Objective】This research aimed to evaluate the effects of different types slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer treatments on spring maize yield, nitrogen accumulation characteristics at key growth periods, soil inorganic nitrogen change, nitrogen balance, and other aspects at the middle region of Jilin province, so as to select the suitable slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer type and provide the theoretical basis on reasonable application of slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizers.【Method】 Two field experiments were conducted in the middle maize production regions of Jilin province in 2014 and 2015 with 6 treatments, including no nitrogen fertilization control (CK), common urea (CU), sulfur-coated urea (SCU), polymer-coated urea (CRF), stability urea (SU) and urea formaldehyde (UF). Grain yield, N content in different growth period and soil inorganic nitrogen content were measured, and N uptake, nitrogen utilization efficiency, soil inorganic N accumulation and N balance were also calculated. 【Result】The maize yield under slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer treatments was significantly higher than that under CU treatment, with 19.6% (2014) and 18.8% (2015), respectively, and the maize yield in the CRF treatment was the highest. N recovery efficiency, agronomic efficiency and partial factor productivity were significantly increased under the slow/controlled release N fertilizer treatments by 44.8%-72.6%, 70.8%-147.7%, 9.6%-19.6% (2014) and 29.2%-48.0%, 47.7%-86.5%, 10.4%-18.9% (2015), respectively, and which of CRF treatment were the highest. N accumulation was significantly increased with N fertilizer application, which of CRF treatment was the highest from filling stage to mature stage. Compared with CU treatment, soil inorganic nitrogen content was significantly increased from flowering stage to mature stage in 0-30 cm soil, that of CRF treatment was the highest from flowering stage to filling stage, and that of UF treatment was the highest in mature stage. The contents of inorganic nitrogen decreased with the increase of soil depth in 0-180 cm soil profile after maize harvest. Compared with CU treatment, slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer treatments improved the contents of inorganic nitrogen in 0-30 cm soil, and that of UF treatment was the highest. Correlation analysis results showed that there were significant and extremely significant positive correlation between total N accumulation, grain yield and soil inorganic nitrogen content from bell stage to mature stage, N utilization efficiency was significant and extremely significant positive correlation with soil inorganic nitrogen content from flowering stage to mature stage, and soil inorganic nitrogen content was the most correlated with N total accumulation, grain yield and N utilization efficiency from flowering stage to mature stage. Soil residue inorganic nitrogen content in 0-90 cm was significantly increased with N fertilizer application after harvest. N apparent loss content was significantly reduced under the slow/controlled release N fertilizer treatments with the less of 27.4%-42.9% (2014) and 28.4%-45.4% (2015) than that under the CU treatment, and that under the CRF treatment was the lowest. 【Conclusion】Under the same application amount and methods, the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer significantly improved the maize yield, the amount of nitrogen accumulation from filling stage to mature stage, N recovery efficiency, agronomic efficiency, partial factor productivity and improved the content of inorganic nitrogen in 0-30 cm soil layer from flowering stage to mature stage, compared to normal urea. At the same time, the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer significantly reduced the apparent loss of nitrogen in 0-90 cm soil layer in mature stage. The effect of CRF was the best in all treatments, so that CRF was the fertilizer type of high-yield and high efficiency in the middle area of Jilin province.

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    Effects of Fertilization Methods of Self-Made Wheat-Specific Controlled-Release Nitrogen Fertilizer on Fertilizer Efficiencies
    Ping LIU, DeShui TAN, Yu XU, HaiTao LIN, Yan LI, XiaoZong SONG, YuWen SHEN, ZhaoHui LIU
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2018, 51 (20): 3897-3908.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2018.20.008
    Abstract276)   HTML11)    PDF (434KB)(345)       Save

    【Objective】 The objective of this study was to explore the suitable controlled-release nitrogen fertilizer varieties and their application methods in the wheat production process, so as to provide a theoretical basis for the popularization and application of the one-off mechanized application technology of wheat controlled-release fertilizer. 【Method】 Three dominant wheat producing areas with different soil types, fertility levels and climatic conditions in Shandong province were selected to study effects of different application methods of controlled-release nitrogen fertilizer for wheat (surface broadcasting and rotary tillage (CRF1), banding below seeds (CRF2), and banding below and away from seeds (CRF3)) on wheat yield, nutrient absorption, soil nitrate nitrogen content and nitrogen use efficiency under the same optimal fertilization conditions by the method of field plot experiment. At the same time, the application methods were compared with the conventional urea fertilization (half urea was used as the base fertilizer, and half of urea was used at jointing of wheat (CK1), and all of urea was used as the base fertilizer by surface broadcasting and rotary tillage (CK2)) and no nitrogen fertilizer (CK0). 【Result】 The yield of wheat grown in Taian brown soil ranged from 7 021 to 7 683 kg·hm-2, and the yields of CRF1 and CRF2 increased by 6.1% and 3.5% respectively compared with CK1, but the difference did not reach a significant level. The yield of CRF3 and CK1 was not significantly different, and the yield of CRF1 and CRF2 wheat was significantly higher than that of CK2, which increased by 9.4% and 6.7%, respectively. The yield of wheat grown in Chiping tidal soil ranged from 4 576 to 5 193 kg·hm-2, and the yield of CRF1 and CK1 wheat was not significantly different, but significantly higher than that of CK2, with an increase of 11.3%. The yield of wheat treated with nitrogen fertilizer in the Huantai cinnamon soil ranged from 5 222 to 5 830 kg·hm-2. The yield of CRF1, CRF2 and CRF3 had no significant difference with CK1, while the yield of CRF1 was significantly higher than that of CK2, with an increase of 10.8%. The wheat yield and partial factor productivity of nitrogen fertilizer of CRF1 were higher in all three sites, but there was no significant difference between CRF2 and CRF3. In Taian brown soil, the distribution rates of grain nitrogen of CRF1 and CRF3 were significantly higher than those of CK1 and CK2. The nitrogen use efficiency of CRF1, CRF2 and CRF3 in Huantai cinnamon soil was 46.7%, 49.5% and 50.2%, respectively. There was no significant difference among the three treatments, and no significant difference with CK1 and CK2. The three kinds of fertilization methods of controlled-release nitrogen fertilizer had no significant effect on the distribution of dry matter in wheat grain and straw, the nitrogen content and accumulation of grain and the surplus of nitrogen. In Chiping and Huantai, the content of nitrate nitrogen of CRF2 and CRF3 in 0-90 cm soil layer was higher. The content of nitrate nitrogen under CK1 and CK2 in Taian was higher, while that under CRF1 was the lowest. 【Conclusion】 In the case of optimized dosage, the surface broadcasting and rotary tillage method for self-made wheat-specific controlled-release nitrogen fertilizer was conducive to stable or higher yield and production costs savings.

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    Effect of One-off Fertilization on Winter Wheat Yield in Huang-Huai-Hai East Region
    DeShui TAN, HaiTao LIN, GuoLiang ZHU, ZiShuang LI, QingFu GUO, XiaoBin WU, ZhaoHui LIU
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica    2018, 51 (20): 3887-3908.   DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2018.20.007
    Abstract285)   HTML18)    PDF (439KB)(172)       Save

    【Objective】This study aimed to evaluate one-off application effect of controlled release nitrogen mixed with phosphorus potassium and other nutrients on the winter wheat to realize fertilizer reduction, efficiency and cost increase etc., which provided reference of scientific techniques to the simplified production.【Method】In 2011-2012, 2012-2013, 2013-2014, thirty-one experiments of one-off application controlled release nitrogen fertilizer with wheat were carried out in different ecological areas of Huang-Huai-Hai east region to analyze the yield and nutrient efficiency, cost increase etc., and the treatments included CRFa (the equal N input with OPT treatment), 80%CRFa and 80%CRFb (the amount of nitrogen input in controlled release nitrogen fertilizer was 20% reduction compared with the multiple application of common nitrogen fertilizer (OPT treatment)). 【Result】The one-time application of controlled-release nitrogen fertilizer on winter wheat showed stable or small yield increasing trend. Compared with common nitrogen fertilizer, the average yield increased by 2.6% in the three years, and the number of experiment point for increasing production was 83.9% in the whole experiment. The proportion of experiment point for increasing production in two kinds of controlled-release nitrogen fertilizer decreased significantly, and the yield effect in biodegradable controlled-release fertilizer a was better than that of organic resin coated controlled-release fertilizer b; The yield effect of 4 fertilization patterns in sandy, loamy and clay soil texture were averagely 10.7%, 17.4% to 19.7%, respectively,, and the relative yield increasing effect of CRFa treatment (compared with OPT) in sandy or loamy soil texture soil was better than that in clay soil; The relative yield effect of controlled-release nitrogen fertilizer (compared with OPT) was better in the low yield level than that of high level block. There were14.7, 59.3 and 59.3 kg N·hm-2 saving under CRFa, 80%CRFa and 80%CRFb treatment, respectively, compared with FP treatment, and the nitrogen partial factor productivity (PFPN) increased by 0.4, 7.32, 6.93 kg·kg-1 under CRFa, 80%CRFa and 80%CRFb, respectively, compared with OPT, and the apparent nitrogen utilization efficiency were improved by 1.5, 8.62 and 6.21 percentage points respectively. The income of CRFa and 80%CRFa treatments increased 543.8 and 150.3 yuan·hm-2, respectively, compared with OPT.【Conclusion】One-off application of fertilizer on winter wheat by using the controlled release fertilizer with other nutrients showed obvious advantages from the ways of yield stability, improving the nitrogen use efficiency, saving labor and cost, and increasing income compared with the FP and OPT treatments. The results of CRFa and 80%CRFa were better under the experimental conditions. We recommended that the fertilization mode of controlled released nitrogen with reducing 20% nitrogen be applied to the winter wheat production in Huang-Huai-Hai east region.

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