Plutella xylostella , antenna , mouthparts , sensilla , ultrastructure," /> Plutella xylostella , antenna , mouthparts , sensilla , ultrastructure,"/> Plutella xylostella , antenna , mouthparts , sensilla , ultrastructure,"/>
Please wait a minute...
Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2018, Vol. 17 Issue (06): 1409-1420    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(17)61844-6
Plant Protection Advanced Online Publication | Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
Ultrastructure of the sensilla on antennae and mouthparts of larval and adult Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)
LI Yi-ping, DU Xiao, LIU Fang-fang, LI Yin, LIU Tong-xian
State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas/Key Laboratory of Applied Entomology, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, P.R.China
Download:  PDF in ScienceDirect  
Export:  BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      
Plutella xylostella (L.) (Plutellidae) is an important agricultural pest throughout the world.  In this study, the morphology of antennal and mouthpart sensilla in the larvae and adults of P. xylostella (L.) was observed by using a scanning electron microscope.  The larval antennae possess six sensilla basiconica, two sensilla chaetica and one sensillum styloconicum.  Larval mouthparts possess six types of sensilla: sensilla chaetica, sensilla digitiformia, sensilla epipharyngeal, sensilla basiconica, sensilla styloconica and sensilla placodea.  In the adult, seven types of sensilla are found on the antennae in males and six types of sensilla (sensilla basiconica absent) occur in females.  Sexual dimorphism is also found in the number and size of these sensilla on the antennae of adults.  We describe for the first time the five types of sensilla on the mouthparts of the adult of P. xylostella.  This study provides useful information for further research into the function of these sensilla, and better understanding the behavioral mechanisms involved in pest control.
Keywords:  Plutella xylostella ')" href="#">  
Received: 14 August 2017   Accepted:
Fund: This research was supported by the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2013M542388), the Postdoctoral Scientific Research Project in Shaanxi Province, China, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (2014YB087) and the Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation in Shaanxi Province, China (2016NY-058).
Corresponding Authors:  Correspondence LIU Tong-xian, Mobile: +86-13709141817, E-mail:   
About author:  LI Yi-ping, Mobile: +86-13759967722, E-mail:;
E-mail this article Plutella xylostella | antenna | mouthparts | sensilla | ultrastructure”. Please open it by linking:" name="neirong"> Plutella xylostella | antenna | mouthparts | sensilla | ultrastructure">
Add to citation manager
E-mail Alert
Articles by authors
LI Yi-ping
DU Xiao
LIU Fang-fang
LI Yin
LIU Tong-xian

Cite this article: 

LI Yi-ping, DU Xiao, LIU Fang-fang, LI Yin, LIU Tong-xian. 2018. Ultrastructure of the sensilla on antennae and mouthparts of larval and adult Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 17(06): 1409-1420.

Albert P J. 1980. Morphology and innervation of mouthpart sensilla in larvae of the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 58, 842–851.
Al-Rouz H, Thibout E. 1989. Morphologie des sensilles cephaliques larvaires d’Acrolepiopsis assectella Zell. (Lepidoptera: Hyponomeutoidea). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 25, 163–170. (in French)
Anton S, van Loon J J, Meijerink J, Smid H M, Takken W, Rospars J P. 2003. Central projections of olfactory receptor neurons from single antennal and palpal sensilla in mosquitoes. Arthropod Structure & Development, 32, 319–327.
Baker G T, Parrott W L, Jenkins J N. 1986. Sensory receptors on the larval maxillae and labia of Heliothis zea (Boddie) and Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology, 15, 227–232.
Blaney W M, Simmonds M S J. 1988. Food selection in adults and larvae of three species of Lepidoptera: A behavioural and electro physiological study. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 49, 111–121.
De Boer G, Dethier V G, Schoonhoven L M. 1977. Chemoreceptors in the preoral cavity of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, and their possible function in feeding behaviour. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 21, 287–298.
Bruce T J, Cork A. 2001. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of female Helicoverpa armigera to compounds identified in flowers of African marigold, Tagetes erecta. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 27, 1119–1131.
Chen J, Hua B Z. 2014. Ultramorphology of sensilla on the larval antennae and mouthparts of Carposina coreana Kim (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae). Acta Entomologica Sinica, 57, 133–140. (in Chinese)
Chinta S, Dickens J C, Baker G T. 1997. Morphology and distribution of antennal sensilla of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Hemiptera: Miridae). International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology, 26, 21–26.
Dethier V G. 1980. Responses of some olfactory receptors of the eastern tent caterpillar (Malacosoma americanum) to leaves. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 6, 213–220.
Devitt B D, Smith J J B. 1982. Morphology and fine structure of mouthpart sensilla in the dark-sided cutworm Euxoa messoria (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology, 11, 255–270.
Faucheux M J. 1990. Antennal sensilla in adult Agathiphaga vitiensis Dumbl. and A. queenslandensis Dumbl. (Lepidoptera: Agathiphagidae). International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology, 19, 257–268.
Faucheux M J. 1995. Sensilla on the larval antennae and mouthparts of the European sunflower moth, Homoeosoma nebulella Den. and Schiff. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology, 24, 391–403.
Faucheux M J. 2008. Mouthparts and associated sensilla of a South American moth, Synempora andesae (Lepidoptera: Neopseustidae). Revista de la Sociedad Entomologica Agentina, 67, 21–33. (in French)
George J A, Nagy B A. 1984. Morphology, distribution, and ultrastructural differences of sensilla trichodea and basiconica on the antennae of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholitha molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology, 13, 157–170.
Gilbert L E. 1972. Pollen feeding and reproductive biology of Heliconius butterflies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 69, 1403.
Goldware M A, Barnes M M. 1973. Mouthparts of the adult codling moth, Laspeyresia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 66, 349–351.
Hallberg E, Hansson B S, Steinbrecht R A. 1994. Morphological characteristics of antennal sensilla in the European cornborer Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Tissue and Cell, 26, 489–502.
Hanson F E. 1970. Sensory responses of phytophagous Lepidoptera to chemical and tactile stimuli. In: Seminar on Control of Insect Behavior by Natural Products (Pap). Academic Press, New York. pp. 81–91.
Hanson F E, Dethier V G. 1973. Role of gustation and olfaction in food plant discrimination in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Journal of Insect Physiology, 19, 1019–1031.
Inoue T A, Asaoka K, Seta K, Imaeda D, Ozaki M. 2009. Sugar receptor response of the food-canal taste sensilla in a nectar-feeding swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus. Naturwissenschaften, 96, 355–363.
Ishikawa S, Hirao T, Arai N. 1969. Chemosensory basis of host plant selection in the silkworm. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 12, 544–554.
Keil T A. 1996. Sensilla on the maxillary palps of Helicoverpa armigera caterpillars: In search of the CO2-receptor. Tissue and Cell, 28, 703–717.
Kent K S, Hildebrand J G. 1987. Cephalic sensory pathways in the central nervous system of larval Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (B: Biological Sciences), 315, 1–36.
Krenn H W. 1998. Proboscis sensilla in Vanessa cardui (Nymphalidae, Lepidoptera): Functional morphology and significance in flower-probing. Zoomorphology, 118, 23–30.
Krenn H W. 2010. Feeding mechanisms of adult Lepidoptera: Structure, function, and evolution of the mouthparts. Annual Review of Entomology, 55, 307–327.
Krenn H W, Penz C M. 1998. Mouthparts of Heliconius butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): A search for anatomical adaptations to pollen-feeding behavior. International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology, 27, 301–309.
Krenn H W, Plant J D, Szucsich N U. 2005. Mouthparts of flower-visiting insects. Arthropod Structure & Development, 34, 1–40.
Lavoie-Dornik J, McNeil J N. 1987. Sensilla of the antennal flagellum in Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haw.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology, 16, 153–167.
Li J X, Wang J J, Deng W, Yang B, Li J, Liu H. 2008. Description of sensilla on the larval antennae and mouthparts of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica, 33, 443–448. (in Chinese)
Li K, Luo M H, Zhao G Q, Liu X G. 2006. Observation on the ultrastructures of antennal sensilla in Helicoverpa assulta. Journal of Henan Agricultural University, 40, 250–253. (in Chinese)
Li X, Bai S. 2004. Ultrastructural studies on the antennal sensilla of Diadegma semiclausum Hellen (Hym, Ichneumonidae). Journal of Henan Agricultural University, 38, 45–48. (in Chinese)
Lin C S. 2002. Sensilla on the larval antennae and mouthparts of Pentateucha inouei Owada et Brechlin (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Formosan Entomology, 22, 115–124.
Liu Z, Hua B Z, Liu L. 2011. Ultrastructure of the sensilla on larval antennae and mouthparts in the peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae). Micron, 42, 478–483.
Ma M, Chang M M, Lu Y, Lei C L, Yang F L. 2017. Ultrastructure of sensilla of antennae and ovipositor of Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and location of female sex pheromone gland. Scientific Reports, 7, 40637.
Maida R, Mameli M, Müller B, Krieger J, Steinbrecht R A. 2005. The expression pattern of four odorant-binding proteins in male and female silk moths, Bombyx mori. Journal of Neurocytology, 34, 149–163.
Merivee E, Rahi M, Luik A. 1999. Antennal sensilla of the click beetle, Melanotus villosus (Geoffroy) (Coleoptera: Elateridae). International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology, 28, 41–51.
Molleman F, Krenn H W, Van Alphen M E, Brakefield P M, Devries P J, Zwaan B J. 2005. Food intake of fruit-feeding butterflies: evidence for adaptive variation in proboscis morphology. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 86, 333–343.
Olson D M, Andow D A. 1993. Antennal sensilla of female Trichogramma nubilale (Ertle and Davis) (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) and comparisons with other parasitic Hymenoptera. International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology, 22, 507–520.
Park K C, Hardie J. 2002. Functional specialisation and polyphenism in aphid olfactory sensilla. Journal of Insect Physiology, 48, 527–535.
Schneider D. 1964. Insect antennae. Annual Review of Entomology, 9, 103–122.
Schoonhoven L, Dethier V G. 1964. Sensory aspects of host-plant discrimination by lepidopterous larvae. Archives Néerlandaises de Zoologie, 16, 497–530.
Schoonhoven L M. 1967. Some cold receptors in larvae of three Lepidoptera species. Journal of Insect Physiology, 13, 821–826.
Schoonhoven L M, Jermy T, Van Loon J J A. 1998. Plant-Insect Biology from Physiology to Evolution. Chapman Hall, London.
Shields V D C, Hildebrand J G. 2001. Responses of a population of antennal olfactory receptor cells in the female moth Manduca sexta to plant-associated volatile organic compounds. Journal of Comparative Physiology (A), 186, 1135–1151.
Stelinski L L, Miller J R, Ledebuhr R, Gut L J. 2006. Mechanized applicator for large-scale field deployment of paraffin-wax dispensers of pheromone for mating disruption in tree fruit. Journal of Economic Entomology, 99, 1705–1710.
Talekar N S, Shelton A M. 1993. Biology, ecology, and management of the diamondback moth. Annual Review of Entomology, 38, 275–301.
Tarumingkeng R C, Coppel H C, Matsumura F. 1976. Morphology and ultrastructure of the antennal chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors of worker Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Cell and Tissue Research, 173, 173–178.
Walters B D, Albert P J, Zacharuk R Y. 1998. Morphology and ultrastructure of sensilla on the proboscis of the adult spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 76, 466–479.
Wang G R, Guo Y Y, Wu K M. 2002. Study on the ultrastructures of antennal sensilla in Helicoverpa armigera. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 1, 896–899.
Wei H, Yang G, Wang Q, Hou Y, You M. 2003. Electron microscope scanning of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. Journal of Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University (Natural Science Edition), 32, 434–437. (in Chinese)
Xia X F, Zheng D D, Lin H L, You M S. 2013. Isolation and identification of bacteria from the larval midgut of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). Chinese Journal of Applied Entomology, 50, 770–776. (in Chinese)
Xue S, Hua B Z. 2014. Proboscis sensilla of the black cutworm Agrotis ypsilon (Rottemberg) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, 17, 295–301.
Yan X Z, Deng C P, Sun X J, Hao C. 2014. Effects of various degrees of antennal ablation on mating and oviposition preferences of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 13, 1311–1319.
Yang F, Zhang Y, Zhang W, Xu B, Wu Q. 2004. An artificial rearing method of diamondback moth by Brassica napus. Entomological Knowledge, 41, 483–486.
Yang G, Huang G C, You M S. 2001. The ultrastructure and function of antennae of diamondback moth. Journal of Fujian Agricultural University, 30, 75–79. (in Chinese)
Yang Q, Zhao K J, Wang K Q, Han L L, Yang S. 2012. Observation on antennal sensilla of Leguminivora glycinivorella with scanning electron microscope. Chinese Journal of Applied Entomology, 49, 1321–1326. (in Chinese)
Zacharuk R Y. 1980. Ultrastructure and function of insect chemosensilla. Annual Review of Entomology, 25, 27–47.
Zalucki M P, Shabbir A, Silva R, Adamson D, Liu S S, Furlong M J. 2012. Estimating the economic cost of one of the world’s major insect pests, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae): Just how long is a piece of string? Journal of Economic Entomology, 105, 1115–1129.
Zenker M Í M, Penz C, De Paris M,  Specht A. 2011. Proboscis morphology and its relationship to feeding habits in noctuid moths. Journal of Insect Science, 11, 42.
Zhang J, Guan L, Ren B. 2011. Fine structure and distribution of antennal sensilla of longicorn beetles Leptura arcuata and Leptura aethiops (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 104, 778–787.
No related articles found!
No Suggested Reading articles found!