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Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2019, Vol. 18 Issue (7): 1634-1642    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62602-X
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Chemical composition, antioxidant activity and GC-MS analysis of juice and peel oil of grapefruit varieties cultivated in India
Shahnawaz Ahmed1, H S Rattanpal1, Khalid Gul2, 3, Rouf Ahmad Dar4, Akash Sharma5  
1 Department of Fruit Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, India
2 Department of Processing and Food Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, India
3 Food Process Engineering Laboratory, School of Applied Life Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660701, Republic of Korea
4 Department of Microbiology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, India
5 Department of Fruit Science, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Jammu 180009, India
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Citrus family especially Grapefruit, has attained considerable attention due to the presence of a number of essential components that have cardiovascular and anti-hypertensive properties.  The juice and essential oil extracted from eight recently released grapefruit cultivars were used to study physicochemical and antioxidant properties.  The total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA) and pH of juice samples extracted from various grapefruit varieties differed significantly.  The refractive index, specific gravity and optical rotation values for the oil varied from 1.473 to 1.396, 0.863 to 0.847 and +93 to +86, respectively.  The percent 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical activity (% DPPH activity) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values for grapefruit juice and peel oil varied from 24.06 to 18.79, 2.91 to 1.44 mmol g–1 and 84.87 to 74.73,  7.76 to 5.73 mmol g–1, respectively.  There were significant differences in physicochemical, antioxidant properties and volatile profiles of extracted juice and oil.  The oil exhibited higher DPPH and FRAP values than the juice.  Among different components identified which accounted for over 99% of the volatile fraction, limonene, myrcene, and benzopyran were major components in all oil samples.
Keywords:  grapefruit        juice        essential oil        physicochemical properties        antioxidant properties        GC-MS analysis  
Received: 05 September 2018   Online: 11 December 2018   Accepted:
Fund: The first author acknowledges the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India for providing support in the form of INSPIRE (Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research) Fellowship (IF140221) during his PhD program.
Corresponding Authors:  Correspondence Shahnawaz Ahmed, E-mail:   

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Shahnawaz Ahmed, H S Rattanpal, Khalid Gul, Rouf Ahmad Dar, Akash Sharma. 2019. Chemical composition, antioxidant activity and GC-MS analysis of juice and peel oil of grapefruit varieties cultivated in India. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 18(7): 1634-1642.

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