Nitrogen mobility, ammonia volatilization, and estimated leaching loss from long-term manure incorporation in red soil
WU Meng1, LIU Ming1, LIU Jia1, LI Wei-tao1, JIANG Chun-yu1, LI Zhong-pei1, 2
1 State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, P.R.China 2 Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P.R.China
Abstract The optimized nitrogen fertilization location differs in different rice-growing regions. We optimized nitrogen deep-point application in root-growing zone (NARZ) for transplanted rice in subtropical China. Field plot experiments were conducted over two years (2014–2015) in a double-rice cropping system to evaluate the effects of nitrogen (N) fertilizer location on grain yield and N use efficiency (NUE). Four different nitrogen deep-point application methods (DN) were compared with traditional broadcast application (BN) using granular urea. The results showed that grain yield, recovery efficiency of N (REN), agronomic efficiency of N (AEN), and partial factor productivity of N (PFPN) significantly increased 10.3–63.4, 13.7–56.7, 24.7–201.9 and 10.2–63.4%, respectively, in DN treatment compared to BN, respectively. We also find that DN treatments increased grain yield as well as grain N content, and thus grain quality, in comparison with conventional BN treatment. Correlation analysis indicated that significant improvement in grain yield and NUE mainly resulted from increases in productive panicle number and grain N content. In our proposed NARZ method, granular urea should be placed 0 to 5 cm around the rice seeding at a 12-cm depth druing rice transplanting. In NARZ, balanced application of N, P and K further improved grain yield and NUE over treatments with a single N deep-point application. High N uptake by the rice plant did not cause significant soil fertility depletion, demonstrating that this method could guarantee sustainable rice production.
This work was financially supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (2013CB127401), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41401258), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (BK20131044) and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province, China (20142BAB214005).
Akiyama H, Mctaggart I P, Ball B, Scott A. 2004. N2O, NO and NH3 emissions from soil, after the application of organic fertilizers, urea and water. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 156, 113-129.
Bao S D. 2000. Analysis of Soil Agrochemistry. 3th ed. Chinese Agriculture Press, Beijing, China. (in Chinese)
Cai G X, Chen D L, Ding H, Pacholski A, Fan X H, Zhu Z L. 2002. Nitrogen losses from fertilizers applied to maize, wheat and rice in the North China Plain. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 63, 187-195.
Cai Z, Gao S, Hendratna A, Duan Y, Xu M, Hanson B D. 2016. Key factors, soil N processes, and nitrite accumulation affecting nitrous oxide emissions. Soil Science Society of American Journal, 80, 1560-1571.
Cameron K C, Di H J, Moir J L. 2013. Nitrogen losses from the soil/plant system: A review. Annals of Applied Biology, 162, 145-173.
Cicerone R J. 1987. Changes in stratospheric ozone. Science, 237, 35-41.
Constantin J, Mary B, Laurent F, Aubrion G, Fontaine A, Kerveillant P, Beaudoin N. 2010. Effects of catch crops, no till and reduced nitrogen fertilization on nitrogen leaching and balance in three long-term experiments. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 135, 268-278.
Cui F, Yan G X, Zhou Z X, Zheng X H, Deng J. 2012. Annual emissions of nitrous oxide and nitric oxide from a wheat-maize cropping system on a silt loam calcareous soil in the North China Plain. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 48, 10-19.
Dambreville C, Morvan T, Germon J C. 2008. N2O emission in maize-crops fertilized with pig slurry, matured pig manure or ammonium nitrate in Brittany. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 123, 201-210.
Dauden A, Quilez D. 2004. Pig slurry versus mineral fertilization on corn yield and nitrate leaching in a Mediterranean irrigated environment. European Journal of Agronomy, 1, 7-19.
Dewes T. 1996. Effect of pH, temperature, amount of litter and storage density on ammonia emissions from stable manure. Journal of Agricultural Science, 127, 501-509.
Duan Y H, Xu M G, Gao S, Liu H, Huang S M, Wang B R. 2016. Long-term incorporation of manure with chemical fertilizers reduced total nitrogen loss in rain-fed cropping systems. Scientific Reports, 6, 33611.
Duan Y H, Xu M G, Wang B R, Yang X Y, Huang S M, Gao S D. 2011. Long-term evaluation of manure application on maize yield and nitrogen use efficiency in China. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 75, 1562-1573.
Erisman J W, Bleeker A, Galloway J, Sutton M S. 2007. Reduced nitrogen in ecology and the environment. Environmental Pollution, 1, 140-149.
Ferm M. 1998. Atmospheric ammonia and ammonium transport in Europe and critical loads: A review. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 1, 5-17.
He J Z, Shen J P, Zhang L M, Zhu Y G, Zheng Y M, Xu M G, Di H J. 2007. Quantitative analyses of the abundance and composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing archaea of a Chinese upland red soil under long-term fertilization practices. Environmental Microbiology, 9, 2364-2374.
Huijsmans J F, Hol M G, Vermeulen G D. 2003. Effect of application method, manure characteristics, weather and field conditions on ammonia volatilization from manure applied to arable land. Atmospheric Environment, 26, 3669-3680.
Ju X T, Kou C L, Zhang F S, Christie P. 2006. Nitrogen balance and groundwater nitrate contamination: Comparison among three intensive cropping systems on the North China Plain. Environmental Pollution, 143, 117-125.
Liu M Q, Hu F, Chen X Y, Jiao J. 2009. Organic amendments with reduced chemical fertilizer promote soil microbial development and nutrient availability in a subtropical paddy field: The influence of quantity, type and appli cation time of organic amendments. Applied Soil Ecology, 42, 166-175
Long G Q, Sun B. 2012. Nitrogen leaching under corn cultivation stabilized after four years application of pig manure to red soil in subtropical China. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 1, 73-80.
Meng L, Ding W X, Cai Z C. 2005. Long-term application of organic manure and nitrogen fertilizer on N2O emissions, soil quality and crop production in a sandy loam soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 11, 2037-2045.
Milliken G A, Johnson D E. 1989. Analysis of Messy Data, Volume II, Nonreplicated Experiments. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
Mosier A R, Chapman S L, Freney J R. 1989. Determination of dinitrogen emission and retention in floodwater and porewater of a lowland rice field fertilized with 15N-urea. Fertilizer Research, 19, 127-136.
Pan G, Smith P, Pan W. 2009. The role of soil organic matter in maintaining the productivity and yield stability of cereals in China. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 129, 344-348.
Ruser R, Flessa H, Russow R, Schmidt G, Buegger F. 2006. Emission of N2O, N2 and CO2 from soil fertilized with nitrate: Effect of compaction, soil moisture and rewetting. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 38, 263-274.
Sahrawat K L, Keeney D R. 1986. Nitrous oxide emission from soils. Advances in Soil Science, 4, 103-148.
SAS Institute. 2008. SAS 9.2. SAS Int., Cary, NC.
Schlesinger W H. 2009. On the fate of anthropogenic nitrogen. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106, 203-208.
Shi Z L, Jing Q, Cai J, Jiang D, Cao W X, Dai T B. 2012. The fates of 15N fertilizer in relation to root distributions of winter wheat under different N splits. European Journal of Agronomy, 40, 86-93.
Steel R G, Torrie J H. 1980. Principles and Procedures of Statistics, A Biometrical Approach. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Stehfest E, Bouwman L. 2006. N2O and NO emission from agricultural fields and soils under natural vegetation: summarizing available measurement data and modeling of global annual emissions. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 73, 207-228.
Stenberg M, Ulen B, Soderstrom M, Roland B, Delin K, Helander C A. 2012. Tile drain losses of nitrogen and phosphorus from fields under integrated and organic crop rotations. A four-year study on a clay soil in southwest Sweden. Science of Total Environment, 434, 79-89.
Sun B, Chen D L, Li Y, Wang X X. 2008. Nitrogen leaching in an upland cropping system on an acid soil in subtropical China: Lysimeter measurements and simulation. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 3, 291-303.
Tian G M, Gao J L, Cai Z C, Ren L T. 1998. Ammonia volatilization from winter wheat field top-dressed with urea. Pedosphere, 4, 331-336.
Tong H J, Zheng X H, Wang R, Zhou Z X, Yue J, Liu C Y, Li M, Liang W G, Dong H B. 2009. A preliminary study of measurement of NH3 volatilization from cropland using quasi-dynamic chamber. Climatic and Environmental Research, 4, 373-382. (in Chinese)
Williams E J, Hutchinson G L, Fehsenfeld F C. 1992. NOx and N2O emissions from soil. Global Biogeomineral Cycles, 6, 351-388.
Xu J Z, Peng S Z, Yang S H, Wang W G. 2012. Ammonia volatilization losses from a rice paddy with different irrigation and nitrogen managements. Agricultural Water Management, 104, 184-192.
Xu L G, Zhang Q, Huang L J. 2010. Nitrogen leaching in a typical agricultural extensively cropped catchment, China: Experiments and modelling. Water and Environment Journal, 2, 97-106.
Xu M G, Li D C, Li J M, Qin D Z, Yasukazu Hosen, Shen H P, Cong R H, He X H. 2013. Polyolefin-coated urea decreases ammonia volatilization in a double rice system of southern China. Agronomy Journal, 1, 277-284.
Xu R K, Zhao A Z, Li Q M, Kong X L, Ji G L. 2003. Acidity regime of the red soils in a subtropical region of southern China under field conditions. Geoderma, 1, 75-84.
Yang S M,Li F M,SukhdevM,Wang P,Suo D R, Wang J G. 2004. Long-term fertilization effects on crop yield and nitrate nitrogen accumulation in soil in northwestern China. American Society of Agronomy, 3, 1039-1049.
Zhai L M, Liu H B, Zhang J Z, Huang J, Wang B R. 2011. Long-term application of organic manure and mineral fertilizer on N2O and CO2 emissions in a red soil from cultivated maize-wheat rotation in China. Agricultural Sciences in China, 11, 1748-1757.
Zhang J S, Zhang F P, Yang J H, Wang J P, Cai M L, Cheng F L, Cao C G. 2011. Emissions of N2O and NH3, and nitrogen leaching from direct seeded rice under different tillage practices in central China. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 1-2, 164-173.
Zhang Y Y, Liu J F, Mu Y J, Pei S W, Lun X X, Chai F H. 2011. Emissions of nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides and ammonia from a maize field in the North China Plain. Atmospheric Environment, 45, 2956-2961.
Zhao R F, Chen X P, Zhang F S, Zhang H L, Schroder J, Römheld V. 2006. Fertilization and nitrogen balance in a wheat-maize rotation system in North China. American Society of Agronomy, 4, 938-945.
Zhou J, Cui J, Wang G Q, He Y Q, Ma Y H. 2007. Ammonia volatilization in relation to N application rate and climate factors in upland red soil in spring and autumn. Acta Pedologica Sinica, 3, 499-507. (in Chinese)
Zhang W L, Wu S X, Ji H J, Hartmut K. 2004. The current situation and controlling manures of non-point source pollutions in China. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 37, 1008-1017. (in Chinese)
Zhu Z L, Cai G X, Simpson J R, Zhang S L, Jackson A V, Chen D L, Freney J R. 1989. Process of nitrogen loss from fertilizers applied to flooded rice fields on a calcareous soil in north-central China. Fertilizer Research, 18, 101-115.