Phenolic and flavonoid contents of mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) fruit tissues and their antioxidant capacity as evaluated by DPPH and ABTS methods
ZHANG Hua1, 2, YANG Yi-fei1, ZHOU Zhi-qin1, 3, 4
1 College of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716, P.R.China 2 College of Life Science & Engineering, Chongqing Three Gorges University, Chongqing 404120, P.R.China 3 Key Laboratory of Horticulture for Southern Mountainous Regions, Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400715, P.R.China 4 Laboratory of Quality & Safety Risk Assessment for Citrus Products of Ministry of Agriculture, Citrus Research Institute, Southwest University, Chongqing 400712, P.R.China
Abstract The total phenolic and flavonoid contents in the fruit tissues (peels, pulp residues, seeds, and juices) of 19 citrus genotypes belonged to Citrus reticulata Blanco were evaluated and their antioxidant capacity was tested by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH) method and 2,2´-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiozoline-6)-sulphonic acid (ABTS) method. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and their antioxidant capacity varied in different citrus fruit tissues. Generally, the peel had both the highest average of total phenolics (27.18 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) g–1 DW) and total flavonoids (38.97 mg rutin equivalent (RE) g–1 DW). The highest antioxidant capacity was also the average of DPPH value (21.92 mg vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC) g–1 DW) and average of ABTS value (78.70 mg VCEAC g–1 DW) in peel. The correlation coefficient between the total phenolics and their antioxidant capacity of different citrus fruits tissues ranged from 0.079 to 0.792, and from –0.150 to 0.664 for the total flavonoids. The antioxidant capacity of fruit tissues were correlated with the total phenoilc content and flavonoid content except in case of the peel. In addition, the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity varied in different citrus genotypes. Manju and Karamandarin were better genotypes with higher antioxidation and the phenolic content, however Shagan was the poorest genotype with lower antioxidation and the phenolic content.
This work was supported by the Identification of the Common Nutrients of Edible Agricultural Products and the Character Nutrients of Special Agricultural Products and Their Key Control Points of Quality, China (GJFP201701501), the Chongqing Program for Production of Late Maturing Citrus Fruits, China (20174-4), the Program for Talent Introduction of Chongqing Three Gorges University, China (14RC05), the Program for Chongqing Municipal Education Commission, China (KJ1501015), and the Program for Chongqing Science & Technology Commission, China (cstc2016jcyjA0555).
About author: ZHANG Hua,Tel:+86-23-58102522, E-mail:email@example.com
Cite this article:
ZHANG Hua, YANG Yi-fei, ZHOU Zhi-qin. Phenolic and flavonoid contents of mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) fruit tissues and their antioxidant capacity as evaluated by DPPH and ABTS methods[J]. Journal of Integrative Agriculture,
2018, 17(01): 256-263.
Abeysinghe D C, Xian L, Sun C D, Zhang W S, Zhou C H, Chen K S. 2007. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacities in different edible tissues of citrus fruit of four species. Food Chemistry, 104, 1338-1344.
Arnao M B, Cano A, Acosta M. 2001. The hydrophilic and lipophilic contribution to total antioxidant activity. Food Chemistry, 73, 239-244.
Barreca D, Bellocco E, Leuzzi U, Gattuso G. 2014. First evidence of C- and O-glycosyl flavone in blood orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) juice and their influence on antioxidant properties. Food Chemistry, 149, 244-252.
Bellocco E, Barreca D, Laganà G, Leuzzi U, Tellone E, Ficarra S, Kotyk A, Galtieri A. 2009. Influence of L-rhamnosyl-D-glucosyl derivatives on properties and biological interaction of flavonoids. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 321, 165-171.
Benzie I F, Chung W Y, Strain J J. 1999. “Antioxidant” (reducing) efficiency of ascorbate in plasma is not affected by concentration. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 10, 146-150.
Bocco A, Cuvelier M E, Richard H, Berset C. 1998. Antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of citrus peel and seed extracts. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 46, 2123-2129.
Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier M, Berset C. 1995. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 28, 25-30.
Chen M L, Yang D J, Liu S C. 2011. Effects of drying temperature on the flavonoid, phenolic acid and antioxidative capacities of the methanol extract of citrus fruit (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) peels. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 46, 1179-1185.
Chen X T, Yuan K, Liu H L. 2010. Phenolic contents and antioxidant activities in ethanol extracts of Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ougan fruit. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, 8, 150-155.
Gardner P T, White T A C, McPhail D B, Duthie G G. 2000. The relative contributions of vitamin C, carotenoids and phenolics to the antioxidan potential of fruit juices. Food Chemistry, 68, 471-474.
Ghasemi K, Ghasemi Y, Ebrahimzadeh M A. 2009. Antioxidant activity, phenol and flavonoid contents of 13 citrus species peels and tissues. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 22, 277-281.
Layina-Pathirana C M, Shahidi F, Alasalvar C. 2006. Antioxidant activity of cherry laurel fruit (Laurocerasus officinalis Roem.) and its concentrated juice. Food Chemistry, 99, 121-128.
Lee S H, Cho J Y, Hang Y J, Da E J , Kim D, Cho S Y, Kim W S, Moon J H. 2015. Comparison of bioactive compound contents and in vitro and ex vivo antioxidative activities between peel and flesh of pear (Pyrus Pyrifolia Nakai). Food Science & Biotechnology, 24, 207-216.
Lu Y H, Zhang C W, Bucheli P, Wei D Z. 2006. Citrus flavonoids in fruit and traditional chinese medicinal food ingredients in China. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 61, 55-63.
Miller N J, Rice-Evans C, Davies M J, Gopinathan V, Milner A. 1993. A novel method for measuring antioxidant capacity and its application to monitoring the antioxidant status in premature neonates. Clinical Science, 84, 407-412.
Moulehi I, Bourgou S, Ourghemmi I, Tounsi M S. 2012. Variety and ripening impact on phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of mandarin (Citrus reticulate Blanco) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) seeds extracts. Industrial Crops & Products, 39, 74-80.
Ou B X, Hampsch-Woodill M, Prior R L. 2001. Development and validation of an improved oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay using fluorescein as the fluorescent probe. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49, 4619-4626.
Papoutsis K, Pristijono P, Golding J B, Stathopoulos C E, Bowyer M C, Scarlett C J, Vuong Q V. 2016. Optimisation of aqueous extraction conditions for the recovery of phenolic compounds and antioxidants from lemon pomace. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 51, 2009-2018.
Ramful D, Tarnus E, Aruoma O I, Bourdon E, Bahorun T. 2011. Polyphenol composition, vitamin C content and antioxidantcapacity of Mauritian citrus fruit pulps. Food Research International, 44, 2088-2099.
Rivero-Pérez M D, Muñiz P, González-Sanjosé M L. 2007.Antioxidant profile of red wines evaluated by total antioxidant capacity, scavenger activity, and biomarkers of oxidative stress methodologies. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55, 5476-5483.
Siddhuraju P, Becker K. 2003. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts of total phenolic constituents from three different agroclimatic origins of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51, 2144-2155.
Wang Y C, Chuang Y C, Hsu H W. 2008. The flavonoid, carotenoid and pectin content in peels of citrus cultivated in Taiwan. Food Chemistry, 106, 277-284.
Xu G H, Liu D H, Chen J C, Ye X Q, Ma Y Q, Shi J. 2008. Juice components and antioxidant capacity of citrus varieties cultivated in China. Food Chemistry, 106, 545-551.
Xu G H, Liu D H, Chen J H, Ye X Q, Shi J. 2009. Composition of major flavanone glycosides and antioxidant capacity of three citrus varieties. Journal of Food Biochemistry, 33, 453-469.
Zhang H, Xi W P, Yang Y F, Zhou X Y, Liu X, Yin S S, Zhang J M, Zhou Z Q. 2015. An on-line HPLC-FRSD system for rapid evaluation of the total antioxidant capacity of Citrus fruits. Food Chemistry, 172, 622-629.
Zhang M, Duan C, Zang Y, Huang Z, Liu G. 2001. The flavonoid composition of flavedo and juice from the pummelo cultivar (Citrus grandis L. Osbeck) and the grapefruit cultivar (Citrus paradisi) from China. Food Chemistry, 129, 1530-1536.
Zhang Y M, Sun Y, Xi W P, Shen Y, Qiao L P, Zhong L Z, Ye X Q, Zhou Z Q. 2014. Phenolic compositions and antioxidant capacities of Chinese wild mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) fruits. Food Chemistry, 145, 674-680.
Zou Z, Xi W P, Hu Y, Nie C, Zhou Z Q. 2016. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits. Food Chemistry, 196, 885-896.