Abstract The impacts of climate change on agriculture are still shadowed with uncertainty. However, climate change is expected to adversely affect Iran’s agricultural practices through changes in precipitation, temperature and carbon dioxide fertilization. Therefore, adaptation of this sector to the increasing weather events is imperative. This study is aimed to document the likely impacts of climate change on Iran’s agriculture and the current adaptation efforts made by government and farmers. The review of literature shows that changes in rainfall and water endowments will have significant impacts on crop yield, crops’ water requirements and income and welfare of farm families. The extent of the changes in yield depends on the crop type, assumptions related to the CO2 fertilization effect, climate scenarios and adaptation abilities. On adaptation, the government’s efforts have been distinguished in the improving agricultural productivity and irrigation development based on current technology, developing new technologies and policy reforms. Farmers’ adaptive responses have also been identified. Some conclusions and recommendations are offered to increase the adaptive capacity of farmers and reduce negative impacts of climate change.
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