Please wait a minute...
Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2020, Vol. 19 Issue (11): 2690-2698    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63252-X
Special Issue: 玉米遗传育种合辑Maize Genetics · Breeding · Germplasm Resources 玉米耕作栽培合辑Maize Physiology · Biochemistry · Cultivation · Tillage
Crop Science Advanced Online Publication | Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
Giving maize an excited start – Effects of dopamine on maize germination
CHENG Hang-yuan1, WANG Xing1, 2, FENG Tian-yu1, 2, PENG Chuan-xi1, 2, WANG Wei1, YANG Mu-yu1, ZHOU Yu-yi1, 2 
1 College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, P.R.China
2 Engineering Research Center of Plant Growth Regulator, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100193, P.R.China
Download:  PDF in ScienceDirect  
Export:  BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      
Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter which takes charge of brain activities about memory and self-stimulation behavior in animals.  Interestingly, our results suggest that DA could also give maize an “excited state”.  The results showed that 1  mmol L–1 DA promoted maize germination by 23.2% significantly, and accelerated the growth rate of roots and shoots by 21.4 and 24.7%, respectively.  As we all known, abscisic acid (ABA) is the key hormone involved in seed dormancy.  In our research, ABA levels in roots and shoots dramatically decreased by 16.45 and 57.57%, respectively.  To further investigate how DA reduces the ABA level in budding seed, we studied ABA synthesis and catabolism pathway.  Specific expression of key ABA-synthesis genes, such as ZmNCED1, ZmNCED3 and ZmZEP were down-regulated by DA.  Simultaneously, the expression levels of ABA8OX1a and ABA8OX1b which are major transcripts of ABA 8´-hydroxylase in ABA catabolism were up-regulated at least 1.5- and 4.6-fold, respectively.  Our results enriched the functions of animal hormones in plants.
Keywords:  dopamine (DA)        maize germination        ABA synthesis        ABA catabolism  
Received: 31 March 2020   Accepted: 15 October 2020
Fund: This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFD0300405-2).
Corresponding Authors:  Correspondence ZHOU Yu-yi, E-mail:   

Cite this article: 

CHENG Hang-yuan, WANG Xing, FENG Tian-yu, PENG Chuan-xi, WANG Wei, YANG Mu-yu, ZHOU Yu-yi. 2020. Giving maize an excited start – Effects of dopamine on maize germination. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 19(11): 2690-2698.

Appel H M. 1993. Phenolics in ecological interactions: The importance of oxidation. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 19, 1521–1552.
Barrero J M, Rodríguez P L, Quesada V, Piqueras P, Ponce M R, Micol J L. 2006. Both abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent and ABA-independent pathways govern the induction of NCED3, AAO3 and ABA1 in response to salt stress. Plant Cell and Environment, 29, 2000–2008.
Bettey M, Finch-Savage W E, King G J, Lynn J R. 2000. Quantitative genetic analysis of seed vigour and pre-emergence seedling growth traits in Brassica oleracea. New Phytologist, 148, 277–286. 
Chen Q F, Ya H Y, Feng Y R, Jiao Z. 2014. Expression of the key genes involved in ABA biosynthesis in rice implanted by ion beam. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 173, 239–247.
Chen X, Facchini P J. 2013. Short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase catalyzing the final step of noscapine biosynthesis is localized to laticifers in opium poppy. The Plant Journal, 77, 173–184.
Clark M F, Adams A N. 1977. Characteristics of the microplate method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of plant viruses. The Journal of General Virology, 34, 475.
Dong X J, Liao Z X, Gritsch D, Hadzhiev Y, Bai Y F, Locascio J J, Guennewig B, Liu G Q, Blauwendraat C, Wang T, Adler C H, Hedreen J C, Faull R L M, Frosch M P, Nelson P T, Rizzu P, Cooper A A, Heutink P, Beach T G, Mattick J S, et al. 2018. Enhancers active in dopamine neurons are a primary link between genetic variation and neuropsychiatric disease. Nature Neuroscience, 21, 1482–1492.
Duchesne V, Boye S M. 2013. Differential contribution of mesoaccumbens and mesohabenular dopamine to intracranial self-stimulation. Neuropharmacology, 70, 43–50.
Eckardt N A. 2015. The plant cell reviews dynamic aspects of plant hormone signaling and crosstalk. The Plant Cell, 27, 1–2.
Fang K, Wang Y Z, Zhang H B. 2019. Differential effects of plant growth-promoting bacteria on invasive and native plants. South African Journal of Botany, 124, 94–101.
Gao T T, Zhang Z J, Liu X M, Wu Q, Chen Q, Liu Q W, Nocker S, Ma F W, Li C. 2020. Physiological and transcriptome analyses of the effects of exogenous dopamine on drought tolerance in apple. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 148, 260–272.
Gazzarrini S, Tsai A Y. 2015. Hormone cross-talk during seed germination. Essays in Biochemistry, 58, 151.
Glód B K, Stanczak K I, Wozniak A. 2005. A modified analytical method for total antioxidant potential assay using RP-HPLC with electrochemical detection and its application for pro- and antioxidative properties of dopamine measurement. Journal of Chromatographic Science, 43, 174.
Gomes B R, Siqueira-Soares R de C, Santos W D dos, Marchiosi R, Soares A R, Ferrarese-Filho O. 2014. The effects of dopamine on antioxidant enzymes activities and reactive oxygen species levels in soybean roots. Plant Signaling & Behavior, 9, e977704.
Guo Y W, Wang W X, Chen Y Q, Sun Y, Li Y C, Guan F Y, Shen Q, Guo Y R, Zhang W C. 2019. Continuous gibberellin A3 exposure from weaning to sexual maturity induces ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis by activating Fas-mediated death receptor signaling pathways and changing methylation patterns on caspase-3 gene promoters. Toxicology Letters, 319, 175–186.
Hammerschmidt R. 2005. Phenols and plant-pathogen interactions: The saga continues. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 66, 77–78.
Han C, Yang P F. 2015. Studies on the molecular mechanisms of seed germination. Proteomics, 15, 1671–1679. 
Herr N R, Belle A M, Daniel K B, Carelli R M, Wightman R M. 2010. Probing presynaptic regulation of extracellular dopamine with iontophoresis. ACS Chemical Neuroscience, 1, 627–638.
Hill K. 2015. Post-translational modifications of hormone-responsive transcription factors: The next level of regulation. Journal of Experimental Botany, 66, 4933–4945.
Hirai N, Nambara E, Koshiba T, Okamoto M, Kitamura S, Asami T, Nakabayashi K, Yamagishi K, Kamiya Y, Kushiro T. 2004. The Arabidopsis cytochrome P450 CYP707A encodes ABA 8´-hydroxylases: Key enzymes in ABA catabolism. The EMBO Journal, 23, 1647–1656.
Hosseinchi M, Soltanalinejad F, Najafi G, Roshangar L. 2013. Effect of gibberellic acid on the quality of sperm and in vitro fertilization outcome in adult male rats. Veterinary Research Forum, 4, 259–264.
Janeczko A, Biesaga-Ko?cielniak J, Dziurka M, Filek M, Hura K, Jurczyk B, Kula M, Oklestkova J, Novak O, Rudolphi-Skórska E, Skoczowski A. 2018. Biochemical and physicochemical background of mammalian androgen activity in winter wheat exposed to low temperature. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 37, 199–219.
Jiao X Y, Li Y X, Zhang X Z, Liu C L, Liang W, Li C, Ma, F W, Li C Y. 2019. Exogenous dopamine application promotes alkali tolerance of apple seedlings. Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 8, 580.
Kamo K K, Mahlberg P G. 1984. Dopamine biosynthesis at different stages of plant development in Papaver somniferum. Journal of Natural Products, 47, 682.
Kanazawa K, Sakakibara H. 2000. High content of dopamine, a strong antioxidant, in cavendish banana. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48, 844–848.
Kang J, Yim S, Choi H, Kim A, Lee K P, Lopez-Molina L, Martinoia E, Lee Y. 2015. Abscisic acid transporters cooperate to control seed germination. Nature Communications, 6, 8113.
Kulma A, Szopa J. 2007. Catecholamines are active compounds in plants. Plant Science, 172, 433–440.
Lan G, Jiao C, Wang G, Sun Y, Sun Y. 2020. Effects of dopamine on growth, carbon metabolism, and nitrogen metabolism in cucumber under nitrate stress. Scientia Horticulturae, 260, 108790.
Levite M. 2016. Dopamine and T cells: Dopamine receptors and potent effects on T cells, dopamine production in T cells, and abnormalities in the dopaminergic system in T cells in autoimmune, neurological and psychiatric diseases. Acta Physiologica, 216, 42–89.
Li C, Sun X K, Chang C, Jia D F, Wei Z W, Li C Y, Ma F W. 2015. Dopamine alleviates salt-induced stress in Malus hupehensis. Physiologia Plantarum, 153, 584–602.
Liang B, Li C, Ma C, Wei Z, Wang Q, Huang D, Chen Q, Li C, Ma F W. 2017. Dopamine alleviates nutrient deficiency-induced stress in Malus hupehensis. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 119, 346–359.
Liu H Y, Mao J H, Yan S J, Yu Y T, Xie L H, Hu J G, Li T, Abbasi A M, Guo X B, Liu R H. 2018. Evaluation of carotenoid biosynthesis, accumulation and antioxidant activities in sweetcorn (Zea mays L.) during kernel development. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 53, 381–388.
Mateo-Bonmatí E, Casanova-Sáez R, Ljung K. 2019. Epigenetic regulation of auxin homeostasis. Biomolecules, 9, 623.
Morris K, Barker G C, Walley P G, Lynn J R, Finch-Savage W E. 2016. Trait to gene analysis reveals that allelic variation in three genes determines seed vigour. New Phytologist, 212, 964–976.
Nichkova M, Wynveen P M, Marc D T, Huisman H, Kellermann G H. 2013. Validation of an ELISA for urinary dopamine: Applications in monitoring treatment of dopamine-related disorders. Journal of Neurochemistry, 125, 724–735.
Papa I, Saliba D, Ponzoni M, Bustamante S, Canete P F, Gonzalez-Figueroa P, McNamara H A, Valvo S, Grimbaldeston M, Sweet R A, Vohra H, Cockburn I A, Meyer-Hermann M, Dustin M L, Doglioni C, Vinuesa C G. 2017. TFH-derived dopamine accelerates productive synapses in germinal centres. Nature, 547, 318–323.
Rajjou L, Duval M, Gallardo K, Catusse J, Bally J, Job C, Job D. 2012. Seed germination and vigor. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 63, 507–533.
Ramos D M, Diniz P, Ooi M K J, Borghetti F, Valls J F M, Ward D. 2017. Avoiding the dry season: dispersal time and syndrome mediate seed dormancy in grasses in Neotropical savanna and wet grasslands. Journal of Vegetation Science, 28, 798–807.
Rifna E J, Ratish Ramanan K, Mahendran R. 2019. Emerging technology applications for improving seed germination. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 86, 95–108. 
Rosei M A, Blarzino C, Foppoli C, Mosca L, Coccia R. 1994. Lipoxygenase-catalyzed oxidation of catecholamines. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 200, 344–350.
Schultz W. 2012. Updating dopamine reward signals. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 23, 229–238.
Sharififar A, Nazari M, Asghari H R. 2015. Effect of ultrasonic waves on seed germination of Atriplex lentiformis, Cuminum cyminum, and Zygophyllum eurypterum. Journal of Applied Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 2, 102–104.
Smith S M, Weller J L. 2019. Seasonal control of seed germination. New Phytologist, 225, 1821–1823.
Thompson A J, Jackson A C, Parker R A, Morpeth D R, Burbidge A, Taylor I B. 2000. Abscisic acid biosynthesis in tomato: Regulation of zeaxanthin epoxidase and 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase mRNAs by light/dark cycles, water stress and abscisic acid. Plant Molecular Biology, 42, 833–845.
Valérie C, Carine R, Moreau L, Reyss A, Mahé A, Massonneau A, Falque M, Charcosset A, Thévenot C, Rogowsky P, Coursol S, Prioul J L. 2010. QTLs and candidate genes for desiccation and abscisic acid content in maize kernels. BMC Plant Biology, 10, 2.
Vallabhaneni R, Wurtzel E T. 2010. From epoxycarotenoids to ABA: The role of ABA 8´-hydroxylases in drought-stressed maize roots. Archives of Biochemistry & Biophysics, 504, 112–117.
Wang M Z, Liu C, Li S X, Zhu D Y, Zhao Q, Yu J J. 2013. Improved nutritive quality and salt resistance in transgenic maize by simultaneously overexpression of a natural lysine-rich protein gene, SBgLR, and an ERF transcription factor gene, TSRF1. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 14, 9459–9474.
Wattanakulpakin P, Photchanachai S, Miyagawa S, Ratanakhanokchai K. 2012. Loss of maize seed vigor as affected by biochemical changes during hydropriming. Crop Science, 52, 2783–2793.
No related articles found!
No Suggested Reading articles found!