Rice Physiology · Biochemistry · Cultivation · Tillage
|Characterization of eating quality and starch properties of two Wx alleles japonica rice cultivars under different nitrogen treatments
HUANG Shuang-jie1, 2, ZHAO Chun-fang1, ZHU Zhen1, ZHOU Li-hui1, ZHENG Qing-huan3, WANG Cai-lin1
1 Institute of Food Crops, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Jiangsu High Quality Rice R&D Center/Nanjing Branch of China National Center for Rice Improvement, Nanjing 210014, P.R.China
2 College of Tea Science, Xinyang Agriculture and Forestry University, Xinyang 464000, P.R.China
3 Agri-Tech Extension Center of Wancheng District, Nanyang 473000, P.R.China
To understand the effect of nitrogen (N) fertilizer on rice (Oryza sativa L.) eating and cooking quality (ECQ). Here, we investigated the ECQ attributes, physicochemical foundation of ECQ, and amylopectin fine structure of two Waxy (Wx) alleles japonica rice cultivars Nanjing 9108 (NJ9108) and Huaidao 5 (HD5) under four N rates (0, 150, 300, and 450 kg ha–1). Sensory and pasting properties of the two cultivars varied depending on N rates. Compared with the control (0 kg ha–1), the overall eating quality and sensory value were significantly decreased under the N rates of 300 and 450 kg ha–1. Further, conventional descriptive analysis showed that the stickiness and retrogradation of cooked rice were significantly decreased. These results indicated that application of N fertilizer seems to affect the texture of cooked rice, causing it to be less sticky, lowering its retrogradation, and consequently reducing its palatability. Results from rapid visco analyzer (RVA) revealed that the peak and breakdown viscosities significantly decreased, while the setback viscosity and peak time increased under the N rates of 300 and 450 kg ha–1. However, no significant difference was observed when the N rate was 150 kg ha–1, indicating that less N fertilization can maintain rice ECQ. As the N rate increasing, protein content increased, whereas apparent amylose content, starch content, and gel consistency almost unchanged. Interestingly, compared with the control, under N treatments, the percentage of short amylopectin branches in NJ9108 was decreased, but increased in HD5, as controlled by amylopectin synthesis-related genes. Notably, SSI and BEIIb were down-regulated in NJ9108, whereas BEIIb was up-regulated in HD5. Thus, the palatability of both rice cultivars was significantly decreased under excessive N fertilization as a consequence of reduced stickiness and retrogradation of the cooked rice, which might have resulted from an elevated protein content and altered amylopectin fine structure. In addition, amylopectin synthesis appeared to be affected by N fertilizer and the genotype of the rice cultivar.
Received: 17 December 2018
Accepted: 04 March 2020
|Fund: This work was funded by the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2017M611753), the earmarked fund for Agriculture Research System of China (CARS-01-62), the National Key R&D Program of China (2015BAD01B02), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (BK20180302), the Jiangsu Agriculture Science and Technology Innovation Fund, China (CX3009), and the Project of Henan Key Laboratory of Tea Plant Comprehensive Utilization in South Henan, China (HNKLTCU2018004).
Correspondence WANG Cai-lin, Tel: +86-25-84390317, E-mail: email@example.com
Cite this article:
HUANG Shuang-jie, ZHAO Chun-fang, ZHU Zhen, ZHOU Li-hui, ZHENG Qing-huan, WANG Cai-lin.
Characterization of eating quality and starch properties of two Wx alleles japonica rice cultivars under different nitrogen treatments. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 19(4): 988-998.
| Ayabe S, Kasai M, Ohishi K, Hatae K. 2009. Textural properties and structures of starches from indica and japonica rice with similar amylose content. Food Science and Technology Research, 15, 299–306.
Bao J S. 2012. Toward understanding the genetic and molecular bases of the eating and cooking qualities of rice. Cereal Food World, 57, 148–156.
Bryant R J, Yeater K M, McClung A M. 2015. Effect of nitrogen rate and the environment on physicochemical properties of selected high-amylose rice cultivars. Cereal Chemistry, 92, 604–610.
Cameron D K, Wang Y J. 2005. A better understanding of factors that affect the hardness and stickiness of long-grain rice. Cereal Chemistry, 82, 113–119.
Cao X M, Sun H Y, Wang C G, Ren X J, Liu H F, Zhang Z J. 2017. Effects of late-stage nitrogen fertilizer application on the starch structure and cooking quality of rice. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 98, 2332–2340.
Champagne E T, Bett-Garber K L, Thomson J L, Fitzgerald M A. 2009. Unraveling the impact of nitrogen nutrition on cooked rice flavor and texture. Cereal Chemistry, 86, 274–280.
Chen T, Luo M R, Zhang Y D, Zhu Z, Zhao L, Zhao Q Y, Zhou L H, Yao S, Wang C L. 2013. Detection of Wx-mq gene for low-amylose content by tetra-primer amplification tefractory mutation system PCR in rice. Chinese Journal of Rice Science, 27, 529–534. (in Chinese)
Chen Y N, Fan X R, Song W J, Zhang Y L, Xu G H. 2012. Over-expression of OsPIN2 leads to increased tiller numbers, angle and shorter plant height through suppression of OsLAZY1. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 10, 139–149.
Chung H J, Liu Q, Lee L, Wei D Z. 2011. Relationship between the structure, physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of rice starches with different amylose contents. Food Hydrocolloids, 25, 968–975.
Crofts N, Abe N, Oitome N F, Matsushima R, Hayashi M, Tetlow I J, Emes M J, Nakamura Y, Fujita N. 2015. Amylopectin biosynthetic enzymes from developing rice seed form enzymatically active protein complexes. Journal of Experimental Botany, 66, 4469–4482.
Dong M H, Sang D Z, Wang P, Wang X M, Yang J C. 2007. Changes in cooking and nutrition qualities of grains at different positions in a rice panicle under different nitrogen rates. Rice Science, 14, 141–148.
Fan M Y, Wang X J, Sun J, Zhang Q, Xu Z J, Xu Q. 2017. Effect of indica pedigree on eating and cooking quality in rice backcross inbred lines of indica and japonica crosses. Breeding Science, 67, 450–458.
Fujita N, Hasegawa H, Taira T. 2001. The isolation and characterization of a waxy mutant of diploid wheat (Triticum monococcum L.). Plant Science, 160, 595–602.
Fujita N, Kubo A, Suh DS, Wong K S, Jane J L, Ozawa K, Takaiwa F, Inaba Y, Nakamura Y. 2003. Antisense inhibition of isoamylase alters the structure of amylopectin and the physicochemical properties of starch in rice endosperm. Plant and Cell Physiology, 44, 607–618.
Fujita N, Toyosawa Y, Utsumi Y, Higuchi T, Hanashiro I, Ikegami A, Akuzawa S, Yoshida M, Mori A, Inomata K, Itoh R, Miyao A, Hirochika H, Satoh H, Nakamura Y. 2009. Characterization of pullulanase (PUL)-deficient mutants of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and the function of PUL on starch biosynthesis in the developing rice endosperm. Journal of Experimental Botany, 60, 1009–1023.
Fujita N, Yoshida M, Asakura N, Ohdan T, Miyao A, Hirochika H, Nakamura Y. 2006. Function and characterization of starch synthase I using mutants in rice. Plant Physiology, 140, 1070–1084.
Fujita N, Yoshida M, Kondo T, Saito K, Utsumi Y, Tokunaga T, Nishi A, Satoh H, Park J H, Jane J L, Miyao A, Hirochika H, Nakamura Y. 2007. Characterization of SSIIIa-deficient mutants of rice: The function of SSIIIa and pleiotropic effects by SSIIIa deficiency in the rice endosperm. Plant Physiology, 144, 2009–2023.
Gilbert R G, Witt T, Hasjim J. 2013. What is being learned about starch properties from multiple-level characterization. Cereal Chemistry, 90, 312–325.
Gous P W, Warren F, Mo O W, Gilbert R G, Fox G P. 2015. The effects of variable nitrogen application on barley starch structure under drought stress. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 121, 502–509.
Gu J F, Chen J, Chen L, Wang Z Q, Zhang H, Yang J C. 2015. Grain quality changes and responses to nitrogen fertilizer of japonica rice cultivars released in the Yangtze River Basin from the 1950s to 2000s. The Crop Journal, 3, 285–297.
Gunaratne A, Sirisena N, Ratnayaka U K, Ratnayaka J, Kong X L, Arachchi L P V, Corke H. 2011. Effect of fertiliser on functional properties of flour from four rice varieties grown in Sri Lanka. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 91, 1271–1276.
Jane J, Chen Y Y, Lee L F, McPherson A E, Wong K S, Radosavljevic M, Kasemsuwan T. 1999. Effects of amylopectin branch chain length and amylose content on the gelatinization and pasting properties of starch. Cereal Chemistry Journal, 76, 629–637.
Kong X L, Zhu P, Sui Z Q, Bao J S. 2015. Physicochemical properties of starches from diverse rice cultivars varying in apparent amylose content and gelatinisation temperature combinations. Food Chemistry, 172, 433–440.
Li H Y, Fitzgerald M A, Prakash S, Nicholson T M, Gilbert R G. 2017. The molecular structural features controlling stickiness in cooked rice, a major palatability determinant. Scientific Reports, 7, 43713.
Li H Y, Prakash S, Nicholson T M, Fitzgerald M A, Gilbert R G. 2016a. Instrumental measurement of cooked rice texture by dynamic rheological testing and its relation to the fine structure of rice starch. Carbohydrate Polymers, 146, 253–263.
Li H Y, Prakash S, Nicholson T M, Fitzgerald M A, Gilbert R G. 2016b. The importance of amylose and amylopectin fine structure for textural properties of cooked rice grains. Food Chemistry, 196, 702–711.
Li S F, Wei X J, Ren Y L, Qiu J H, Jiao G A, Guo X P, Tang S Q, Wan J M, Hu P S. 2017. OsBT1 encodes an ADP-glucose transporter involved in starch synthesis and compound granule formation in rice endosperm. Scientific Reports, 7, 40124.
Lim S T, Lee J H, Shin D H, Lim H S. 1999. Comparision of protein extraction solutions for rice starch isolation and effects of residual protein content on starch pasting properties. Starch/Stärke, 51, 120–125.
Lyon B G, Champagne E T, Vinyard B T, Windham W R. 2000. Sensory and instrumental relationships of texture of cooked rice from selected cultivars and postharvest handling practices. Cereal Chemistry, 77, 64–69.
Nakamura S, Cui J, Zhang X, Yang F, Xu X M, Sheng H, Ohtsubo K. 2016a. Comparison of eating quality and physicochemical properties between Japanese and Chinese rice cultivars. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 80, 2437–2449.
Nakamura S, Katsura J J, Kato K, Ohtsubo K. 2016b. Development of formulae for estimating amylose content and resistant starch content based on the pasting properties measured by RVA of japonica polished rice and starch. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 80, 329–340.
Nakamura Y, Aihara S, Crofts N, Sawada T, Fujita N. 2014. In vitro studies of enzymatic properties of starch synthases and interactions between starch synthase I and starch branching enzymes from rice. Plant Science, 224, 1–8.
Nakamura Y, Sakurai A, Inaba Y, Kimura K, Iwasawa N, Nagamine T. 2002. The fine structure of amylopectin in endosperm from Asian cultivated rice can be largely classified into two classes. Starch/Stärke, 54, 117–131.
Nishi A, Nakamura Y, Tanaka N, Satoh H. 2001. Biochemical and genetic analysis of the effects of Amylose-Extender mutation in rice endosperm. Plant Physiology, 127, 459–472.
Ong M H, Blanshard J M V. 1995. Texture determinants in cooked, parboiled rice. I: Rice starch amylose and the fine stucture of amylopectin. Journal of Cereal Science, 21, 251–260.
O’Shea M G, Morell M K. 1996. High resolution slab gel electrophoresis of 8-amino-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid (APTS) tagged oligosaccharides using a DNA sequencer. Electrophoresis, 17, 681–688.
Patindol J, Gu X F, Wang Y J. 2010. Chemometric analysis of cooked rice texture in relation to starch fine structure and leaching characteristics. Starch/Stärke, 62, 188–197.
Reddy K R, Ali S Z, Bhattacharya K R. 1993. The fine structure of rice starch amylopectin and its relation to the texture of cooked rice. Carbohydrate Polymers, 22, 267–275.
Satoh H, Nishi A, Yamashita K, Takemoto Y, Tanaka Y, Hosaka Y, Sakurai A, Fujita N, Nakamura Y. 2003. Starch-branching enzyme I-deficient mutation specifically affects the structure and properties of starch in rice endosperm. Plant Physiology, 133, 1111–1121.
Shu Q Y, Wu D X, Xia Y W, Gao M W, McClung A. 1998. Relationship between RVA profile character and eating quality in Oryza sativa L. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 31, 11–14. (in Chinese)
Singh N, Pal N, Mahajan G, Singh S, Shevkani K. 2011. Rice grain and starch properties: Effects of nitrogen fertilizer application. Carbohydrate Polymers, 86, 219–225.
Siriphollakul P, Nakano K, Kanlayanarat S, Ohashi S, Sakai R, Rittiron R, Maniwara P. 2017. Eating quality evaluation of Khao Dawk Mali 105 rice using near-infrared spectroscopy. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 79, 70–77.
Sun M M, Abdula S E, Lee H J, Cho Y C, Han L Z, Koh H J, Cho Y G. 2011. Molecular aspect of good eating quality formation in japonica rice. PLoS ONE, 6, e18385.
Tan Y F, Li J X, Yu S B, Xing Y Z, Xu C G, Zhang Q. 1999. The three important traits for cooking and eating quality of rice grains are controlled by a single locus in an elite rice hybrid, Shanyou 63. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 99, 642–648.
Umemoto T, Yano M, Satoh H, Shomura A, Nakamura Y. 2002. Mapping of a gene responsible for the difference in amylopectin structure between japonica-type and indica-type rice varieties. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 104, 1–8.
Vandeputte G E, Vermeylen R, Geeroms J, Delcour J A. 2003. Rice starches. I. Structural aspects provide insight into crystallinity characteristics and gelatinisation behaviour of granular starch. Journal of Cereal Science, 38, 43–52.
Wang K, Henry R J, Gilbert R G. 2014. Causal relations among starch biosynthesis, structure, and properties. Springer Science Reviews, 2, 15–33.
Wani A A, Singh P, Shah M A, Schweiggert-Weisz U, Gul K, Wani I A. 2012. Rice starch diversity: Effects on structural, morphological, thermal, and physicochemical properties - A review. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 11, 417–436.
Wei H Y, Zhu Y, Qiu S, Han C, Hu L, Xu D, Zhou N B, Xing Z P, Hu Y J, Cui P Y, Dai Q G, Zhang H C. 2018. Combined effect of shading time and nitrogen level on grain filling and grain quality in japonica super rice. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 17, 2405–2417.
Xiong F, Wang Z, Gu Y J, Chen G, Zhou P. 2008. Effects of nitrogen application time on caryopsis development and grain quality of rice variety Yangdao 6. Rice Science, 15, 57–62.
Yang R F, Bai J J, Fang J, Wang Y, Lee G, Piao Z Z. 2016. A single amino acid mutation of OsSBEIIb contributes to resistant starch accumulation in rice. Breeding Science, 66, 481–489.
Yang X Y, Bi J G, Gilbert R G, Li G H, Liu Z H, Wang S H, Ding Y F. 2016. Amylopectin chain length distribution in grains of japonica rice as affected by nitrogen fertilizer and genotype. Journal of Cereal Science, 71, 230–238.
Yang X Y, Lin Z M, Liu Z H, Alim M A, Bi J G, Li G H, Wang Q S, Wang S H, Ding Y F. 2013. Physicochemical and sensory properties of japonica rice varied with production areas in China. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 12, 1748–1756.
Zhang C Q, Zhou L H, Zhu Z B, Lu H W, Zhou X Z, Qian Y T, Li Q F, Lu Y, Gu M H, Liu Q Q. 2016. Characterization of grain quality and starch fine structure of two japonica rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars with good sensory properties at different temperatures during the filling stage. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 64, 4048–4057.
Zhang C Q, Zhu L J, Shao K, Gu M H, Liu Q Q. 2012. Toward underlying reasons for rice starches having low viscosity and high amylose: Physiochemical and structural characteristics. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 93, 1543–1551.
Zhou Z K, Robards K, Helliwell S, Blanchard C. 2002. Composition and functional properties of rice. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 37, 849–868.
Zhu D W, Zhang H C, Guo B W, Xu K, Dai Q G, Wei C X, Wei H Y, Gao H, Huo Z, Hu Y J, Cui P Y, Huo Z Y. 2016. Effect of nitrogen management on structure and physicochemical properties of rice starch. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 64, 8019–8025.
Zhu D W, Zhang H C, Guo B W, Xu K, Dai Q G, Wei C X, Zhou G S, Huo Z Y. 2017a. Effects of nitrogen rate on structure and physicochemical properties of rice starch. Food Hydrocolloids, 63, 525–532.
Zhu D W, Zhang H C, Guo B W, Xu K, Dai Q G, Wei H Y, Gao H, Hu Y J, Cui P Y, Huo Z Y. 2017b. Effects of nitrogen level on yield and quality of japonica soft super rice. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 16, 1018–1027.
|No Suggested Reading articles found!