Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2020, Vol. 53 ›› Issue (6): 1118-1125.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2020.06.004


Effects of Photoperiod Changes on Morphological Characters and Young Panicle Development in Proso Millet (Panicum Miliaceum L.)

Ming DONG1,YanMiao JIANG1,HaiQuan LI1,LingLing GENG1,JianYe LIU2,ZhiHong QIAO2,GuoQing LIU1()   

  1. 1 Institute of Millet Crops, Hebei Academy of Agriculture & Forestry Sciences/The Key Minor Cereal Crops Laboratory of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang 050035
    2 Yuxian Agricultural and Rural Burea of Hebei Province, Yuxian 075700, Hebei
  • Received:2019-06-13 Accepted:2019-09-03 Online:2020-03-16 Published:2020-04-09
  • Contact: GuoQing LIU


【Objective】 Proso millet is a typical short-day crop that is extremely sensitive to photoperiod changes which limits the geographical adaptation of proso millet varieties. In the present study, the important agronomic traits have been characterized and young panicle development has been observed under both short-day and long-day conditions, which may help better understand reaction mechanism to photoperiod changes and support widely adaptable va riety breeding in proso millet. 【Method】A landrace “Erzigan” was planted in pots under a 18h day light condition, then transferred to a 12h day light condition after 0 day (CK), 10, 15, 20 and 25 days of seedling emergency, each treatment was replicated three times. The main plant characters including heading time, plant height, stem diameter, panicle length, dry panicle weight and dry grain weight per panicle were measured and young panicle development was observed and photographed by using stereo microscope. 【Result】 Plants grown for 25 days under long-day conditions had a plant height of 115.6 cm and a single panicle grain weight of 0.647 g, which was 109.0% and 472.6% higher than the control, respectively. The dry matter accumulation of stem, leaves and ears increased by 416.7%, 142.9% and 412.0%, respectively, comparing with the control. However, the difference in dry matter weight of each organ between the 25d and 20d treatments was not significant. Under the condition of 18 hours day light, the growing point of the stem tip of the proso millet kept in the unstretched period, which meant the plants were at vegetative growth stage without reproductive growing. After 5 days growing under short-day light conditions, the plants began reproductive growth, and the young panicles started to differentiate. The process of young panicle development could be classified into 7 stages including unstretched stage, growing point elongation stage, ear branch differentiation stage, spikelet differentiation stage, floret differentiation stage, pistil and stamen differentiation stage, and pollen grain formation stage. The whole process of young panicle development could last about 15 days before heading, which was not affected by the prolonged light period treatments at early growing stage. 【Conclusion】Artificially prolonging the light period under short day conditions could extend vegetative growth period and was in favor of dry matter accumulation, which can significantly increase the biomass and yielding of proso millet. Short-day conditions promote the transformation of proso millet from vegetative growth to reproductive growth. The whole process of young panicle development could be classified into seven stages, which could last about 15 days before heading and was not affected by all the five treatments at early growing stage.

Key words: proso millet (Panicum Miliaceum L.), photoperiod response, morphological characters, young panicle development

Table 1

The effects of increasing day-length on biomass of proso millet"

Long day duration
Stem weight (g)
Leaf weight (g)
Spike weight (g)
Biomass (g)
Grain weight per spike (g)
CK 0 0.24±0.05aA 0.14±0.07aA 0.25±0.04aA 0.63±0.07aA 0.11±0.02aA
LD10 10 0.77±0.24bB 0.23±0.05bAB 0.83±0.12bB 1.83±0.38bB 0.39±0.03bB
LD15 15 0.93±0.04bBC 0.29±0.05bcBC 0.92±0.11bBC 2.15±0.12bBC 0.44±0.02bB
LD20 20 1.19±0.08cC 0.32±0.0cBC 1.14±0.09cCD 2.65±0.08cCD 0.57±0.02cC
LD25 25 1.24±0.08cC 0.34±0.03cC 1.28±0.06cD 2.86±0.12cD 0.65±0.02cC

Fig. 1

The effects of increasing day length on plant morphological characters of proso millet Different lowercase letters after the same data column indicate a significant difference at a 5% level between different treatments; Capital letters indicate a significant difference at a 1% level between different treatments"

Fig. 2

The development process of panicles under short-day condition A: 7 DAE (days after seedling emergence). Elongation period of growth point; B: 8 DAE. Differentiation stage of panicle branch primordia, primordia differentiation of primary branches; C: 9DAE. Differentiation stage of panicle branch primordia, primordia differentiation of secondary branches; D:12 DAE. Spikelet primordia differentiation period, glume protection primordia appeared; E: 13 DAE. Spikelet primordia differentiation period, differentiation of the first floret; F: 14 DAE. Spikelet primordia differentiation period, differentiation of the second floret; G: 17 DAE. Pistil and stamen primordium differentiation stage, pollen mother cell formation; H:18 DAE. Pistil and stamen primordium differentiation stage, meiosis of pollen mother cells; I: 21 DAE. Pollen grain formation stage"

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