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Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2018, Vol. 17 Issue (09): 2082-2095    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(18)61970-7
Special Issue: 动物科学合辑Animal Science
Animal Science · Veterinary Medicine Advanced Online Publication | Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
Comparison of forage yield, silage fermentative quality, anthocyanin stability, antioxidant activity, and in vitro rumen fermentation of anthocyanin-rich purple corn (Zea mays L.) stover and sticky corn stover
TIAN Xing-zhou1, Pramote Paengkoum1, Siwaporn Paengkoum2, Sorasak Thongpea1, BAN Chao
1 School of Animal Production Technology, Institute of Agricultural Technology, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000, Thailand
2 Program in Agriculture, Faculty of Science and Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima Rajabhat University, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000, Thailand
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The objective of this study was to observe the forage yield, silage fermentative quality, anthocyanin stability, and antioxidant activity during the storage period and in vitro rumen fermentation of anthocyanin-rich purple corn (Zea mays L.) stover (PS) and sticky corn stover (SS).  Forage yield of corn stover was weighed and ensiled with two treatments: (1) hybrid sticky waxy corn stover (control), and (2) hybrid purple waxy corn stover (treatment).  Samples were stored in mini-silos for periods of 0, 7, 14, 21, 42, 63, 84, and 105 d.  The results showed that PS had significantly higher (P<0.05) yields of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), gross energy (GE), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and total anthocyanins than that of the SS.  Anthocyanin-rich purple corn stover silage (PSS) showed higher (P<0.05) levels of DM and CP relative to the sticky corn stover silage (SSS).  Although anthocyanin-rich PSS displayed a lower (P<0.05) level of pelargonidin-3-glucoside (P3G), it had higher (P<0.05) levels of peonidin (Peo) and pelargonidin (Pel) compared to the control.  Delphinidin (Del) and malvidin (Mal) were not detected in SSS during the ensilage period; in PSS, Del was no longer detected after 7 d of ensilage.  Specifically, total anthocyanins in anthocyanin-rich PSS decreased rapidly (P<0.05) prior to 7 d of ensilage, and then remained at relatively stable (P>0.05) constants.  Compared to the anthocyanin-rich PSS, SSS displayed significantly higher P<0.05) pH value and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) content.  Propionic acid (PA) at 0 d and butyric acid (BA) during the entire study period were not detected, whereas anthocyanin-rich PSS showed a higher (P<0.05) level of lactic acid (LA) than that of the SSS.  Compared with the SSS extract, anthocyanin-rich PSS extract showed a higher (P<0.05) level of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity and displayed a lower (P<0.05) half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value.  Moreover, anthocyanin-rich PSS reduced (P<0.05) gas production (GP), and displayed lower levels of immediately soluble fraction and ratio of acetic acid (AA) to PA at 12 h, but the other parameters were unaffected (P>0.05) relative to the control.  Taken together, the results indicated that: (1) anthocyanins could be stable in silage; (2) anthocyanin-rich PSS showed better silage fermentative quality and stronger antioxidant activity; and (3) anthocyanin-rich PSS had no negative effect on rumen fermentation parameters.
Keywords:  anthocyanin-rich purple corn stover silage        anthocyanin stability        silage fermentative quality        antioxidant activity        rumen fermentation  
Received: 03 November 2017   Accepted: 14 August 2018
Fund: We also thank the SUT-OROG scholarship, the Higher Education Promotion and National Research University Project of Thailand (NRU), and the Office of the Higher Education Commission (FtR 06/2559) for funding support.
Corresponding Authors:  Correspondence Pramote Paengkoum, Tel: +66-872353974, E-mail:    
About author:  TIAN Xing-zhou, Tel: +66-951967841, E-mail:;

Cite this article: 

TIAN Xing-zhou, Pramote Paengkoum, Siwaporn Paengkoum, Sorasak Thongpea, BAN Chao. 2018. Comparison of forage yield, silage fermentative quality, anthocyanin stability, antioxidant activity, and in vitro rumen fermentation of anthocyanin-rich purple corn (Zea mays L.) stover and sticky corn stover. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 17(09): 2082-2095.

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