Please wait a minute...
Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2018, Vol. 17 Issue (08): 1736-1744    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(18)61939-2
Crop Science Advanced Online Publication | Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
Silencing of OsXDH reveals the role of purine metabolism in dark tolerance in rice seedlings
HAN Rui-cai, Adnan Rasheed, WANG Yu-peng, WU Zhi-feng, TANG Shuang-qin, PAN xiao-hua, SHI Qing-hua, WU Zi-ming
Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology, Ecology and Genetic Breeding, Ministry of Education/Collaborative Innovation Center for
the Modernization Production of Double Cropping Rice/Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology, Ecology and Genetic Breeding
of Jiangxi Province/College of Agronomy, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045, P.R.China
Download:  PDF in ScienceDirect  
Export:  BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      
摘要  Received  29 September, 2017    Accepted  11 February, 2018

Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) is a crucial enzyme involved in purine metabolism.   To evaluate the effect of XDH deficiency on rice growth during dark treatment, wild type (WT) Nipponbare (Oryza sativa L.) and two independent transgenic lines with severe RNAi suppression (xdh3 and xdh4) were used in the present experiment.  Under normal growth conditions, chlorophyll levels and biomass were indistinguishable between WT and the two RNAi transgenic lines, but XDH enzyme activity and ureide levels were suppressed in XDH RNAi transgenic lines.  When XDH RNAi transgenic lines were subjected to dark treatment, chlorophyll content and biomass were significantly decreased, while O2· production rate and malonaldehyde (MDA) were significantly increased compared to WT.  The spraying test of exogenous allantoin raised chlorophyll content and biomass and reduced O2· production rate and MDA in WT and both transgenic lines, and it also simultaneously reduced differences between RNAi and WT plants caused by XDH deficiency in growth potential and anti-oxidative capacity under dark treatment.  These results suggested that fully functional purine metabolism plays an important role in reducing the sensitivity of rice seedlings to dark stress.
Keywords:  xanthine dehydrogenase        rice seedlings        dark tolerance        allantoin        purine metabolism  
Received: 29 September 2017   Accepted:
Fund: The research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31560350 and 31760350) and the Science and Technology Program of Jiangxi, China (20171ACF60018).
Corresponding Authors:  Correspondence WU Zi-ming, Tel: +86-791-83828113, Fax: +86-791-83813877, E-mail:    
About author:  HAN Rui-cai, E-mail:;

Cite this article: 

HAN Rui-cai, Adnan Rasheed, WANG Yu-peng, WU Zhi-feng, TANG Shuang-qin, PAN xiao-hua, SHI Qing-hua, WU Zi-ming. 2018. Silencing of OsXDH reveals the role of purine metabolism in dark tolerance in rice seedlings. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 17(08): 1736-1744.

Aguey-Zinsou K F, Bernhardt P V, Leimkuhler S. 2003. Protein film voltammetry of Rhodobacter capsulatus xanthine dehydrogenase. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 125, 15352–15358.
Andrea K W, Claus-Peter W. 2001. The biochemistry of nitrogen mobilization: Purine ring catabolism. Trends in Plant Science, 7, 381–387.
Bittner F, Oreb M, Mendel R R. 2001. ABA3 is a molybdenum cofactor sulfurase required for activation of aldehyde oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase in Arabidopsis thaliana. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 276, 40381–40384.
Brychkova G, Alikulov Z, Fluhr R, Sagi M. 2008. A critical role for ureides in dark and senescence-induced purine remobilization is unmasked in the Atxdh1 Arabidopsis mutant. The Plant Journal, 54, 496–509.
Brychkova G, Fluhr R, Sagi M. 2008. Formation of xanthine and the use of purine metabolites as a nitrogen source in Arabidopsis plants. Plant Signaling & Behavior, 3, 999–1001.
Gill S S, Tuteja N. 2010. Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 48, 909–930.
Guo F Q, Crawford N M. 2005. Arabidopsis nitric oxide synthase1 is targeted to mitochondria and protects against oxidative damage and darkinduced senescence. The Plant Cell, 17, 3436–3450.
Hesberg C, Hänsch R, Mendel R R, Bittner F. 2004. Tandem orientation of duplicated xanthine dehydrogenase genes from Arabidopsis thaliana: Differential gene expression and enzyme activities. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 279, 13547–13554.
Hofmann N R. 2016. Opposing functions for plant xanthine dehydrogenase in response to powdery mildew infection: Production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species. The Plant Cell, 28, 1001.
Hung K T, Kao C H. 2003. Nitric oxide counteracts the senescence of rice leaves induced by abscisic acid. Journal of Plant Physiology, 160, 871–879.
Lee S Y, Ahn J H, Cha Y S, Yun D W, Lee M C, Ko J C, Lee K S, Eun M Y. 2007. Mapping QTLs related to salinity tolerance of rice at the young seedling stage. Plant Breeding, 126, 43–46.
Lescano C I, Martini C, Gonzalez C A, Desimone M. 2016. Allantoin accumulation mediated by allantoinase downregulation and transport by Ureide Permease 5 confers salt stress tolerance to Arabodopsis plants. Plant Molecular Biology, 91, 581–595.
Leydecker M T, Moureaux T, Kraepiel Y, Schnorr K, Caboche M. 1995. Molybdenum cofactor mutants, specifically impaired in xanthine dehydrogenase activity and abscisic acid biosynthesis, simultaneously overexpress nitrate reductase. Plant Physiology, 107, 1427–1431.
Li H S, Sun Q, Zhao S J, Zhang W H. 2000. The Experiment Principle and Technique on Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. Higher Education Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
Lichtenthaler H K, Wellbuen A R. 1983. Determinations of total carotenoids and chlorophylls a and b leaf extracts in different solvents. Biochemical Society Transactions, 11, 591–592.
Liu Q H, Wu X, Chen B C, Ma J Q, Gao J. 2014. Effects of low light on agronomic and physiological characteristics of rice including grain yield and quality. Rice Science, 21, 243–251.
Ma X, Lin C H, Qi L, Jiang L K, Tan Y X, Liang Z W, Lu F Y. 2015. Effect of different lighting quality and intensities on quality of rice seeding by greenhouse stereoscopic nursing. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agriculture Engineering, 31, 228–235. (in Chinese)
Ma X F, Wang W N, Bittner F, Schmidt N, Berkey R, Zhang L L, King H, Zhang Y, Feng J Y. 2016. Dual and opposing roles of xanthine dehydrogenase in defense-associated reactive oxygen species metabolism in Arabidopsis. The Plant Cell, 28, 1108–1126.
Mchdy M C. 1994. Active oxygen species in plant defense against pathogens. Plant Physiology, 105, 467–472.
Montalbini P. 2000. Xanthine dehydrogenase from leaves of leguminous planks: Purification, characterization and properties of the enzyme. Journal of Plant physiology, 156, 3–16.
Nakagawa A, Sakamoto S, Takahashi M, Morikawa H, Sakamoto A. 2007. The RNAi-mediated silencing of xanthine dehydrogenase impairs growth and fertility and accelerates leaf senescence in transgenic Arabidopsis Plants. Plant and Cell Physiology, 48, 1484–1495.
Pastori G M, del Rio L A. 1997. Natural senescence of pea leaves: An activated oxygen-mediated function for peroxisomes. Plant Physiology, 113, 411–418.
Sagi M, Omarov R T, Lips S H. 1998. The Mo-hydroxylases xanthine dehydrogenase and aldehyde oxidase in ryegrass as affected by nitrogen and salinity. Plant Science, 135, 125–135.
Sagi M, Scazzocchio C, Fluhr R. 2002. The absence of molybdenum cofactor sulfuration is the primary cause of the flacca phenotype in tomato plants. The Plant Journal, 31, 305–317.
Smith P M C, Atkins C A. 2004. Purine biosynthesis, big in cell division, even bigger in nitrogen assimilation. Plant Physiology, 128, 793–802.
Sun X C, Hu C X. 2005. Molybdoenzymes and molybdenum nutrition in higher plants. Plant Physiology Communications, 6, 395–399. (in Chinese)
Taylor N J, Cowan A K. 2004. Xanthine dehydrogenase and aldehyde oxidase impact plant hormone homeostasis and affect fruit size in Hass avocado. Journal of Plant Research, 117, 121–130.
Vaz J, Sharma P K. 2011. Relationship between xanthophyll cycle and non-photochemical quenching in rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants in response to light stress. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 49, 60–67.
Wang A G, Luo G H. 1990. Quantitative relation between the reaction of hydroxylamine and superoxide anion radicals in plants. Plant Physiology Communications, 6, 55–57. (in Chinese)
Wang H Z, Ma J, Li X Y. 2007. Effects of water stress on active oxygen generation and protection system in rice during grain filling stage. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 40, 1379–1387. (in Chinese)
Watanabe S, Kounosu Y, Shimada H, Sakamoto A. 2014. Arabidopsis xanthine dehydrogenase mutants defective in purine degradation show a compromised protective response to drought and oxidative stress. Plant Biotechnology, 31, 173–178.
Watanabe S, Nakagawa A, Izumi S, Shimada H, Sakamoto A. 2010. RNA interference-mediated suppression of xanthine dehydrogenase reveals the role of purine metabolism in drought tolerance in Arabidopsis. FEBS Letters, 584, 1181–1186.
Werner A K, Witte C P. 2011. The biochemistry of nitrogen mobilization: Purine ring catabolism. Trends in Plant Science, 16, 381–387.
Wilson J W, Hand D W, Hannah M A. 1992. Light interception and photosynthesis efficiency in some glasshouse crops. Journal of Experimental Boany, 43, 363–373.
Yang D, Duan L S, Xie H A, Li Z H, Huang T X. 2011. Effect of pre-flowering light deficiency on biomass accumulation and physiological characteristics of rice. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 19, 347–352. (in Chinese)
Yang S S, Gao J F. 2001. Influence of active oxygen and free radicals on plant senescence. Acta Botanica Boreali-Occidentalia Sinica, 21, 215–220. (in Chinese)
Yobi A, Wone B W, Xu W, Alexander D C, Guo L, Ryals J A, Oliver M J, Cushman J C. 2013. Metabolomic profling in Selaginella lepidophylla at various hydration states provides new insights into the mechanistic basis of desiccation tolerance. Molecular Plant, 6, 369–385.
You S H, Zhu B, Wang F B, Han H J, Sun M, Zhu H W, Peng R H, Yao Q H. 2017. Erratum to: A Vitis vinifera xanthine dehydrogenase gene, VvXDH, enhances salinity tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. Plant Biotechnology Reports, 11, 247.
Zarepour M, Kaspari K, Stagge S, Rethmeier R, Mendel R R, Bittner F. 2010. Xanthine dehydrogenase AtXDH1 from Arabidopsis thaliana is a potent producer of superoxide anions via its NADH oxidase activity. Plant Molecular Bbiology, 72, 301–310.
Zdunek-zastocka E, Lips H S. 2003. Is xanthine dehydrogenase involved in response of pea plants (Pisum sativum L.) to salinity or ammonium treatment? Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 25, 395–401.
Zrenner R, Stitt M, Sonnewald U, Boldt R. 2006. Pyrimidine and purine biosynthesis and degradation in plants. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 57, 805–836.
No related articles found!
No Suggested Reading articles found!