Please wait a minute...
Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2016, Vol. 15 Issue (8): 1673-1684    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(16)61384-9
Review Advanced Online Publication | Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
Research progress and strategies for multifunctional rapeseed: A case study of China
FU Dong-hui1*, JIANG Ling-yan2*, Annaliese S Mason3, XIAO Mei-li1, ZHU Long-rong1, LI Li-zhi4, ZHOU Qing-hong1, SHEN Chang-jian5, HUANG Chun-hui1
1 Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology, Ecology and Genetic Breeding, Ministry of Education/Agronomy College, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045, P.R.China
2 Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia 65211, USA
3 Department of Plant Breeding, IFZ Research Centre for Biosystems, Land Use and Nutrition, Justus Liebig University, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32, Giessen 35392, Germany
4 Jiangxi Province Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition/Engineering Research Center of Feed Development, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045, P.R.China
5 Linli County Rural Practical Technology Research Institute, Changde 415000, P.R.China
Download:  PDF in ScienceDirect  
Export:  BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      
Abstract    Rapeseed (Brassica napus), is an important source of edible oil, animal fodder, vegetables, condiments and biodiesel, and plays a significant role in securing edible oil production worldwide. However, in countries with comparatively low levels of agricultural mechanization, such as China, increasing costs of labor and agricultural inputs are decreasing rapeseed profitability, and hence the area of rapeseed under cultivation. If the value of rapeseed crops is not further increased, the rapeseed growing area will continue to decrease, potentially jeopardizing oil production. Therefore, full exploitation of the existing and potential value of rapeseed is desirable. Different rapeseed products are already utilized in different ways, with more applications currently underutilized. As well as oil extraction from the seeds, the shoot and leaves can be used as vegetables, the roots to absorb soil cadmium for pollution remediation, the flowers for sightseeing and as a source of nectar, the pollen for extracting flavonoids and useful amino acids, the seeds/seed meal for extracting isthiocyanates and other important sulforaphane compounds, the straw and seed meal for fodder, and immature whole plants for green manure. This review summarizes recent research on ways to explore the potential holistic value of rapeseed, by taking the example of multifunctionality of rapeseed in China.
Keywords:  multifunctional rapeseed        sightseeing rapeseed        remediation of cadmium pollution        rapeseed oil        fodder        vegetables  
Received: 28 October 2015   Accepted:

This work was financially supported by the Key R&D Program of Jiangxi Province of China (20152ACF60010), the Key Projects of Hunan Science and Technology Support Program of China (Application research of Guiye A male sterile line), and the Research Project of Humanities and Social Sciences in Universities of Jiangxi Province, China (JC1315).

Corresponding Authors:  FU Dong-hui, Tel: +86-791-83883148, Fax: +86-791-83813142, E-mail:   

Cite this article: 

FU Dong-hui, JIANG Ling-yan, Annaliese S Mason, XIAO Mei-li, ZHU Long-rong, LI Li-zhi, ZHOU Qing-hong, SHEN Chang-jian, HUANG Chun-hui. 2016. Research progress and strategies for multifunctional rapeseed: A case study of China. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 15(8): 1673-1684.

Alexander B W, Gordon A H, Lomax J A, Chesson A. 1987. Composition and rumen degradability of straw from three varieties of oilseed rape before and after alkali, hydrothermal and oxidative treatment. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 41, 1–15.

Ayres L, Clements B. 2002. Forage Brassicas?-?Quality Crops for Livestock Production. Agfact P2. 1. 13.  New South Walse, Australia.  pp. 1-3

Baxheinrich A, Stratmann B, Lee-Barkey Y H, Tschoepe D, Wahrburg U. 2012. Effects of a rapeseed oil-enriched hypoenergetic diet with a high content of alpha-linolenic acid on body weight and cardiovascular risk profile in patients with the metabolic syndrome. British Journal of Nutrition, 108, 682–691.

Bernard E, Larkin R P, Tavantzis S, Erich M S, Alyokhin A, Sewell G, Lannan A, Gross S D. 2012. Compost, rapeseed rotation, and biocontrol agents significantly impact soil microbial communities in organic and conventional potato production systems. Applied Soil Ecology, 52, 29–41.

Bhuiyan K H, Hossain M M, Bari M N, Khanam M R. 2002. Identification of bee plants and analysis of honey collected from different plant sources. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 5, 1199–1201.

Bi Y Y. 2010. Study on straw resources evaluation and utilization. Ph D thesis, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China. (in Chinese)

Boydston R A, Hang A. 1995. Rapeseed (Brassica napus) green manure crop suppresses weeds in potato (Solanum tuberosum). Weed Technology, 9, 669–675.

Chambers S R, Hunter N, Louis E J, Borts R H. 1996. The mismatch repair system reduces meiotic homeologous recombination and stimulates recombination-dependent chromosome loss. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 16, 6110–6120.

Chen W, Zheng R, Baade P D, Zhang S, Zeng H, Bray F, Jemal A, Yu X Q, He J. 2016. Cancer statistics in China, 2015. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 66, 115–132.

Chen W, Zheng R, Zhang S, Zhao P, Zeng H, Zou X, He J. 2014.Annual report on status of cancer in China, 2010. Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, 26, 48–58. (in Chinese)

Chung F L, Conaway C C, Rao C V, Reddy B S. 2000. Chemoprevention of colonic aberrant crypt foci in Fischer rats by sulforaphane and phenethyl isothiocyanate, Carcinogenesis, 21, 2287–2290.

Cui X, Yang Z, Yang W, Zhang G, Jiang S, Liu L, Wang Z. 2012. Correlations of shearing force and feed nutritional characteristics of crop straws. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 45, 3137–3146. (in Chinese)

Du P, Xue N, Liu L, Li F. 2007. Distribution of heavy metals and their chemical speciation in soils around a Pb-Zn smelter. Environmental Geology, 55, 205–213. (in Chinese)

Feng H, Jiao S, Tang Y, Tang P, Liu J. 2011. Advance studying of rape pollen. The Food Industry, 9, 108–111.

Firrisa M T, van Duren I, Voinov A. 2014. Energy efficiency for rapeseed biodiesel production in different farming systems. Energy Efficiency, 7, 79–95.

Fu T. 2007. Rapeseed quality improvement. Crop Research, 21, 159–162. (in Chinese)

Fu T, Tu J, Zhang Y, Chen C, Yang Q, Ten H, Niu J, Yi J. 2004. Investigation and utilization of cropping forage rape after wheat in northwest area of China. Science and Technology of West China, 6, 4–7. (in Chinese)

Gade L H. 2000. Highly polar metal-metal bonds in “Early-Late” heterodimetallic complexes. Angewandte Chemie, 39, 2658–2678.

Gao J, Cao W, Li D, Xu M, Zeng X, Nie J, Zhang W. 2011. Effects of long-term double-rice and green manure rotation on rice yield and soil organic matter in paddy field. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 31, 4542–4548. (in Chinese)

Goyer R, Cherian M G, Goering P L, Waalkes M P, Klaassen C D. 1995. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 189–214.

Guan Z B, Tian J H, Dong Y H, Li S Q, Wei S H, Yao X Y, Zheng L, Wang X F, Zhang W X. 2013. Ecological shuttle breeding effects on high oil content of Brassica napus cultivars. Chinese Journal of Oil Crop Sciences, 35, 441–443. (in Chinese)

Halbrendt J M. 1996. Allelopathy in the management of plant-parasitic nematodes. Journal of Nematology, 28, 8–14.

Han J, Shang Q, Du Y. 2009. Review: Effect of environmental cadmium pollution on human health. Health, 1, 159–166.

Herman-Antosiewicz A, Johnson D E, Singh S V. 2006. Sulforaphane causes autophagy to inhibit release of cytochrome C and apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. Cancer Reserch, 66, 5828–5835.

Herr I, Büchler M W. 2010. Dietary constituents of broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables: Implications for prevention and therapy of cancer. Cancer Treatment Reviews, 36, 377–382.

Huang R. 2013. Effect of crushed and ammoniated rape straw on feeding weining yellow cattle. MSc thesis, Jiangxi Agricultural University, China. (in Chinese)

Hwang E S, Jeffery E H. 2003. Effects of different processing methods on induction of quinone reductase by dietary broccoli in rats. Journal of Medicinal Food, 7, 95–98.

Iggman D, Gustafsson I B, Berglund L, Vessby B, Marckmann P, Riserus U. 2011. Replacing dairy fat with rapeseed oil causes rapid improvement of hyperlipidaemia: A randomized controlled study. Journal of Internal Medicine, 270, 356–364.

Iveta Z, Eva C. 2013. The utilization of rapeseed for biofuels production in the EU. Visegrad Journal on Bioeconomy and Sustainable Development, 1,11–14.

Jokiniemi T, Ahokas J. 2013. A review of production and use of first generation biodiesel in agriculture. Agronomy Research, 1, 239–248.

Kavalov B. 2004. Biofuel Potentials in the EU. European Commission, Joint Research Center, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies.

Khan T S, Mubeen U. 2012. Wheat straw: A pragmatic overview. Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 4, 673–675.

Li M. 2007. Study on the key cultivation technique of high quality rape for oilseed and vegetable. MSc thesis, Nanjing Agricultural University, China. (in Chinese)

Li R, Dong X, Wei F, Peng J, Jiang M, Li G, Chen H, Zhang H. 2012. Enhanced hydrolysis efficiency of rape straw by microwave-assisted dilute alkali pretreatment. Renewable Energy Resources, 30, 46–50.

Liu Q, Dai Z, Zhou X, Wang Z, Cong R. 2014. Effects of rapeseed straw returning on increment of yield and supplying capacity of potassium in rice. Hubei Agricultural Sciences, 53, 5112–5115. (in Chinese)

Liu X, Fan Z X, Zhang B, Bi Y P. 2007. Cadmium pollution of soil and its remediation in China. Shandong Agricultural Sciences, 6, 94–97. (in Chinese)

Junginger M, Goh C S, Faaij A. 2014. International bioenergy trade: History, status & outlook on securing sustainable bioenergy supply, demand and markets. In: Lamers P, Rosillo-Calle F, Pelkmans L, Hamelinck C, eds., Developments in International Liquid Biofuel Trade. Springer, Netherlands. pp. 17–40.

Mazzola M, Granatstein D M, Elfving D C, Mullinix K. 2001. Suppression of specific apple root pathogens by Brassica napus seed meal amendment regardless of glucosinolate content. Phytopathology, 91, 673–679.

McGrath S P, Zhao F J. 2003. Phytoextraction of metals and metalloids from contaminated soils. Current Opinion Biotechnology, 14, 277–282.

Mussury R M, Fernandes W D. 2000. Studies of the floral biology and reproductive system of Brassica napus L. (Cruciferae). Brazilian Archives of Biololgy and Technology, 43, 111–115.

Nagaharu U. 1935. Genome analysis in Brassica with special reference to the experimental formation of B. napus and peculiar mode of fertilization. The Journal of Japanese Botany, 7, 389–452.

Newkirk R. 2009. Canola meal. In: Feed Industry Guide. 4th ed. Canola Council of Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba. pp. 3–4.

Newkirk R W, Classen H L, Scott TA, Edney M J. 2003. The digestibility and content of amino acids in toasted and non-toasted canola meals. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 83, 131–139.

Palomaki A, Pohjantasahti-Maaroos H, Wallenius M, Kankkunen P, Aro H, Husgafvel S, Pihlava J M, Oksanen K. 2010. Effects of dietary cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome. Lipids Health Disease, 9, 137.

Pawlik A, Wiczk A, Kaczynska A, Antosiewicz J, Herman-Antosiewicz A. 2013. Sulforaphane inhibits growth of phenotypically different breast cancer cells. European Journal of Nutrition, 52, 1949–1958.

Peterson C L, Reece D L, Hammond B L, Thompson J, Beck S M. 1997. Processing, characterization, and performance of eight fuels from lipids. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 13, 71–79.

Przybylski R, Gruczynska E, Aladedunye F. 2013. Performance of regular and modified canola and soybean oils in rotational frying. Journal of the American Oil Chemist’s Society, 90, 1271–1280.

Qin T, Wu Y, Wang H, Li Q. 1998. Effect of cadmium, lead and their interactions on the physiological and ecological characteristics of root system of Brassica chinensis. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 18, 320–324. (in Chinese)

Ramirez M C, Singletary K. 2009. Regulation of estrogen receptor alpha expression in human breast cancer cells by sulforaphane. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 20, 195–200.

Rangarsdottir K V, Hawkins D. 2005. Trace metals in soils and their relationship with scrapie occurrence. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 69, A196-A196.

Ren E, Jiang Q, Liu J, Cheng J, Yang F. 2011. Study on nutrient matter digestibility and nitrogen metabolization of diets ewith different zinc levels in growing-period mink. China Animal Husbandry & Veterinary, 38, 22–25. (in Chinese)

Rosa A S, Blochtein B, Ferreira N R, Witter S. 2010. Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) as a potential Brassica napus pollinator (cv. Hyola 432) (Brassicaceae), in Southern Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 70, 1075–1081.

Rosa A S, Blochtein B, Lima D K. 2011. Honey bee contribution to canola pollination in Southern Brazil. Scientia Agricola, 68, 255–259.

Ru S, Su D, Wang J, Xing J. 2005. Uptake of cadimum by oilseed rape Xikou Huazi (Brassica juncea L.) and bioavailability of the metal in Rhizosphere. Journal of Agro-Environment Science, 24, 17–21.

Ruisinger B, Schieberle P. 2012. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in rape honey by means of the molecular sensory science concept. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60, 4186–4194.

Shi Y, Zhang P, Shi H, Zhou Y, Huang H, Tang S. 2009. Preliminary results of yield, income and nutrition of double low rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cultivated for oilseed-vegetable-dual-purpose. Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin, 25, 224–227. (in Chinese)

Song W, Chen B M, Liu L. 2013. Soil heavy metal pollution of cultivated land in China. Research of Soil and Water Conservation, 20, 293–298. (in Chinese)

Song X, Fang R, Wang X, Wang H, Xu H, Gu J. 2009. Research on utilizing techniques of rape straw as resources. Journal of Natural Resources, 24, 984–991.

Verhoeven D T, Goldbohm R A, van Poppel G, Verhagen H, van den Brandt P A. 1996. Epidemiological studies on Brassica vegetables and cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prevetion, 9, 733–748.

Waalkes M P. 2003. Cadmium carcinogenesis. Mutation Research (Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis), 533,107–120.

Williams-Woodward J L, Pfleger F L, Fritz A V, Allmaras R R. 1997. Green manures of oat, rape and sweet corn for reducing common root rot in pea (Pisum sativum) caused by Aphanomyces euteiches. Plant and Soil, 188, 43–48.

Wu L H, Luo Y M, Xing X R, Christie P. 2004. EDTA-enhanced phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil with Indian mustard and associated potential leaching risk. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 102, 307–318.

Wu Y, Shen L, Mao J, Huang G, Yuan H. 2009. Study on extraction of sulforaphane from broccoli. Journal of Food Science and Biotechnology, 28, 647–652.

Xiang D, Jiao W, Su D. 2009. Cd accumulation characteristics in organs of rapeseed varieties with different Cd uptake ability. Chinese Journal of Oil Crop Sciences, 31, 29–33. (in Chinese)

Xie L, Xu B, Sun Y, Zhao F, Yin J, Geng Y. 2011. The effect of pollination by honeybees on yield of oilseed rape and fatty acid composition of rapeseed. Journal of Bee, 4, 41–43.

Yang Q, Fan C, Guo Z, Qin J, Wu J, Li Q, Fu T, Zhou Y. 2012. Identification of FAD2 and FAD3 genes in Brassica napus genome and development of allele-specific markers for high oleic and low linolenic acid contents. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 125, 715–729.

Yan W, Liu D, Sun Y, Wei J, Pu M. 2014. Analysis of the sustained fog and haze event resulting from crop-burning residue in Jiangsu Province. Climatic and Environmental Research, 19, 11. (in Chinese)

Yin Y, Wang H. 2012. Achievement, problem and scientific policy of rapeseed industry development in China. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 14, 1–7.

Yu Q, Liu F, Zhang D. 2010. The evolution analysis of quality and yield characters of new rapeseed lines tested in national winter rapeseed regional experiment in recent decade in China. Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin, 26, 119–123. (in Chinese)

Zhang S, Hu S, Xiao X, Chen Y, Wang X. 2009. Phytoremediation of cadmium pollution in soil by oilseed rape. Acta Agriculturae Boreali-occidentalis Sinica, 18, 197–201. (in Chinese)

Zhang Y. 2014. Research on the problems and development strategies of Wuyuan ecotourism. Marketing Research, 6, 41–42. (in Chinese)

Zhang Y, Zhang N, Wang C, Yu G. 2010. Research on functional properties and modification of dietary fiber. Grain Processing, 35, 57–59. (in Chinese)

Zhou Y, Wu W, Xu Y, Chen G, Xu R, Zhang L. 2015. Effects of returned rapeseed straw on soil fertility and yield of subsequent rice. Journal of Yangzhou University, 36, 53–58. (in Chinese)

Zhu C, Du L, Gao Y, Qian L, Gu L. 2011. Suppression effect of Brassica campestris pollen extract on the growth of prostate cancer cell in vitro. Zhejiang Journal of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, 21, 84–86. (in Chinese)
[1] Dilip Kumar BASTIA, Subrat Kumar BEHERA, Manas Ranjan PANDA . Impacts of soil fertility management on productivity and economics of rice and fodder intercropping systems under rainfed conditions in Odisha, India[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(12): 3114-3126.
No Suggested Reading articles found!